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Report on Building Aspects of Electric Substation

Introduction

A substation is a component of an electricity transmission or distribution system where voltage is transformed  from  high   to   low, or  the  reverse,  using   transformers.  A  transmission   substation transforms the voltage   to a level suitable for transporting electric power over long distances. This is   to  minimize capital   and   operating   costs   of the  system. Once it  is transported close to where it Is   needed,   a   distribution  substation transforms the voltage to a  level suitable   for   the  distribution system. So the   assembly  of  apparatus   used  to  change  some  characteristic of  electric  supply   is called a substation In   a substation   using   step   up   and step down   transformer change   AC voltages   from   one   level   to

Another,   change   AC   to   DC   or   DC   to   AC.   A   substation   may   have   one   or   more   relates transformers, many protective equipment and switches.

Substation   is important   part of   power   transmission   and   distribution   system.   Substations   are   the most critical part of any electrical supply grid. A failure of a single piece of substation equipment

can cause   a   total   grid   collapse   which   may   take   days   or even   longer   to   rectify.   The   continuity   of power supply   depends   on successful   operation   of substations. It   is therefore essential   to   exercise

Extreme care while designing and building a substation. Specific functions of substation are-

Power transformer.

Local network   for Connection point.

Switchyard – Bus bars, circuit breakers, disconnections.

Measuring point for control center – Potential and current transformers.

Fuses and other protection device.

Classification of substations:

There are the two most important ways of classifying a substation. According to

1.   Production requirement

2.   Constructional features

According to Production requirement:

A substation   may   be   called   upon to change   voltage   level   or   improve power factor   or   convert ac power   into   dc   power   etc.   According   to   service   requirement      11kV  substation is

Transformer   substation.   In   this   substations   using   power   transformer   changes   voltage   level   of electric supply.

According to constructional features:

A substation   has   many   components   (e.g.   Circuit   breaker, switches, fuses,   instrument   etc.)   Which must   be   housed   properly   to   ensure   continuous   and   reliable   service.   According   to   constructional features the substation is outdoor type Substation.

The outdoor equipment   is   installed   under   the sky.   Outdoor   type   substations   should   be   in   fenced enclosures or located in special-purpose buildings. Indoor   substations are usually found   in   urban

areas   to   reduce   the   noise   from   the   transformers,   for   reasons   of   appearance,   or   to   protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions                 .

11/.440 kV Substation Arrangement

The   arrangement   of   substations   can   be   done   in   many   ways.   However   the   main   sectors   of arranging the substations are –

 At load center: Where   voltage is   getting down         11kV   to 400volts using transformer   and   this is near to be load center.

Substation Layout

a) Principle of Substation Layouts

Substation   layout   consists   essentially   in   arranging   a   number   of   switch gear   components   in   an ordered pattern governed   by their   function and rules of spatial separation.

b) Spatial Separation

i.    Earth Clearance:   This is   the   clearance between   live parts   and earthed   structures, walls, screens and ground.

ii.   Phase Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts of different phases.

iii. Isolating Distance: This is the clearance between the terminals of an isolator and the connections.

iv. Section Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts and the terminals of a work section. The limits of this work section, or maintenance zone, may be the ground or a platform from which the man works

c) Separation of maintenance zones

Two   methods   are   available   for   separating   equipment   in   a   maintenance   zone   that   has   been isolated and made dead.

i. The provision of a section clearance

ii. Use of an intervening earthed barrier

The choice between   the   two methods   depends   on   the   voltage and whether   horizontal or   vertical clearances are involved.

Equipment   Function

Bus-bar

The incoming and outgoing lines are connected to the   bus- bars.

  • Isolator  Disconnect   a   part   of   the   system   for   general   maintenance  and repair under no load condition for safety.
  • Earthling Switch
  • Discharge the over voltage to earth.
  • Circuit Breaker Which   can   automatic   open   or   close   a   circuit   under   normal   as well as fault condition.
  • Lightning Arrestor   discharge   lightning   over   voltages   and   switching   over voltages to earth.
  • Current Transformer
  • Step down current to know the ratio for   control and protection. Voltage Transformer Step down voltage to know the ratio for control and protection.
  • Series Reactors
  • Reduce the short circuit current or starting current.
  • Line Trap   Prevent high frequency signals during low loads.
  • Shunt capacitors Provide   compensation   to   reactive   loads   of   lagging   power
  • Factors.
  • Shunt Reactor in EHV
  • substations
  • To provide reactive power during low loads.
  • Neutral Grounding Resistor Limit the earth current.

Functions of a Substation

1 – Supply of required electrical power.

2 – Maximum possible coverage o f the supply network.

3 – Maximum security of supply.

4 – Shortest possible fault-duration.

5 – Optimum efficiency of plants and the network.

6 – Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits (49.5 Hz and50.5 Hz).

7 – Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits.

8 – Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost.

Elements of a Substation

Substations   have   one   or   more   transformers,   switching   and   control   equipment.   In   a   substation, circuits breakers are used to interrupt any short-circuit or overload currents that may occur on the

network.   Substations   do   not   usually   have   generators,   although   a   power   plant   may   have   a

substation   nearby.   Other   devices   such   as   power   factor   correction   capacitors,   synchronizer   and voltage   regulators   may   also be located   at a substation.   The   main   equipments   of   a   substation are shown –

11/.440 kV   Substation equipments details

Transmission line   set giving   the   rated voltage   level   up to 11   kV.   This   11 kV lines are connected to the 7MVA transformer via 33 kV bus bars is further connected to LT switchgear.

The   equipment   required   for   a   transformer   Sub- Station   depends   upon   the   type   of   Sub-Station, Service   requirement   and   the degree   of   protection   desired.    11kV Sub-Station      has   the   following major equipments.

Transformer:

      7MVA 33/11Kv Main Transformer,

   4 MVA.3 MVA.2 MVA.&1.5 MVA

2.   Lightning   arrestor

3.   Isolator   and Earth switches

4.   Current Transformer

5.   Potential Transformer

6.   Duplicate type bus bar

7.   Insulators

8.   PFI Plant

9.   LT Switchgear –5000Amps, 4000Amps,3000Amps,2000Amps.1500Amps.all LT Switch Gear are Various ACB

Capture

Faraday’s law of induction, which states that:

The induced electromotive force (EMF) in an y   closed circuit is equal to  the e time rate of change of the magnetic   flux through the circuit. Or alternatively:

The EMF generated is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux.

where   Vs is   the   instantaneous   voltage,   Ns is   the   number   of   turns   in   the   secondary y   coil   and

equals   the   magnetic   flux   through   one   turn    of   the   coil.   If   the   turns   of   the   coil   are   oriented perpendicular   to   the   magnetic   field   lines,   the   flux   is   the   product   of   the   magnetic   flux    density   B and   the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to   the cross-sectional area

of   the   transformer   core,   whereas   the   magnetic   field   varies with   time   according   to   the   excitation of   the   primary.   Since   the   same   magnetic   flux    passes   through   both   the   primary   and   secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the primary y   winding equals

Electrical power is   transmitted from   the primary   circuit   to the secondary circuit. The transformer

is   perfectly   efficient;   all   the   incoming   energy   is   transformed   from   the   primary   cir cuit   to   the magnetic   field   and   into   the   secondary   circuit.   If   this   condition   is   met,   the   incoming   electric power must equal the outgoing power.

Transformers   normally   have   high   efficiency   more   then   95%,   so   this   formula   is   a   reasonable approximation.   If the   voltage   is increased, then   the   current   is decreased   by   the same   factor. The

Impedance in one   circuit is transformed by the square of th e turn’s ratio.

Transformer E MF equation

If   the   flux   in   the   core   is   purely   sinusoidal,   the   relationship   for   either   winding   between   its   rms voltage   Erm of   the   winding , and the supply frequency   f, number of turns   N,   core   cross-sectional

area a and peak magnetic flux density B If   the   flux   does   not   contain   even   harmonics   the   following   equation   can   be   used   for   half-cycle

average voltage E

a  of any wave shape:

Transformer   ratios:     

The   voltage   ratio   of   a   constant-voltage   transformer,   i.e.,   the   ratio   of primary   to   secondary voltage,   depends   primarily   upon   the   ratio of   the   primary to   the   secondary turns.   The   voltage   ratio   will   vary   slightly   with   the   amount   and   power   factor   of   the   load.   For general work the voltage   ratio   can be taken as equal to the   turn ratio of the windings. The current

ratio   of   a   constant-voltage   transformer   will   be   approximately   equal   to   the   inverse   ratio   of   the turns in the two windings

The   regulation   of   a transformer     is   the change   in   secondary voltage from no   load   to   full load. It is generally expressed as a percentage of the full-load secondary voltage.

The   regulation   depends   upon   the   design   of    the   transformer   and   the   power   factor   of   the   lo ad. Although with a   non inductive   load   such as incandescent lamps, the regulation of transformers is

within about 3   percent,   with   an inductive load   the   drop in voltage between   no load and full load

increases   to   possibly   about   5   percent.   If   the   motor   load   is   large   and   fluctuating   and   close   lamp regulation is important, it is desirable to use separate transformers for the motors.

The   efficiency   of a   transformer     is, as   with   any   other   device, the   ratio of   the   output to   input or, in   other   words,   the   ratio   of   the   output   to   the   output   plus   the   losses.   As   a   formula   it   can   be expressed thus:

The copper loss  of a transformer is determined by the resistances of the high-tension and low-

tension   windings   and   of   the   leads.   It   is   equal   to   the   sum   of   the   watts   of   I   2R   losses   in   these components at the load for which it is desired to compute the efficiency.

The   iron   loss   of   a transformer   is   equal   to   the   sum   of   the   losses   in the   iron   core.   These   losses consist   of   eddy-   or   Foucault-current losses   and   hysteretic   losses. Eddy-current   losses   are due   to

currents generated   by the alternating   flux circulating   within   each lamination   composing the core,

and   they   are   minimized   by   using   thin   laminations   and   by   insulating   adjacent   laminations   with insulating   varnish.   Hysteretic   losses   are   due   to   the   power   required   to   reverse   the   magnetism   of the iron core at each   alternation and   are   determined by the amount and the grade of iron   used for

the laminations for the core.

Transformer ratings.  Transformers   are   rated   at   their   kilovolt-ampere   (kVA)  outputs. If   the load to be supplied   by a transformer is   at 100   percent power factor (pf), the kilowatt (kW) output

will   be   the   same   as the   kilovolt-ampere   (kVA) output.If   the load   has a lesser power facto r, the kW  output  will  be less  than   the  kVA  output  proportionally as the load power   factor   is   less than

100 percent.

Phase Transformer   Connection Construction:

A three phase transformer is constructed by winding three single phase transformers on a single core. These transformers are put into an enclosure which is then filled with dielectric oil. The dielectric oil performs several fun ctions. Since it is a dielectric,   a nonconductor of electricity, it provides electrical insulation between the windings and the case. It is also used to help provide cooling and to prevent the formation of moisture, which can d eteriorate the winding insulation.

There are only 4 possible transformer combinations: Delta to Delta – use: industrial applications

Delta to Wye – use : most common   for step-up   transformer; commercial and industrial

Wye to Delta – use :   most common for step-down   high voltage   Wye to Wye – use : rare, don’t use causes harmonics an d balancing problems.

Characteristics of Distribution Transformer:

1. According to method of cooling

a. Oil-immersed, combination self-cooled and fan -cooled

2. According to insulation between windings a. Windings insulated from each other

b. Autotransformers

3. According to number of phases a. Poly-phase

4. According to method of mounting a. Platform

5. According to purpose

a. Constant-voltage

b. Variable-voltage

6. According to service a. large power

b. Distribution

Bus-bar Arrangement

Bus-bars   are   the   important   components   in   a   substation   .there   are   several   bus-bar   arrangement that   can   be   used   in   substation   .The   choice   of   a   particular   arrangement   depends   upon   various factors such   as   voltage,   position   of   substation, degree   of reliability,   cost   etc.   These   are made   up of   copper   and   aluminum   to   which   the   terminal   of   generators,   transformers,   distribution   lines, loads   etc   is connected.   In an   electrical power distribution system that conduct   electricity within   a switchboard,   distribution   board,   substation,   or   other   electrical   apparatus.   These   bus-bar   are insulated from each other and also from the earth.

The   size   of   the   bulbar   is   important   in   determining   the   maximum   amount   of   current   that   can   be safely   carried.   Bus   bars   can    have   a   cross-sectional   area   o f   as   little   as   10 mm²   but   electrical substations may use metal tubes of 50 mm in diameter (1,963 mm²) or more as bus bars.

The following are the important bus-bar arrangements used in substation.

• Single busbar

• Single busbar system with sectionalisation

• Double/ Duplicate bus-bar arrangement

Duplicate type busbar

This   system   consists   of   two   bus-,a   main   bar-bar   and   a   spare   bus-bar.    Each   bus bar   has   the capacity to   take up the entire substation load .The   incoming and outgoing lines can   be connected

to   either   bus-bar   with   the   help   of   a   bus-bar   coupler   which   consists   of   a   circuit   breaker   and

Isolators.   The   incoming   and   outgoing   lines   remain   connected   to   the   main   bus bar.   However,   in case of   repair of   main bus-bar   or fault   occurring on   it,   the continuity of   supply to the circuit can

be maintained by transferring it to the spare bus-bar.

Insulators

The   insulator   serves   two   purpose.   They   support   the   conductor   (or   bus   bar   )   and   con fine   the current to the conductor.   The most commonly used material   for the manufactures of insulators is porcelain.   There are   several type of insulator (i.e. pine   type, suspension type etc.) and there used in Sub-Station will depend upon the service requirement.

Earth system :

Why ground?

Poor   grounding   not   only   contributes   to   unnecessary   downtime, but   a   lack   of   good   grounding   is also   dangerous   and   increases   the   risk   of   equipment   failure   .Without   an   effective   grounding system   ,we could be exposed   to   the   risk of   electric shock , not to   mention instrumentation errors ,harmonic   distortion issues, power   factor problems   and a host   of possible   intermittent dilemmas.

If fault currents have no path to the   ground   through   a   properly   designed   and   maintained   grounding   system,   they   will   find unintended   paths   that   could   include   people .The   following   organizations have   recommendations and/or standards for grounding to ensure safety:

• OSHA (Occupational Safety Health Administration)

• NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)

• ANSI/ISA (American National Standards Institute and   Instrument Society of America)

• TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)

• IEC (International Electro-technical Commission)

• CENELEC (European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization)

• IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

However,   good   grounding   isn’t   only   for   safety;   it   is   also   used   to   prevent   damage   to   industrial plants   and  equipment.   A   good   grounding   system   will   improve   the   reliability   of   equipment   and reduce   the   likelihood of   damage   due to lightning   or   fault   currents .Billions   are lost each   year   in

the workplace due   to electrical   fires. This does not account for   related   litigation costs and loss of personal and corporate productivity.

Why test grounding systems?

Over   time,   corrosive   soils   with   high   moisture   content,   high   salt   content,   and   high   temperatures can   degrade   ground   rods   and   their   connections.   So   although   the   ground   system   when   initially installed,   had   low   earth   ground   resistance   values,   the   resistance   of   the   grounding   system   can increase   if   the   ground   rods are eaten   away.   With frustrating,   intermittent electrical problems, the problem   could   be   related   to   poor   grounding   or   poor   power   quality   .That   is   why   it   is   highly recommended that   all grounds   and   ground   connections are checked   at least   annually   as   a   part of

your   normal   Predictive   Maintenance   plan.   During   these   periodic   checks,   if   an    increase   in resistance   of   more   than   20   %   is   measured,   the   technician   should   investigate   the   source   of   the problem,   and make   the correction to lower the resistance, by   replacing   or   adding   ground rods   to

the ground system.

What is a ground and what does it do?

The NEC,   National   Electrical   Code,   Article   100   defines   a   ground   as:   “a conducting connection, whether intentional   or   accidental   between   an   electrical   circuit   or equipment   and   the   earth,   or   to some   conducting   body   that   serves   in   place   of   the   earth.”   When   talking   about   grounding,   it   is actually two   different subjects:   earth grounding   and   equipment   grounding. Earth   grounding is   an intentional   connection   from   a circuit conductor,   usually   the   neutral, to a   ground electrode   placed in   the   earth.   Equipment   grounding   ensures   that   operating   equipment   within   a   structure   is

properly   grounded.   These   two   grounding   systems   are   required   to   be   kept   separate   except   for   a connection   between    the   two   systems.   This   prevents   differences   in   voltage   potential   from   a

possible   flashover   from   lightning   strikes.   The   purpose   of   a   ground   besides   the   protection   of people,   plants   and   equipment   is   to   provide   a   safe   path   for   the   dissipation   of   fault   currents, lightning strikes, static discharges, EMI and RFI signals and interference.

What is a good ground resistance value?

There   is   a   good   deal   of   confusion   as   to   what   constitutes   a   good   ground   and   what   the   ground resistance value needs to be. Ideally a ground should be of zero ohms resistance .There is not one

Standard ground resistance   threshold that   is recognized   by   all agencies. However,    the NFPA   and IEEE   have   recommended   a   ground   resistance   value   of   5.0 ohms or   less.   The   NEC   has   stated   to “Make sure   that   system   impedance   to   ground   is   less   than   25   ohms   specified   in NEC   250.56.   In facilities   with   sensitive   equipment   it   should   be   5.0   ohms   or   less.”   The   Telecommunications industry   has   often   used   5.0   ohms   or   less   as   their   value   for   grounding   and   bonding   .The   goal   in ground   resistance   is   to   achieve   the   lowest   ground   resistance   value   possible   that   makes   sense economically and physically.

Components of a ground electrode

• Ground conductor

• Connection between the ground   conductor and the ground electrode

• Ground electrode

Locations of resistances

(a)The ground electrode and its connection

The resistance of the ground electrode and   its connection is  generally very   low. Ground rods are generally made of highly conductive/low resistance material such as steel or copper.

(b) The contact resistance of the surrounding earth to the electrode

The National Institute of   Standards   (a   governmental   agency   within   the US   Dept.   of Commerce)has   shown   this   resistance   to   be   almost   negligible   provided   that   the   ground   electrode   is   free   of paint, grease,   etc. and that the ground electrode is in firm contact with the earth.

(c) The resistance of the surrounding body of earthThe ground   electrode is   surrounded by   earth which conceptually   is made   up   of concentric   shells all   having   the   same   thickness.   Those   shells   closest   to   the   ground   electrode   have   the   smallest amount   of area   resulting   in the   greatest   degree of   resistance.   Each subsequent shell   incorporates

a greater area resulting   in   lower resistance.   This   fin ally   reaches   a   point   where   the   additional   shells   offer   little resistance   to   the   ground    surrounding   the   ground    electrode.   So   based   on   this   information,   we should focus on ways to reduce the ground resistance when installing grounding systems.

What affects the grounding resistance?

First, the NEC   code   (1987, 250-83-3) requires   a minimum ground   electrode length of   2.5 meters (8.0 feet)   to be in contact  with soil. But, there are four   variables that   affect the ground resistance of a ground system:

1. Length/depth of the ground electrode

2. Diameter of the ground electrode

3. Number of ground electrodes

4. Ground system design

Length/depth of the ground electrode

One   very   effective way   of   lowering   ground   resistance   is   to   drive   ground   electrodes   deeper.   Soil is not consistent in its resistivity and can be highly unpredictable. It is critical when installing the ground electrode, that it   is   below   the   frost line.   This   is done   so that the resistance to   ground will not   be   greatly   influenced   by   the   freezing   of   the   surrounding   soil.   Generally,   by   doubling   the length   of   the   ground   electrode   you   can   reduce   the resistance  level   by an addition   a   l0   %.   There are   occasions   where   it   is   physically impossible   to   drive   ground   rods   deeper—areas   that   are composed   of   rock,   granite,   etc.   In   these   instances,   alternative   methods   including   grounding cement are viable.

Diameter of the ground electrode

Increasing   the diameter   of   the   ground   electrode   has   very   little   effect   in   lowering   the   resistance. For   ex ample,   you   could   double   the   diameter   of   a   ground   electrode   and your   resistance   would only decrease by 10 %.

Number of ground electrodes

               Figure -: Each ground electrode has its own ‘sphere of influence’.

Another way to lower ground resistance is to use multiple ground electrod es.   In this design, more than one electrode is driven into the ground and   connected in parallel to   lower the resistance. For additional electrodes to be effective, the spacing of additional rods need to be at least equal to the depth   of   the   driven   rod.   Without   proper   spacing   of   the   ground   electro des,   their   spheres   of influence will intersect and   the   resistance will not be   lowered.   To   assist you in installing a   g that will   meet   your   specific   resistance   requirements,   you   can   use   the   table   of   ground   resistances, below.   Remember,   this   is   to   only   be   used   as   a   rule   of   thumb,   because   soil   is   in   layers   and   is rarely homogenous. The resistance values will vary greatly.

Ground system design

Simple grounding systems consist of a single ground electrode driven into the ground. The use of a   single   ground electrode   is the   most common   form   of   grounding   and can   be found   outside your home   or   place   of   business.   Complex  grounding   systems   consist   of   multiple   ground   rods, connected,   mesh   or   grid networks,   ground   plates, and   ground loops.   These systems   are   typically installed at power generating substations,   central   offices, and cell   tower sites. Complex networks dramatically   increase   the   amount   of    contact   with   the   surrounding   earth   and   lower   ground resistances.

Figure: –   Mesh network,   Ground plate.

How do I measure soil resistance?

To   test   soil   resistivity,   connect   the   ground   tester   as   shown   below.   As   you   can   see,   four   earth ground   stakes   are   positioned   in   the   soil   in   a   straight   line,   equidistant   from   one   another.   The distance   between   earth   ground   stakes   should be at   least three   times   greater than   the   stake depth. So   if   the   depth   of   each   ground   stake   is   one   foot   (.30meters),   make   sure   the   distance   between stakes   is greater than three   feet (.91   meters). The Fluke   1625   generates a known current   through the two   outer   ground stakes and   the   drop in voltage   potential is   measured between   the   two inner

Ground   stakes.   Using   Ohm’s   Law   (V=IR),   the   Fluke   tester   automatically   calculates   the   soil resistance.   Because   measurement   results   are   often   distorter   and   invalidated   by   underground pieces of metal, underground aquifers,   etc. additional measurements where the stake’s axis are turned 90   degrees is always recommended. By changing the depth and distance several times, a profile is produced that can determine a   suitable ground   resistance   system.   Soil   resistivity   measurements   are   often   corrupted   by   the   existence   of ground   currents   and   their   harmonics.   To   prevent   this   from   occurring,   the   Fluke   1625   uses   an Automatic   Frequency   Control   (AFC)   System.   This   automatically   selects   the   testing   frequency with the least amount of noise enabling you to get a clear reading.

What are the Methods of Earth Ground Testing?

Fall-of-Potential measurement

The Fall-of-Potential test   method is used   to   measure the   ability   of   an   earth ground   system   or   an individual electrode to dissipate energy from a site.

How does the Fall-of-Potential test work?

First, the earth electrode of interest must be disconnected from its connection to the site. Second,   the tester   is   connected   to   the earth   electrode.   Then,   for   the   3-pole Fall-of-Potential test, two earth   stakes are placed in the soil   in a direct   line—away   from the earth   electrode. Normally,

spacing   of   20   meters   (65   feet)   is   sufficient.   For   more   detail   on   placing   the   stakes,   seethe   next section. A known current is   generated by the Fluk e 1625 between the outer stake (auxiliary earth stake) and the   earth   electrode, while the drop in

Voltage potential is measured between thee earth stake and the earth electrode. Using Ohm’s   Law

(V = IR ),   the   tester   automatically   calculates   the   resistance   of   the   earth   electrode.   Connect   the ground tester   as shown   in   the   picture. Press START and read out   the   RE   (resistance) value.   This is   the   actual   value   of   the   ground   electrode   under   test.   If   this   ground   electrode   is   in   parallel   or series with other ground rods, the RE value is the total value of all resistances.

How do you place the stakes?

To   achieve   the   highest   degree of accuracy when   performing a   3–pole ground resistance   test, it is essential   that   the   probe   is   placed   outside   the   sphere   of   influence   of   the   ground   electrode   under test and the   auxiliary   earth.   If   you   do not   get   outside the sphere of   influence, the   effective areas

of   resistance   will   overlap   and   invalidate   an y  measurements   that   you   are   taking.   The   table   is   a guide for   appropriately   setting the   probe   (inner   stake) and auxiliary   ground (outer   stake).To test the   accuracy   of   the   results   and   to   ensure   that   the   ground   stakes   are   outside   the   spheres   of influence,   reposition   the   inner   stake(probe)   1   meter   (3   feet)   in   either   direction   and   take   a   fresh measurement.   If   there   is   a   significant   change   in   the   reading   (30   %),   you    need   to   increase   the distance   between the ground rod   under test, the inner stake (probe)   and the outer stake (auxiliaryground)   until   the   measured   values   remain   fairly   constant  when  repositioning   the   inner   stake.

Specification

11/0.415kV, 7MVA   Sub-station of Instrument is …

a) 7MVA 33/11Kv Main Transformer,4 MVA.3 MVA.2 MVA.&1.5 MVA kVA Transformer 11kV/0.415kV

b) LT Switchgear-5000A 4000A 3000A

c) Dropout Fuse, Rated Voltage (Nominal) -11kV, Rated Current RMS -100A,1Set

d) Lightning Arrester , Rated Voltage (RMS) – 9kV, 1Set

e) 7Mva – 3 Units1500 KVAR-tow units,150KVAR 5-Units Automatic   PFI   Plant.

f) Current Transformer,   Ratio 2500/5A 1000/5A-500/5A,

g) Potential Transformer, Ratio -11//110V , 3pcs.

Setup Information

Factory   requirement   following   as   there   instrument   will   be   ascension.   There   Instrument   of   the figure      same   as   connection   from   the   distribution   line.   I   always   help   them   to connection and working time.

First   time   we are   connected   Isolator.   It   connect   to   main line   include   drop   out   Fuse   15A,   nos.   of

3pcs,   for   3   phase.   Isolator   one   terminals   connect   to   main   distribution   line   (11kv   line)   another terminals connect to current transformer   of primary side. This Isolator attach on the front of poll. After   transformer   connection.   Transformer   connected   is   delta   to   star,   primary   side   is   delta   and secondary   side   is   star.   primary   side   voltage   is   11kV   and   secondary   voltage   is   420V. Secondary side   of   common   terminal   connected   to   grounding   and   also   transformer   body   connected   to grounding.   Primary   side   bushing   number   is   3pcs.   and   secondary   side   bushing   number   is

4pcs.Transfomer   all   of   check,   oil   level,   silica   gel,   temperature,   and   all   nut   bolt.   Transformer secondary side connect to LT switch   gear (Low tension) its medium is LT cable.

Now   Low tension   switch   gear   connection. Low   tension indoor type switchgear   with   hard   drawn copper   bus-bars,   TPN&E   equipped   with   incoming      connected   is   1no.   500A,   36kA,   TP   MCCB with   adjustable   thermal   overload   and   adjustable   magnetic   short-circuit   releases.   3nos.   current transformer,   ratio:500/5A   with   suitable   accuracy   and   burden.   3nos.    Ammeter,   0-500A.

1no.Voltmeter, 0-500V   with selector switch. 2nos. indicating lamp   on/off    and 1 set control fuse.

Out   going   is   1no.   250A,36kA,TP   MCCB   with   adjustable   thermal   overload      and   adjustable magnetic   short   circuit   releases.   3nos.   100A,   16kA, TP   MCCB   with   adjustable thermal   overload and   adjustable   magnetic   short   circuit   releases.   2nos.   160A,   16kA,   TP   MCCB   with   adjustable thermal overload    and   adjustable magnetic short   circuit releases. Low   tension switch   gear   by the distributed   to   factory   machineries.   And   power   factor   improvement   plant   connected   from   low tension switchgear.

Sub-station   last   pert   is   150kVAR    automatic   power   factor   improvement   plant   connected.   It   is flour mounting, 415V, 50HZ, 150kVAR indoor type Automatic   power factor improvement plant,

comprising: 1no. 12.5kVAR bank of TP dry type power capacitor with built-in   discharge   resistor

(Direct). 1no. 12.5kVAR bank of  TP dry  type  power  capacitor   with   built-in  discharge  resistor.

3nos. 25kVAR  bank  of  TP  dry  type  power  capacitor with   built-in  discharge  resistor.   1no.

50kVAR   bank   of   TP   dry   type   power   capacitor   with   built-in   discharge   resistor.1no.   automatic power   factor   correction   relay.   5   nos.   TP   air   contractors   of   adequate   rating.   18   nos.   HRC   fuses with base of adequate rating. 5 nos. indicating lamps and 1 set control fuses. And   other   give  the  connected  on  Distribution   Box,   Switching   bo ard  etc.  There  are  connected from  low  tension   switchgear.  Distribution   Box  to  connect   the  Machineries   line.   And   all Instrument & machineries of   body connected to earth grounding.

Operation of Sub-station:

At   many   places   in   the   line   of   the   power   system,    it   may   be   desirable   and    necessary   to   change some   characteristic   (v oltage,   frequency,   power   factor   etc.)   of   electric   supply.   this   is

accomplished   by   suitable   apparatus   called   sub-station.   The   sub-station   operation   explained   as under:

1)   The   3-phase,   3-wire   11kV   line   is   tapped   and   brought   to   th e   gang   operating   switch installed      near   the   sub-station.   The   G.O.   switch   consists   of   isolators   connected   in    each phase of the 3-phase line.

2)   From   the   G.O.   switch,   the   11kV   line   is brought   to   the indoor   sub-station as   underground cable.   It is   fed to the H.T.   side of   the   transformer (11kV/400V) via the 11kV O.C.B. The transformer steps down the voltage to 400V, 3- phase, 4 wire.

3)   The secondary   of transformer   supplies to the bus-bars   via   the   main O.C.B. From the bus- bars,400V,   3   phase,   4-wire   supply   is   given   to   the   various   consumers   via   400V   O.C.B. The voltage between any phase and neutral it is 230V. The single phase residential load is

connected   between   any   one   phase   and   neutral   whereas   3-phase,   400V   motor   load   is connected   across 3 -phase lines directly.

4)   The   CTs   are   located   at   suitable   place   in   the   sub-station   circuit   and   supply   for   the metering   and indicating instruments and relay circuits.

Maintenance and Trouble shutting

1   Symmetrical Fault   The   symmetrical fault   rarely  The   symmetrical   fault   is   the occurs   in   practice   as  most severe   and imposes more majority   of   the   fault   are   of    heavy   duty   on   the   circuit unsymmetrical nature breaker.

The   reader  to understand the problems   that   short   circuit conditions   present   to   the power system.

2   Single  line to ground Any line with short to the Separate to   the   line from short fault.ground fault.circuit to solve the problem.

Insulation problem.

3   Line to line fault.   One line with another line toSeparate to   the   line from short short.circuit   for   solving the problem.Insulation problem.

4   Double   line   to   ground   Two   line   with   short   to   the     Separate to   the   line from short fault.

Insulation problem.

problem.

5   Arc phenomenon   When   a   short-short   circuit Arc   resistance   is   made   to occurs,  a   heavy   current   increase   with   time   so   that flows   the   contacts  of   the current   is   reduced   to   a   value circuit breaker. Insufficient   to   maintain   the arc.

The   ionized   particles   between the   contacts   tend   to   maintain the arc.

6   Transformer open circuit  An open circuit in one phase Open   phase   connect   with   to fault. of   a   3-phase   transformer             circuit may   cause   undesirable heating.

Relay protection is not provided against open circuits

On   the   occurrence   of such  a  because   this   condition   is fault, the transformer   can be  relatively harmless. disconnected   manually from the system.

7   Transformer  overheating Over heating   of  The relay   protection   is   also fault.transformer   is   usually  not   provide against   this caused   by   sustained contingency   and   thermal overloads   or   short-circuit accessories   are   generally   used and very   occasionally by the to   sound   an   alarm   or   control failure   of   the   cooling   the bank of fans.

system.

8   Transformer  Winding   short-circuit   (also  The   transformer   must   be short circuit fault.  called   internal   faults)   on   the     disconnected   quickly from the

transformer   arise   from system   because   a   prolonged deterioration  of   winding  arc   in   the   transformer   may insulation   due   to cause oil fire.

overheating   or   mechanical injury.

9   Lightning for   over   voltage   The   surges   due   to   internal        Surges   due   to   internal   causes fault. causes   hardly   increase   the          are   taken care   of   by   providing

system   voltage   to   twice   the      proper   insulation   to   the normal value.  equipment   in   the   power system.

A   lightning   arrester    is   a protective   device   which conducts   the   high   voltage surges on   the power   system   to the ground.

10   Low voltage   Supply voltage is low. Transformer   tap changing   turn to   move   after   solved   the problem.

SWITCHGEAR

The   term   switchgear,   used   in   association   with   the   electric   power   system,   or   grid,   refers   to   the electrical   equipments   like   isolators,   fuses,   circuit   breakers   which   intended   to   connect   and disconnect   power   circuits   are   known   collectively   as   switchgear.   Switchgear   is   used   in   connect with   generation,   transmission,   distribution   and   conversion   of   electric   power   for   controlling, metering   protecting   and   regulating   devices.   A   basic   function   of   switchgear   power   systems   is protection   of   short   circuits   and   overload   fault   currents   while   simultaneously   providing   service continuously   to   unaffected   circuits   while   avoiding   the   creation   of   an   electrical   hazard. Switchgear   power   systems   also   provide   important   isolation   of   various   circuits   from   different

power supplies   for safety   issues. There   are many different   types and   classifications of switchgear power systems to meet a variety of different needs.Switchgear power   systems   can   vary,   depending   on several   factors, such   as power   need, location of   system   and   necessary   security.   Therefore,   there   are   several   different   types   of   switchgear

power   systems   and   each   has   their   own   unique   characteristics   to   meet   the   specific   needs   of   the system and its location.

Switchgear   instruments of Factory

Factory   has   low   voltage   (up   to   380   volt)   and   medium   voltages   (up   to   400V)   switch   gear.   It   is indoor type and switch gear instruments are:

1)   Circuit   breaker   –     Miniature   circuit   breaker,   Vacuum   circuit   breaker,   molded   case   circuit breaker.

2)   Relay   –   Distance   Relay,   Over   current   and   Earth   fault   relay,   Under/Over   voltage   relay,   Trip circuit supervision relay, Differential protection relay, Static relay

3)   Current transformer (C T)

4)   Potential transformer (PT)

5)    Fuse

6)    Lightning   arrestor

7)   Isolator   and Earth switches

8)   Magnetic conductor

Current transformers (CT):

Current   Transformers   are   used   in   current   circuits   in   protection   systems   employing   secondary relays.    This   transformer   is   to   measure   large   currents   and   differs   in   phase   from   it   by   an   angle which   is   approximately   zero   for   an   appropriate   direction   of   the connections.   This   highlights the accuracy   requirement of   the current   transformer but also   important is   the   isolating   function. The

primary which is usually of few turns or even a single turn or thick copper or brass bar is inserted into   the   core   of   the   transformer   is   connected   in   series   with   the   load.    The   secondary   current   is normally   rated   for    5A   or    1A   and   the   number   of   turns   in   the   secondary   will   be   high.   When   the current transformer has   two   secondary   windings then one winding is   connected   to   the protective

relay   system   and   the   other   is   to   indicating   /   metering   circuit.   Current   transformer   windings   are polar in nature.    The current transformers   with   1A   rating   secondary   can   handle   25   times more burden   than   the   current   transformers   of   5A   secondary.    Current   Transformers   of 1ASecondaries   are normally used in the protection of 11 kV – 132 kV.

Transmission lines   where   the   substation apparatus   is   located   at   a   considerable distance from the control   room,   where   the   relays   are   situated.   The   magnitude   of   the   current   which   flows   through the secondary winding of   a   CT   is a function   of the   primary   current,   the   transformation ratio   and

also   the   impedance of   the secondary circuit.   CT’s   normally   operate under       Conditions   close   to short   circuit   conditions.    The   Secondar y   winding   burden   further   depends   upon   the   method   of connection   of   the   C T   secondary,   the   relay   windings   and   the   kind   of   short   circuit   experienced. CT’s used   for extra   high voltage net work protection must be   capable   of accurately   transmitting currents   both   during   steady   state   process   and   under   transient   conditions   in   order   to   permit operation   of   the   protective   devices   correctly.   The   reasons   for   choosing   proper   CT’s   for   extra high voltage net work protection are;

1. The time constants of DC components in the short circuit currents of EHV net works are large.

2.   The   ratio of   the short   circuit   current   to   the   rated   current   is   very   high, due to increased energy concentration.

3.   High   Speed   relaying   is   essential   to   protect   electrical   equipment   during   fault   and   to   increase system stability

The accuracy of a CT is directly   related to   a number of factors including:

Burden

Burden class/saturation class

Rating factor

Load

 External electromagnetic fields

Temperature and

Physical configuration.

The selected tap, for multi-ratio CT’s

 Ratio 5000/5A

Potential Transformers (PT):

Instrument   Transformers   are   of   means   of   extending   the   ran ge   of   AC   in str umen ts   like ammeters,    voltmeters,    V.A.R.   meters,   Walt-meters.   They   are   two   types   of   potential transformers.   The primary of   the   potential transformers is   connected   across the transmission line whose voltage   may   range   from 2.4   kV to   220 kV.   The   secondary   voltage is   standardized at 110 kV.   The load connected to the secondary is   referred to as   burden. The requirements of   the good potential transformers   are:

Accurate turns  ratio ,    n    =    V p/ Vs

The   difficulty   in   maintaining   the   accurate   turn’s   ratio   is   due   to   resistance   and   reactance   of   the windings and the value of the exciting current of the transformer.

Small   leakage   reactance.   The   leakage   reactance   is   due   to   the   leakage   of the   magnetic   fluxes   of the primary   and   secondary voltages.   They can   be   minimized   by   keeping the   primary, secondary windings   as   close   as   possible   subject   to   insulation   problem   as   the   primary   is   at   high   voltage.

Small   magnetic   current.   This   can   be   achieved   by   making   the   reluctance   of   the   core   as   small   as possible   and   flux   density   in   the   core   is   also   lowland   it   is   very   less   than   1   wb   /   m      Minimum Voltage   Drop:    The   resistance   of   the   windings   is   made   as   small   as   possible   The   Primary   as   it carries   high   voltage   should   be   heavily   insulated.    Hence   it   is   immersed   in   oil   and   the   terminals are brought out to   porcelain   bushing.   Now-a-days   synthetic rubber insulation like   styrene   is used avoiding   oil   and   porcelain.      When   the   load   or   burden   on   the   secondary   is   increased,   the secondary   current   increases   with   corresponding   increase   in   primary   current   so   that transformation ratio remains the same

Specification of Potential Transformer

• Manufacturer                                : ABB

• Device maximum operating voltage   : 35kV

• Rated frequency                                : 50-60Hz

• Rated voltage                                     : 11 kV

• Rated output                                       : 440V

Lightning Arrestor

A lightning arrester   is a   device used   on   electrical power   systems to   protect   the   insulation   on the system   from the damaging effect   of lightning. Metal   oxide   varistors (MOVs) have been   used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester   also known as   surge

arrester has a   high   voltage   terminal   and   a   ground terminal.   When a lightning   surge   or switching surge travels down the   power system to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted around

the protected insulation in most cases to earth.

Specification of Lightning Arrestor

• Manufacturer                                : ABB

• Rated voltage                                : 11kV

• Rated current                                 : 50-60Hz

• Rated discharging current              : 10kA

• Continuous operating voltage        : 100.8kV

• Residual voltage under thunder In : 10kA         615kV peak

• Standard discharging current                  : 1.0kAPeak

Isolators and earth switches :

Isolator   is   a   no-load   switch   designed   as   a   knife   switch   to   operate   under   no-load   conditions therefore   the   isolator   o pens   only   after   the   opening   after   the   circuit   breaker.   While   closing, isolator   closes   first   and   then   circuit   breaker.    Isolator   is   also   called   as   disconnecting   switch   or simply disconnected.    It is interlock with circuit breaker such that wrong operation is avoided. Its

main   purpose   is   to   isolate   one   portion   o f   the   circuit   from   the   other   and   is   not   intended   to   be

opened   while   current   is   flowing   in   the   line.   Such   switches   are   generally   used   on   both   sides   of circuit breakers in order that repairs and replacement of circuit breakers can be made without any

danger. During   the opening operation the   conducting   rods   swing apart   and   isolation   is   obtained.

The   simultaneous   operation   of   three   poles   is   obtained   by   mechanical   interlocking   of   the   three poles.   Further,   for   all   the   three   poles,   there   is   a   common   operating   mechanism.   The   operating mechanism is manual plus one of the following:

° Electrical motor mechanism

° Pneumatic  Mechanism.

They   should   never   be   opened   until   the   circuit   breaker   in   the   same   circuit   has   been   opened   and should   always   be   closed   before   the   circuit   breaker   is   closed.   .   MPS   has   3   pole   isolators   have three identical   poles. Each pole consists   of three insulator posts mounted on a fabricated support.

The   conducting   parts   are   supported   on   the   insulator   posts.   The   conducting   parts   consist   of conducting copper or aluminum rod, fixed and moving contacts. Isolators installed   in the outdoor

yard   can   be   operated   controlled   manually   or   electrically   on   electrical   mode   both   local   /   remote operations is   possible.    All   circuit   breakers can be operated /   controlled in   electrical   mode   either

local   /   remote   position.   The   remote   control   /   monitoring   of   all   isolators   and   circuit   breakers   is  done with the help of a set of control and metering panels Earth   Switch   is   connected   between   the   line   conductor   and   earth.    Normally   it   is   open   and   it   is closed   to   discharge   the   voltage   trapped   on   the   isolated   or disconnected   line.    When   the   line   is disconnected   from   the   supply   end,   there   is   some   voltage   on   the   line   to   which   the   capacitance between the line   and earth is charged.       This   voltage   is   significant   in    HV   systems .      Before commen cement   o f   maintenance   work   it is necessary that   these   voltages   are discharged to earth

by   closing   the   earth   switch.    Normally   the   earth   switches   are   mounted   on   the   frame   of   the isolator

Sequence of Operation while Opening/closing a circuit:

Opening Sequence:

1. Open Circuit Breaker

2. Open Isolator

3. Close Earth Switch

Closing Sequence:

1. Open Earth Switch

2. Close Isolator

3. Close Circuit Breaker

Circuit Breaker

A   circuit   breaker   is   an   automatically-operated   electrical switch   designed   to   protect   an   electrical circuit   from   damage   caused   by   overload   or   short   circuit.   Its   basic   function   is   to   detect   a   fault condition and these by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.

Principle of Operation

All   circuit breakers have   common features   in   their   operation,   although details vary substantially depending on   the   voltage class, current rating   and type of   the   circuit   breaker. The circuit breaker

must   detect   a   fault   condition   in   low-voltage   circuit   breakers   this   is   usually   done   within   the breaker   enclosure. Circuit breakers   for large   currents   or high voltages   are   usually   arranged   with pilot   devices   to   sense   a   fault   current   and   to   operate   the   trip   opening   mechanism.   The   trip

solenoid   that   releases   the   latch   is   usually   energized   b y   a   separate   battery,   although   some   high-

voltage   circuit   breakers   are   self-contained   with   current   transformers,   protection   relays   and   an internal control power source.

Once   a   fault   is   detected,   contacts   within   the   circuit   breaker   must   op en   to   interrupt   the   circuit. Some mechanically-stored energy (using   something   such as springs   or compressed air) contained

within the breaker is   used to separate   the   contacts,   although   some   of the energy required   may   be

obtained   from   the   fault   current   itself.   The   circuit   breaker   contacts   must   carry   the   load   current

without   excessive   heating,   and   must   also   withstand   the   heat   of    the   arc   produced   when interrupting   the   circuit.   Contacts   are   made   of   copper   or   copper   alloys,   silver   alloys   and    other materials.   Service   life   of   the   contacts   is   limited   b y   the   erosion   due   to   interrupting   the   arc. Miniature   circuit   breaker s   are   usually   discarded   when   the   contacts   are   worn,   but   power   circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have   replaceable contacts.

When   a   current   is   interrupted,   an   arc   is   generated   –   this   arc   must   be   contained,   cooled,   and extinguished   in   a   controlled   way,   so   that   the   gap   between   the   contacts   can   again   withstand   the voltage   in   the   circuit.   Different   circuit   breakers   use   vacuum,   air,   insulating   gas,   or   oil   as   the medium in which the arc forms.

Classification of   Circuit Breaker

According to the voltage level circuit breaker are classified into three categories, such as

1.   Low Voltage Circuit Breaker( Up to 619 volt)

2.   Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker(Up to 11kV)

3.   High Voltage Circuit Breaker(Up to 145kV )

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker

1.  Molded   Case   Circuit   Breaker   (MCCB):       Molded   case   circuit   breaker   operation   as   like   as thermal   or   thermal-magnetic   operation   and   rated   current   start   from100A.   Trip   current   may   be adjustable   in   larger   ratings.   The   molded   case   circuit   breaker (MCCB)   co mprises   the   following features:

• A contact system with arc-quenching   and current-limiting means

• A mechanism to open and close the contacts

• Auxiliaries   which   provide   additional   means   of   protection   and   indication   of   the   switch positions

Case Circuit Breaker

Figure  Molded Case Circuit Breaker

The   MCCB   may   be   used   as   an   incoming   device,   but   it   is   more   generally   used   as   an   outgoing device   on the load   side of   a   switchboard.   It   is normally   mounted into   a low-voltage switchboard

or   a   purpose-design ed   panel   board.   In   addition   to   the   three   features   listed   at   the   start   of   this section, it also includes:

• An   electronic   or   thermal/electromagnetic   trip   sensing   system   to   operate   through   the tripping mechanism and open the circuit breaker under overload or fault conditions

• All parts housed within a plastic molded housing made in two halves

• Current ratings usually from 10A to 1600A.

Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB):        Miniature   circuit breakers   rated current not   more   than 100A. Trip characteristics   normally   not   adjustable.   The   miniature circuit   breaker   (MCB)   has   a   contact system and means   of arc   quenching, a mechanism and tripping   and protection system to open the

circuit   breaker   under   fault   conditions..   Early   devices   were   generally   of   the   ‘zero-cutting’   type, and   during a short circuit the current   had to pass through   a zero before the arc was extinguished;

this   provided   a   short-circuit   breaking   capacity   of   about   3kA.   Most   of   these   early   MCBs   were

housed   in   Bakelite   moldings.   The   modern   MC B   is   a   much   smaller   and   more   sophisticated device.   All   the   recent   developments   associated   with   molded   case   circuit   breakers   have   been incorporated   into MCBs   to   improve their   performance,   and   with breaking   capacities   of 10   kA   to

16   kA   now   available,   MCBs are used   in   all   areas   of   commerce and   industry   as   a   reliable means of protection. Most MCBs are of single-pole construction for use in single-phase circuits.

Miniature circuit Breaker

Figure – Miniature circuit Breaker

Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers

Medium-voltage   circuit   breakers   rated   between   619   Voltage   and   11   kV   assemble   into   metal- enclosed switchgear   line   ups   for indoor   use in MPS substation. Medium voltage circuit breakers

are   also   operated   by   current   sensing   protective   relays   operated   through   current   transformers. Medium-voltage   circuit   breakers   nearly   always   use   separate   current   sensors   and   protective relays, instead of   relying on built-in thermal or magnetic over current sensors.

Vacuum   circuit   breaker:        Vacuum   circuit   breaker   with   rated   current   up   to   3000   A,   these breakers   interrupts   the   current   by   creating   and   extinguishing   the   arc   in   a   vacuum   container. These are   generally   applied for voltages   up to about 35,000   V   but PS use vacuum circuit breaker

for   11KV   which   corresponds   roughly   to   the   medium-voltage   range   of   power   systems.   Vacuum circuit   breakers   tend   to   have   longer   life   expectancies   between   overhaul   than   do   air   circuit breakers.   Vacuum   circuit   breakers   tend   to   have   longer   life   expectancies   between   overhaul   th an do air circuit breakers.

In   a   vacuum   circuit   breaker,   two   electrical   contacts   are   enclosed   in   a   vacuum.   One   of   the contacts   is   fixed,   and   one   of   the   contacts   is   movable.   When   the   circuit   breaker   detects   a dangerous   situation,   the   movable   contact   pulls   away   from   the   fixed   contact,   interrupting   the current.   Because   the   contacts   are   in   a   vacuum,   arcing   between   the   contacts   is   suppressed,

ensuring   that   the   circuit   remains   open.   As   long   as   the   circuit   is   open,   it   will   not   be   energized.

Vacuum recluses will automatically reset   when   conditions   are   safe   again, closing the circuit   and

allowing   electricity   to   flow   through   it.   Re-closers   can    usually   go    through   several   cycles   before they will need to be manually reset

Vacuum   interrupters,   mounted   vertically   within   the   circuit   breaker   frame,   perform   the   circuit breaker   interruption.   Consisting   of   a   pair   of   butt   contacts,   one   movable   and   one   fixed, interrupters   require   only   a   short   contact   gap   for   circuit   interruption.   The   resulting   high-speed operation   allows   the entire operating sequence,   from fault   to   clear,   to   be   consistently   performed in three cycles or less.

The   primary   connection   to   the   associated   switchgear   is   through   the   six   primary   disconnects

mounted horizontally   at   the   rear of   the   circuit   breaker. Do not   subject the primary disconnects   to rough   treatment.   The operating   mechanism   is   of   the stored   energy   type.   It   uses charged   springs to   perform   breaker   opening   and   closing   functions.   The   operating   mechanism   contains   all necessary controls and   interlocks. It is mounted   at the front   of   the   circuit breaker for   easy access

during inspection and maintenance.

Specification of   Vacuum circuit breaker:

• Rated frequency-50 -60Hz

• Rated making Current-10 Peak kA

• Rated Voltage-11kV

• Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC

• Rated Current-1250 A

• Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC

• Insulation Lev el-IMP 75 kVP

• Rated Short Time Current-40 kA (3 SEC)

High-voltage circuit breakers

Electrical   power   transmission   networks   are   protected   and   controlled   b y   high-voltage   breakers.

The   definition   of   high   voltage   varies   but   in   power   transmission   work   is   usually   thought   to   be

72.5 kV or higher. In MPS used SF6 circuit breaker for high voltage in sub station .High-voltage

breakers   are   always   solenoid-operated,   with   current   sensing   protective   relays   operated   through current   transformers.   In   substations   the   protective   relay   scheme   can   be   complex,   protecting equipment and busses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault.

FUSES:

A fuse is a   short piece   of wire or   thin strip which melts when excessive current flows             through   it for sufficient   time.   It   is   inserted   in   series   with   the   circuit   to   be   protected.   Under   normal   operating conditions   the   fuse   element   it   at   a   temperature   below   its   melting   point.   Therefore,   it   carries   the normal   load   current   without   overheating.   However   when   a   short   circuit   or   overload   occurs,   the current   through the fuse   element   increases   beyond its rated capacity. This raises the temperature and the   fuse   element   melts   (or   blows   out),   disconnecting   the   circuit   protected   by Init. electronics   and electrical   engineering   a   fuse   (short   for   fusible   link)   is   a   type   of   sacrificial   over   current   protection device. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which

interrupts   the   circuit   in   which   it   is   connected.   Short   circuit,   overload   or   device   failure   is   often   the reason for excessive current.

Fuse Ratings:

Ampere Rating

Each   fuse   has   a   specific   ampere   rating,   which   is   its   continuous   current-carrying   capability. There are different types of fuse used in MPS, rating start from 2A.

Voltage Rating The voltage rating   of a f use   must   be   at least   equal   to   the   circuit voltage.   The voltage rating   of   a fuse can   be higher   than   the circuit voltage, but never lower. A 500   volt fuse,   for example, could be used in a 450 volt circuit, but a 350 volt fuse could not be used in a 500 volt circuit.

Magnetic Contactor

A magnetic contactor is a relay-controlled switch   used to turn a   power control circuit on and off.It   is   electrically   controlled and   uses   less   power   than   other   circuits.   A   magnetic   contactor   comes in different forms and capacities.Magnetic   contactors   are   a   form   of   electrical   relay   found   on   most   electrically   powered   motors. They   act   as   a   go-between   for   direct   power   sources,   and   high-load   electrical   motors   in   order   to homogenize   or   balance   out   changes   in   electrical   frequency   which   may   come   from   a   power supply as well as to act as a safeguard

Components

A magnetic contactor has three parts: power contacts,   contact   springs and auxiliary   contacts. The power contact creates, carries and breaks the current in   a magnetic contactor. The   contact springs create a sufficient amount   of   pressure   on the   contacts. Auxiliary contacts perform   signaling and interlocking   maneuvers.   Contactors   vary   in   size   and   capacity.   In   heavy   duty   magnetic Conductors,   blowout   coils   perform   magnetic   blowouts   so   the   current   can   go   further   with   more power.   Economizer   circuits   decrease   the   power   needed   to   keep   the   contactor   closed;   these   are usually found in direct-circuit contactor   coils working to keep the contactor cooler..

Input

A   basic   magnetic   conductor   has   a   coil   input   that   is   driven   by   either a   DC   or   AC   supply,   and   it can   be   energized   at   the   same   voltage   as   the   motor.   It   can   also   be   controlled   separately   using programmable   controllers   and   low   voltage   pilot   devices.   Most   contactors   handle   lighting,

Heating, electric motors and capacitor banks

Function of Magnetic conductor

Contactors   are   usually fitted on   open   contacts,   an d are   designed   to   suppress   and   control   electric arcs   which   are   produced   by   interrupting   heavy   motor   currents.   They   work   on   the   principle   of electromagnetism   and   the electricity   runs through   the   coil   from   the   core   of   the contactor.   While the core   is   moving,   a   force   is   developed   that   allows   the electromagnet   to   carry   charge   and   hold the   contacts   together.   Once   the   contactor   coil   is   de-energized,   the   spring   of   the   electromagnet returns to its original position.

Specification of Magnetic conductor:

Manufacturer   : Siemens

Model                     : LC1-D1210M7

Origin      : German

Coil Voltage   : 220V AC Voltage   : 415V

Frequency   : 50/60 Hz

Changeover

A   changeover   switch   for   a   tap   changer   including   a   pair   of   load   switches.   A   diverter   switch allows   load   to   be   diverted   along   a   second   path   when   its   associated   main   switch   is   opened   or closed. An   auxiliary circuit has an auxiliary switch and   a varistor connected in parallel across the

secondary   of   a   transformer.   When   the   auxiliary   switch   is   opened   the   varistor   impedance   is reflected   onto   the   primary   of   the   transformer   which   causes   the   current   in   the   main   switch   to divert   through   the   diverter   switch   so   that   the   main   switch   can   be   opened   or   closed   with substantially no load on it.

Manual Change over Switch

The Manual   change over   switch is wired into your Electrical Distribution   Board in your home or office   allowing   it   to   power   particular   appliances   in   your   home   or   office   by   providing   power   to specific circuits.

The manual change over switch can be used with the remote start button. The   Generator   does   however   need   time   to   get   up   to   speed   before   the   Manual   Change   Over Switch   can   be placed   on “Generator.” The recommended   time for   this is   5   Seconds. Hence when used in conjunction with   a remote start button, the generator should   be started   whilst   the   Manual Change over Switch is in the “Off” position. Once started and run   for the   recommended time the

switch   can   be moved to “Generator” providing power   to   the   relative circuits which   the   generator has been wired up to provide power to.The   Following   are   the   respective   Model   numbers   associated   with   the   Manual   change   over switches   and   their   capability   of single   or three   phase   power.   The   key   on   the   generator   has   to   be in   the ON position   for   the   manual   change   over   switch   to   work. The   manual   change   over   switch does not charge   the   battery so   should the key   be   left in the on   position   the   battery   will   go flat,   if

the generator is not used on a regular basis.

Protective Relaying and Protection

Protective   relays   are   used   to   detect   defective   lines   or   apparatus   and   to   initiate   the   operation   of circuit   interrupting   devices   to   isolate   the   defective   equipment.   Relays   are   also   used   to   detect abnormal   or   undesirable   operating   conditions   other   than   those   caused   by   defective   equipment and either operates   an alarm or initiate operation of circuit- interrupting dev ices A protection relay is   a   device that senses any change in the signal which it   is   receiving,   usually from a current and/or voltage   source.   If the magnitude   of   the incoming   signal   is outside   a   preset   range,   the relay will operate, generally to close or open electrical contacts to initiate some further operation,   for example the tripping of a circuit breaker.

Characteristic of relay:

Protection relays can be classified in accordance with the function which they carry out, their construction, the incoming signal and the type of functioning.

General function:

• Protection.

• Monitoring.

• Control .

Construction:

• Electromagnetic.

• Solid state.

• Microprocessor.

• Computerized.

• Incoming signal:

• Current.

• Voltage.

• Frequency.

Type of protection

• Over current.

• Directional   over   current.

• Distance.

• Over voltage.

• Differential.

• Reverse power.

over current and over voltage relay:

The   Over   current   and   over   voltage   relay   responds   to   a   magnitude   of   over   current   and   over voltage         above a   specified   value.   There   are   four   basic   types   of   construction:   They   are   plunger, rotating   disc,   static,   an d   microprocessor   type.   In   the   plunger   type,   a   plunger   is   moved   by magnetic   attraction   when   the   cur rent   exceeds   a   specified   value.   In   the   rotating   induction-disc

type, which   is a motor, the disc rotates   by electromagnetic induction when   the   current exceeds   a specified   value. Static types convert   the cur rent   to   a   proportional   D.C   mill   volt signal and apply it to a   level   detector   with   voltage or   contact   output. Such   relays   can   be   designed   to have   various current-versus-time   operating   characteristics.   In   a   special   type   o f   rotating   induction-disc   relay, called the voltage   restrained over current relay.

The   magnitude   of   voltage   restrains   the   operation   of   the   disc   until   the   magnitude   of   the   voltage drops   below   a   threshold   value.   Static   over   current   relays   are   equipped   with   multiple   curve characteristics   and   can   duplicate   almost   any   shape   of   electromechanical   relay   curve.

Microprocessor   relays   convert   the   current   and   voltage   to   a   digital   signal.    The   digital   signal   can then   be   compared   to   the   setting   values   input   into   the   relay.   With   the   microprocessor   relay, various curves or multiple time-delay settings can be input to set the relay operation. Some relays

allow   the   user   to   define   the   curve   with   points   or   calculations   to   determine   the   output characteristics.

 Distance Relay

The distance   relay   responds   to   a   combination   of   both   voltage   and   current.   The voltage restrains operation,   and   the   fault   current   causes   operation   that   has   the   overall   effect   of   measuring impedance.   The   relay   operates   instantaneously   (within   a   few   cycles)   on   a   60-cycle   basis   for values   of   impedance   below   the   set   value.   When   time   delay   is   required,   the   relays   energizes   a

separate   time-delay   relay   or   function   with   the   contacts   or   output   of   this   time-delay   relay   or function performing the   desired output functions. The   relay   operates   on   the   magnitude   of   impedance   measured   by   the   combination   of   restraint voltage and the   operating current passing through it according to   the settings applied to the relay.

When   the   impedance   is   such   that   the   impedance   point   is   within   the   impedance   characteristic circle,   the   relay   will   trip.   The   relay   is   inherently   directional.   The   line   impedance   typically corresponds   to   the   diameter   of   the   circle   with   the   reach   of   the   relay   being   the   diameter   of   the circle.

Differential Relay

The differential   relay is   a   current-operated   relay   that responds   to   the   difference   between   two   or more device   currents   above   a set value. The relay   works on   the   basis of   the   differential principle

That   what   goes   into   the   device   has   to   come   out   .If   the   current   does   not   add   to   zero,   the   error current   flows   to   cause   the   relay   to   operate   and   trip   the   circuit.   The   differential   relay   is   used   to provide   internal   fault   protection   to   equipment   such   as   transformers,   generators,   and   buses.

Relays are designed   to   permit   differences   in   the   input currents   as a result   of current   transformer mismatch and applications where   the input currents come from different   system voltages, such as transformers.   A current differential relay provides restraint coils   on the incoming current circuits.

The   restraint   coils   in   combination   with   the   operating   coil   provide   an   operation   curve,   above

which   the   relay   will   operate.   Differential   relays   are   often   used   with   a   lockout   relay   to   trip   all power   sources   to   the   device   and   prevent   the   device   from   being   automatically   or   remotely   re- energized.   These   relays   are   very   sensitive.   The   operation   of   the   device   usually   means   major problems with the protected equipment and the likely failure in re-energizing the equipment

Directional Over current Relay

A   directional   over   current   relay   operates   only   for   excessive   current   flow   in   a   given   direction. Directional   over   current   relays   are   available   in   electromechanical,   static,   and   microprocessor constructions. An electromechanical overcorrect relay is made directional b y adding a directional

unit   that   prevents   the   over   current   relay   from   operating   until   the   directional   unit   has   operated. The directional unit   responds to the   product   of   the   magnitude   of current,   voltage,   and   the   phase angle   between   them   or   to   the   product   of   two   currents   and   the   phase   angle   between   them.   The value of this product necessary   to provide operation   of the   directional unit is small,   so that   it will not   limit   the   sensitivity of the relay (such   as an   over current relay   that it controls). In most   cases, the directional   element   is mounted   inside the same case   as the relay   it controls. For   example,   an

over   current   relay and a   directional   element   are   mounted in the   same   case,   and   the   combination is   called   a   directional over current   relay.   Microprocessor   relays often   provide a choice as   to the polarizing method   that   can   be   used   in   providing   the direction   of fault,   such   as applying   residual current or voltage or negative sequence current or voltage polarizing functions to the relay.

Distribution board:

A distribution board      (or   panel) is a component of an        electricity   supply system which divides an electrical power   feed   into   subsidiary      circuits, while providing a   protective        fuse or   circuit breaker for   each   circuit,   in   a   common enclosure  . Normally, a main switch   , and   in   recent   boards, one   or   more  Residual-current   devices      (RCD)   or    Residual   Current   Breakers   with   Overecurrent protection   (RCBO), will also be

Maintenance Instruments of List

1 . Multi-meter (AVO)

2. Multi Screw Driver set

3. Pliers

4. Noose Pliers

5. Cutting Pliers

6. Hammer

7. Tester

8. Series Lamp

9. Wire Striper

10. Spanner set

11. Adjustable wrench

12. Clip-on meter

13. Soldering Iron

14. Griper Pliers

15. Punching etc.

CONCLUSION:

I   joint to  BSRM   Ltd. Factory   for   internship. This factory  of  all   worker   and management   is   very   good   and   helpfully. Their   help   for   my   internship   period happen be easy, therefore I would highly obliged. There, I learn to 11kv/.440kv Sub-station, Generator, Switchgear and  factory   maintenance   division  of equipments are working principle, competent and possible causes solution. Hare, many   new   machine, instruments  &  tools  about  understood.  There   are   many problem to face and their  with  try to  solution. This is   my   new experience. I am very enjoy  the internship  period,   because it   a new situation, new work and   new problem   solution   invention  and  new  learn  of   goods  are  characters.  I   hope   this experience will need of my service and my future.

substation

Categories
Architecture

Thesis Paper on Longer Span Floor Beams System of Edge Supported Structures (Part 2)

CHAPTER VI

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF TYPE-IIBUILDING

Introduction:

In this chapter, the four storied building is analyzed and designed by ultimate strength design (USD) method as per discussions made in Chapter III and references provided by Winter and Nilson (1997 & 2003). For space limitations, one set of design example is presented here in detail from each component of the building such as slab, floor beam, column, grade beam and footing. The cross-sectional dimensions along with reinforcement arrangement of the rest are shown in a tabular form. Finally full design of the stair case has been provided.

Analysis and design of building components

 Design of slab:

All slab panels are analyzed and designed by following the ‘ACI Moment Coefficient procedure’ (Appendix I). Typical floor plan and panel plan are given in Appendix VII and Appendix VIX respectively. Analysis and design of panel groups (S-1~S-3) are presented below.

Design data

Design procedure – ACI moment Co-efficient

Materials:

                                                     = 40 ksi

                                                    = 3 ksi

                                                     = 150 pcf

                                           = 120 pcf

Loadings:

                     F.F + Partition wall        = 30 psf

                     L.L                                 = 40 psf

Slab Panel S -1

Panel size                                            = 28′-2″×20′-6″

Beam width                                        = 12″

Clear span size                                    =27′-2″×19′-0″

Panel ratio,

Panel type                                           = Two-way slab (Case – 4)

1) Load calculation:

Slab thickness

Self weight of slab

Floor finish +P-wall                      = 30 psf.

Live load                                       = 40 psf.

Factored load = 1.2 WDL + 1.6 WLL

                        = 1.20 × (81.25+30) +1.6×40

                        = 197.5 psf

ll) Moment calculation:

 Support moment:  

Mid span moment:

lll) Check for d :

Maximum moment = 5775.09 lb-ft.

Check for d

lV) Reinforcement calculation:

A. Short direction steel

Steel for positive moment at mid span

< 200 psi

Use # 3 bar which area = 0.11

Spacing

Use # 3 @  alternate cranked bars.

Alternative bars should be cranked both at continuous and discontinuous edges.

Steel for negative moment at both supports

So provided 1# 3 bar extra top between two ckd. bars.

B. Long direction steel

Steel for positive moment at mid span

(+)ve MB = 1745.49 lb – ft

Spacing

Use # 3 @  alternate cranked bars.

Alternative bars should be cranked both at continuous and discontinuous edges.

Steel for negative moment at both supports

                     (-)ve MB = 2770.12 lb – ft

So provide 1-# 3 bar extra top between two ckd. bars.

Slab Panel S-2

Panel size                                            = 7′-0″×5′-8″

Beam width                                        = 12″

Clear span size                                    = 6′-0″×4′-8″

Panel ratio,

Panel type                                           = Two-way slab (Case – 2)

1) Load calculation:

Slab thickness

Self weight of slab

Floor finish +P-wall                      = 30 psf.

Live load                                       = 40 psf.

Factored load = 1.2 WDL + 1.6 WLL

                        = 1.20× (62.50+30) +1.6×40

                        = 175 psf

ll) Moment calculation:

 Support moment:

Mid span moment:

lll) Check for d:

Maximum moment = 371.31 lb-ft.

Check for d 4

                                

lV) Reinforcement calculation:

A. Short direction steel

Steel for positive moment at mid span

Use # 3 bar which area = 0.11

Spacing

Use # 3 @  alternate cranked bars.

Alternative bars should be cranked both at continuous and discontinuous edges.

Steel for negative moment at both supports

So provided 1 # 3 bar extra top in between two ckd. bars.

B. Long direction steel

Steel for positive moment at mid span

(+)ve MB = 105.02 lb – ft

Spacing

Use # 3 @  alternate cranked bars.

Steel for negative moment at both supports

-MB = 214.37 lb – ft

Crank to crank spacing

So provide 1-# 3 extra top between two ckd. bars.

Slab Panel S -3          

I) Check for one-way slab        

Panel size                                            = 7′-0″×15′-6″

Beam width                                        = 12″

Length, L=15′-0″ and width, w          =7′-0″

Panel ratio,

So the slab will be designed as one-way slab.

II) Calculation of slab thickness:

Minimum slab thickness

Thickness correction for

Corrected thickness, h = 3″×0.80 =2.40″

Slab thickness let, h =4″

Effective depth, d = 4 -1=3″

III) Moment calculation:

L L= 40 psf

Factored load =1.2×DL+1.6×LL = 1.2×80+1.6×40 =160 psf = 0.16 ksf

(+)ve moment at mid span   

(-)ve  moment at interior support

lV) Check for d:

Maximum design moment= 0.784 k-ft

V) Reinforcement calculation

A. Temperature & shrinkage steel.

Use # 3 bar as Temperature steel.

Use # 3 bar @ 13.50” c/c.

B. Main bar

(-)ve Moment at Interior support = 0.784 k-ft

(-)ve As  for Int. support = ρbd = 0.0023×12×3=0.083 in2/ft

(+)ve Moment at mid span = 0.56 k-ft.

We provided # 3 as main steel

Spacing at mid span =

So spacing at mid span =

A detail of slab reinforcement arrangement of all panels (S-1 ~ S-3) is given in Table 6.1 and Figure 6.1.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bent up, bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Table 6.1: Details of slab reinforcement arrangement of all Panels (S-1~S-3

Panel

Length

(feet)

Moment  

(pound-feet)

Area of steel

inch (sq.)/ft

Spacing 

(inch c/c)

LA

LB

Negative

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

(Extra top in between crank)

Positive

(Main bar)

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

S-1

19

27.17

5775.09

2770.12

3279.68

1745.49

0.343

0.33

0.33

0.30

#3-1

#3-1

#3 @ 4″ #3 @4″

S-2

6

14.91

784

—–

560

—–

0.083

0.062

0.072

#3-1

—–

#3 @ 12″

#3 @12″

S-3

5.67

6

371.31

214.37

183.28

105.02

0.24

0.21

0.10

0.21

#3 -1

#3-1

#3 @ 5.5″

#3 @ 5.5″

LA – Short direction

LB – Long directionDetails of slab reinforcement arrangement of all Panels

Design of floor beam:

All floor beams are analyzed and designed by following the ‘ACI Moment Coefficient procedure’ (Appendices I & XVI). Typical lay-out plan of all floor beams is given in Appendix-XI. Analysis and design of all beam groups (F. B – 1~F.B-6) are presented below.

Design data

Design procedure = ACI moment Co-efficient

Materials:

                                         =  60 ksi

= 3 ksi

= 150 pcf

= 120 pcf

Main wall thickness                = 5″

Floor beam F.B-1

Let depth of beam        =25″

Beam size                     =12″×25″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam                 =

Main wall / Partition wall weight

Load coming from slabs

S-1                      DL      =111.25× 19′×0.5×0.81×2= 1712.13   lb / ft

Total dead load, DL      = 312.50+396+1712.13=2420.63 lb/ft

Live load, LL                = 40×19′-0″×0.5×0.81×2 = 615.60   lb / ft 

Factored load                 = 1.2DL+1.6LL = 1.2×2420.63+1.6×615.60 =3889.72 lb/ft

=3.89   k / ft

ll) Moment calculation & d check: 

(-) ve moment at Ext. support =

(+) ve moment at mid span =

(-) ve moment at Int. support =

T-beam check

For interior beam

center to center distance of the beam =20′-0″ =240″

will be the smallest of the above, = 81.5″

Let, a = slab thickness = 6.5″

And assume it is a singly beam.

So it is not a T-beam.

Considering double layers of steel, effective depth of the beam, d= 25″-4″= 21″

Check for‘d

Maximum Moment = 287.16 k-ft

lll) Reinforcement calculation:

(+)ve steel at mid span

(- )ve Steel at exterior support

(- )ve Steel at Interior support

IV) Stirrup design:
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at d distance,

Concrete shear strength,

Allowable strength,

Since, <  , So stirrup is required.

Shear carried by stirrup =71.85-20.71=51.14 k

Floor beam F.B-2

Let, beam width          =12″

Depth of beam=

Take beam size                        = 12″×20″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam F.B-2     =

All main wall weight

Load coming from slab, S-1 = 111.25×19′-0″×0.81/2 = 856.06   lb / ft

Total dead load, DL             = 250+416.5+856.06 = 1522.56 lb / ft

Live load from slab, S-1      = 40×19′-0″x0.81/2 = 307.80   lb / ft

Total factored load              = 1.2DL+1.6LL

= 1.2×1522.56+1.6×307.80 = 2319.55 lb-ft =2.32   k / ft

ll) Moment calculation: 

(-)ve moment at Ext. support =       =

(+)ve moment at mid span     =       =

(-)ve moment at Int. support  =       =

III) T-beam& d check:

T-beam check

Center to center beam distance=12+0.5×(19′-0″)×12=126″

will be the smallest of the above, =39.17″

Let, a= slab thickness = 6.5″ and assume it is a singly beam

So it is not a T-beam, and it will be designed as a singly beam

Effective depth of the beam, d =20-4 =16″ (considering double layer of steel)

Check for d

Maximum moment, =171.33 k-ft

lV) Reinforcement calculation:

(+)ve steel at mid span

(-)veSteel at Interior support

(-)ve Steel at exterior support

V) Stirrup design:
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at ′d′ distance,

Concrete shear stress,

Allowable stress,

Since, <  , so stirrup is required.

Shear carried by stirrup =28.32-17.25=11.07 k

Floor beam F.B-3

Let, beam width   = 12″

Depth of beam     =15″

Size of beam        =12″×15″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam F.B-3     =

All main wall weight

Load coming from slab, S-1 = 111.25×27′-2″×0.19/2 = 287.15   lb / ft

Total dead load, DL             = 187.50+437.50+287.15 = 912.15 lb / ft

Live load from slab, S-1      = 40×27′-2″×0.19/2 = 103.25   lb / ft

Total factored load              = 1.2DL+1.6LL

= 1.2×912.15+1.6×103.25= 1259.76 lb-ft =1.26   k / ft

ll) Moment calculation: 

(-)ve moment at Ext. support =       =

(+)ve moment at mid span     =       =

(-)ve moment at Int. support  =       =

III) T-beam& d check:

T-beam check

(Center to center beam distance) =12+0.5 × (27′-2″) ×12=175″

will be the smallest of the above, = 31″

Let, a = slab thickness = 6.5″

And assume it is a singly beam

So it is not a T-beam, it will be designed as a singly beam.

Now effective depth of the beam, d =15-2.5 = 12.5″ (considering one layer of steel).

Check for d

Maximum moment, =45.48 k-ft

lV) Reinforcement calculation:

(+)ve steel at mid span

(-)ve Steel at Interior support

(-)ve Steel at exterior support

V) Stirrup design:
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at ′d′ distance,

Concrete shear stress,

Allowable stress,

Since, <  , so stirrup is required.

Shear carried by stirrup = 16.60-12.32 = 4.28 k

Floor beam F.B-4

Let, beam width   = 12″

Depth of beam     = 15″

Size of beam        = 12″×15″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam F.B-4     =

Self weight of 5″ wall

Load coming from slab, S-1   = 111.25×27′-2″×0.19/2 = 287.15   lb / ft

Load coming from slab, S-3   = 80×7/2 = 280 lb/ft

Total dead load, DL               = 187.50+437.50+287.15+280 = 1192.15 lb / ft

Live load from slab, S-1         = 40×27′-2″x0.19/2 = 103.25   lb / ft

Live load from slab, S-3         =40×7/2=140 lb/ft

Total live load, LL                 = (103.25+140.00) =243.24 lb/ft

Total factored load                 = 1.2DL+1.6LL

= 1.2×1192.15+1.6×243.24= 1819.76 lb-ft =1.82 k / ft

ll) Moment calculation: 

(-)ve moment at Ext. support =       =

(+)ve moment at mid span     =       =

(-)ve moment at Int. support  =       =

Maximum moment, = 65.70 k-ft

III) T-beam& d check:

T-beam check

(Center to center beam distance)=12+0.5×(27′-2″)×12=175″

will be the smallest of the above, =31″

Let, a=slab thickness=6.5″ and assume it is a singly beam

So it is not a T-beam, and it will be designed as a singly beam

Now effective depth of the beam, d=15-2.5=12.5″ (considering one layer of steel)

Check for d

Maximum moment, =65.70 k-ft

lll) Reinforcement calculation :

(+)ve steel at mid span

(-)veSteel at Interior support

(-)veSteel at exterior support

IV) Stirrup design:
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at d distance,

Concrete shear stress,

Allowable stress,

Since, <  , So stirrup is required.

Shear carried by stirrup =23.86-12.32=11.54 k  

Floor beam F.B-5

Let, beam width   = 12″

Depth of beam     =12″

Size of beam        =12″×12″

Effective depth, d =12-2.5=9.5″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam F.B-5     =

Self weight of  5″ wall

Load coming from slab, S-1 = 111.25×27′-2″×0.19/2 = 287.15   lb / ft

= (150+437.50+287.15) = 874.65 lb/ft

Live load from slab, S-1       = 40×27′-2″x0.19/2 = 103.25   lb / ft

Factored load (B to C)          = 1.2DL+1.6LL

=1.2×874.65+1.6×103.24=1214.76 lb/ft

Dead load slab, S-3               = 0.55/2×92.50×6′-0″ = 152.62 lb / ft

Live load from slab, S-3      = 0.55/2×40×6′-0″ = 66 lb / ft

Factored load                                   = 1.2DL+1.6LL

=1.2×152.62+1.6×66 = 288.74 lb/ft

Sub total load (A to B)        =1214.76+288.74=1503.50 lb/ft=1.50 k/ft

Concerted load at point “D”

Dead load from stair beam =

Dead load from stair          =

Dead load from slab, S-3   =118×3                                =354.00 lb/ft

= (375.00+279.30+354.00) = 3528.30 lb

Live load from stair           =

Live load from slab, S-3    =51.03×3′-0″           =153.09 lb

= (1999.50+153.09)=2152.59 lb

Factored load                                 = 1.2DL+1.6LL

= 1.2×3528.30+1.6×2152.59= 7678.10 lb =7.68   kip

ll) Moment calculation & d check: (moment calculation by GRAPS software}

(-)ve moment at Int. support = 49.63 k-ft

(-)ve moment at Ext. support  =39.32 k-ft

(+)ve moment at mid span     =37.35 k-ft

(-)ve moment at point   “B”    = 34.53 k-ft

Check for d

Maximum moment, =49.63 k-ft

Ill) Reinforcement calculation:

(+)ve steel at mid span

(-)veSteel at Interior support

(-)veSteel at exterior support

IV) Stirrup design:

:∑

and
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at d distance,

Concrete shear stress,

Allowable shear stress,

Since, <  , So stirrup is required.

Shear carried by stirrup =27.05-9.38=11.54 k

Floor beam F.B-6

Let, beam width   = 12″

Depth of beam     = So taken beam depth=10″

Size of beam        =12″×10″

Effective depth, d =10-2.5=7.5″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam    FB-6        =

Load coming from slab, S-2       =

All main wall weight                  =

Total dead load, DL                 

Live load from slab, S-2

Total factored load                      = 1.2DL+1.6LL

ll) Moment calculation & d check: 

(-)ve moment at both. Supports =       =

(+)ve moment at mid span     =       =

Check for d

Maximum moment, = 4.18 k-ft

lll) Reinforcement calculation:

(+)ve steel at mid span

(-)veSteel at both support

IV) Stirrup design:
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at d distance,

Concrete shear stress,

Allowable shear stress,

Since, > , so stirrup is not required.

Use 2 legs # 3 @ 3.5″ c/c throughout the beam length.

Floor beam F.B -7(Stair beam)

Let, beam width   = 12″

Depth of beam     =10″

Size of beam        =12″×10″

Effective depth, d =10-2.5 = 7.5″

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam                    =

Load coming from slab, S-2       =

Load coming from stair,             =

Total dead load, DL                 

Live load from slab, S-2

Live load from stair

Total live load, LL

Total factored load                      = 1.2DL+1.6LL

ll) Moment calculation & d check: 

(-)ve moment at both. Supports =       =

(+)ve moment at mid span     =       =

Check for d

Maximum moment, =14 k-ft

lll) Reinforcement calculation:

(+)ve steel at mid span

(-)veSteel at both support

IV) Stirrup design:
Shear at 1st Interior support,

Critical shear at d distance,

Concrete shear stress,

Allowable shear stress,

Since, <  , So stirrup is required.

Shear carried by stirrup  =8.71-7.38=1.33 k

Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all floor beams (FB -1 ~ FB-7) are given in Table 6.2 and Figure 6.2~6.6.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bent up, bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

 Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all floor beams (FB -1 ~ FB-7)

Floor beam

group

Floor beam

size

Moment

(kip-ft)

Area of steel req.

(sq. inch)

Quantity of bars

Stirrups

 (spacing, c/c)

At Ext.

M-ve

At Mid

M+ve

At Int.

M-ve

At Ext.

As-ve

At mid

As+ve

At Int.

M-ve

Main bars

Extra top

Use 2 Legs “U”

#3 bar

F.B-1

12’’25″

179.48

205.11

287.11

2.016

2.268

3.528

At Ext. suppt: 4 # 5+2# 6

@ 4.0″c/c

At mid span  : 4 # 6+2# 5

@ 4.0″c/c

At Int. suppt.: 4 # 5+2# 6

2- # 7

@ 4.0″c/c

F.B-2

12”20″

170.04

122.33

171.26

1.44

1.536

2.30

At Ext. suppt: 5 # 5

@ 8.5″c/c

At mid span  : 5 # 5

@ 8.5″c/c

At Int. suppt.: 5 # 5

1- # 8

@ 8.5″c/c

F.B-3

12”15″

28.42

32.49

45.48

0.495

0.672

0.90

At Ext. suppt: 2 #5

@ 6.0″c/c

At mid span  : 2 # 6

@ 6.0″c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2# 5

1- # 5

@ 6.0″c/c

F.B-4

12”12″

41.06

32.49

65.70

0.60

0.75

1.275

At Ext. suppt: 2 # 5

@ 6.0″c/c

At mid span : 2# 6+1# 5

@ 6.0″c/c

At Int. suppt.: 3 # 5

2- # 5

@ 6.0″c/c

F.B-5

12”12″

39.32

37.35

49.63

1.2

1.08

1.31

At Ext. suppt: 2 # 5

@ 6.0″c/c

At mid span  : 2# 6+1# 5

@ 6.0″c/c

At Int. suppt.: 3 # 5

2- # 5

@ 6.0″c/c

F.B-6

12”10″

4.18

2.88

4.18

0.297

0.297

0.297

At Int. suppt.: 2 #5

@ 3.5″c/c

At mid span.: 2 #5

@ 3.5″c/c

At Int. suppt.:2 #5

@ 3.5″c/c

F.B-7

(Stair beam)

12”10″

14.00

9.00

14.00

0.46

0.297

0.46

At Int. suppt.: 2 #5

@ 3.5″c/c

At mid span.: 2 #5

@ 3.5″c/c

At Int. suppt.:2 #5

@ 3.5″c/c

Details of slab reinforcement arrangement of all Panels

CHAPTER VII 

ESTIMATION & COST ANALYSYS 

General:

This chapter gives detailed estimation of volume of concrete and steel which are done separately both for Type-I and Type-II Structures. Finally, cost analyses are completed according to “schedule of rate for civil works”, 12th edition, Public Works Department (PWD).

 Estimate of volume of concrete for Type-I structure.

Volumes of concrete works for different structural elements of the structure are estimated as below (A~F):

A. Volume of concrete of footings

 Footing base:

F-1                               = 4 x 59 x 69 x 1799                           = 170.00 cft

F-2                               = 10 x 69 x 79 x 2099                         = 701.40 cft

F-3                               = 4 x 89 x 99 x 2299                           = 527.04 cft

Volume of concrete of all footing bases                                 = 1398.44 cft

 Pedestal columns:

C-1                              = 4 x 1399 x 1399 x 39-799                = 16.81 cft

C-2                              = 10 x 1399 x 1599 x 39-499              = 45.09 cft

C-3                              = 4 x 1399 x 1799 x 39-999                = 19.46 cft

Volume of concrete of all pedestal columns                           = 181.36 cft

Total volume of concrete of all footings                                 = 1579.80 cft

B. Volume of concrete of grade beams

GB-1                           = 6 x 409 x 1099 x 1299                     = 200.00 cft

GB-2                           = 3 x 649 x 1099 x 1099                     = 132.27 cft

Volume of concrete of all grade beams                                  = 332.27 cft

C. Volume of concrete of columns

C-1                              = 4 x 1099 x 1099 x 89-899                = 24.08 cft

C-2                              = 10 x 1099 x 1299 x 89-899              = 72.25 cft

C-3                              = 4 x 1299 x 1499 x 89-899                = 40.45 cft

Volume of concrete of all columns                                         = 136.78 cft

D. Volume of concrete of floor beams

F.B-1 & F.B-3             = 4 x 409 x 1299 x 1199                     = 146.66  cft

F.B-2                           = 2 x 409 x 1299 x 1399                     =    86.67 cft

F.B-4 & F.B-5             = 3 x 649 x 1299 x799                        = 111.36  cft

Volume of concrete of all floor beams                                   = 344.69 cft

E. Volume of concrete of slabs

S-1                               = 2 x 149 x 229 x 599                         = 252.56 cft

S-2                               = 2 x 149 x 229 x 599                         = 252.56 cft

S-3                               = 2 x 149 x 189 x 599                         = 202.64 cft

S-4                               = 2 x 149 x 189 x 599                         = 202.64 cft

S-5                               = 89 x 189 x 599                                 =   59.04 cft

+ 89 x 99-699 x 599                            =   31.16 cft

Volume of concrete of all slabs                                              = 1000.6 cft

F. Volume of concrete of stair

Waist slab                    = 2 x 129-699 x 39-999 x 699            = 46.88 cft

Tread & Rise               = 2 x 0.5 x 1099 x 6’ x 39-999           = 14.04 cft

Volume of concrete of stair                                                    = 60.92 cft

Total volume of concrete (A to F) for ground floor           = 3455.06 cft

Total volume of concrete for typical floor                          = 1542.99 cft

 Estimate of volume of steel for Type-I structure.

Volumes of steel for different structural elements of the structure are estimated as below (A~F):

  1. A.    Volume of steel of footings

I. Footing base:

Group

No’s  of footing

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F-1

4

10

5.5

220

#5

0.482

106.04

F-2

10

14

6.5

910

#5

0.482

438.62

F-3

4

21

8.5

714

#5

0.482

344.14

 

 

 

 

Long direction: 

Group

No’s  of  footing

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F-1

4

9

4.5

162

#5

0.482

78.08

F-2

10

12

5.5

660

#5

0.482

318.12

F-3

4

18

7.5

540

#5

0.482

260.28

 

 

 

 

Short direction:     

Main bars

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

4

6.5

104

#5

0.482

50.12

C-2

10

4

6.5

260

#5

0.482

125.32

C-3

4

8

6.5

208

#5

0.482

100.25

Tie bars

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

4

3.83

61.28

#3

0.189

11.58

C-2

10

4

4.16

166.4

#3

0.189

31.45

C-3

4

4

4.5

72

#3

0.189

13.61

Volume of steel of all pedestal columns (main bars + ties) = 332.33 kg

Total volume of steel of all footings                                    = 1877.61 kg

B. Volume of steel of grade beams

Main steel:

Group

No’s  of beam

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

GB-1

6

4

66.5

1596

#5

0.482

769.27

GB-2

3

4

42.5

510

#5

0.482

245.82

 

 

 

Extra top bars:

Group

No’s  of beam

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

GB-1

6

1

11

66

#5

0.482

31.81

 

 

 

Stirrups:

Group

No’s  of beam

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

 

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

GB-1

6

127

3.16

2408

#3

0.189

455.17

GB-2

3

155

2.83

1316

#3

0.189

248.74

 

 

 

Volume of steel of all grade beams = 1750.81 kg

C. Volume of steel of columns

Main bars:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

4

12

192

#5

0.482

92.54

C-2

10

4

12

480

#5

0.482

231.36

C-3

4

6

12

288

#6

0.753

216.86

Tie bars:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

11

2.83

124.52

#3

0.189

23.53

C-2

10

11

3.41

375.1

#3

0.189

70.90

C-3

4

11

3.83

168.52

#3

0.189

31.85

Volume of steel of all columns = 667.04 kg

D. Volume of steel of floor beams

Main bars:

Group

No’s  of beam

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

 

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F.B-1

F.B-3

4

4

42.5

680

#6

0.753

512.04

F.B-2

2

4

42.5

340

#7

0.908

308.72

F.B-4

F.B-5

3

4

66.5

798

#5

0.482

384.63

Extra top bars:

Group

No’s  of beam

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

 

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F.B-1

F.B-3

4

2

6

48

#5

0.482

23.13

4

2

11

88

#7

0.908

79.90

4

2

11

88

#6

0.753

66.26

F.B-2

2

2

6

24

#5

0.482

11.56

2

2

11

44

#8

1.173

51.61

2

2

11

44

#6

0.753

33.13

F.B-4

F.B-5

3

4

4

48

#5

0.482

23.13

Stirrups:

Group

No’s  of beam

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

 

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F.B-1

F.B-3

4

68

4.16

1131.5

#3

0.189

213.88

F.B-2

2

80

4.5

720

#3

0.189

136.09

F.B-4

F.B-5

3

122

3.5

1281

#3

0.189

242.14

Volume of steel of all floor beams = 2086.22 kg

E. Volume of steel of slab

Long direction:

Type of bars

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

Straight bar

2 x 16 x 42’+ 5 x 22’

1454

#3

0.189

275.81

Cranked bar

2 x 16 x 44’+ 4 x 23’

1500

#3

0.189

283.50

Extra  bar

2 x 16 x 22’+ 5 x 17’

789

#3

0.189

149.12

 

 

 

 

Short direction:

Type of bars

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

Straight bar

2 x 23 x 30’+ 14 x 7’

1478

#3

0.189

279.34

Cranked bar

2 x 23 x 32’+ 13 x 7’

1563

#3

0.189

295.41

Extra bar

2 x 23 x 16.5’

+ 21 x 4’

843

#3

0.189

159.33

 

 

 

 

Volume of steel of all slabs = 1442.51 kg

F. Volume of steel of stair

Type of bars

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Wt. of Bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

Straight bar

8 x 19’

152

#3

0.189

28.73

Cranked bar

7 x 20’

140

#3

0.189

26.46

Extra bar

8 x (2 x 2’- 6”+10’)

120

#3

0.189

22.68

Temperature bar

17 x 7’

119

#3

0.189

22.49

 

Volume of steel of stair = 100.36 kgground floor      = 7924.55 kg

Total volume of steel for typical floor                     = 4296.13 kg

Estimate of volume of concrete for Type-II structure:

Volumes of concrete works for different structural elements of the structure are estimated as below (A~F):

A. Volume of concrete of footings

I. Footing base:

F-1                   = 4 × 6′-6″ × 69-6″×1′-3″                               =211.25  cft

F-2                   = 2 × 89-3″×89-3″ ×1′-9″                               = 238.21 cft

F-3                   = 2 ×69-6″×69-6″×1′-6″                                 =126.75  cft

F-4                  = 2 ×69-6″×69-6″ ×1′-6″                                 =126.75  cft

F-5                  =1×179-0″×109-3″×1′-10″                              = 318.87 cft

Volume of concrete of all footing bases                                 = 1021.83 cft

ll. Pedestal columns:

C-1                  = 4×1399×1399×39-999                                 = 17.60 cft

C-2                  = 2×1699× 1699× 39-399                               = 11.50 cft

C-3                  = 2 ×1399 ×1399× 39-699                             = 8.22  cft

C-4                  = 2 ×1399 × 1399 × 39-699                            = 8.22  cft

C-5                  = 2×1899×1899 × 39-699                               = 15.75 cft

Volume of concrete of all pedestal columns                           =61.29 cft

Total volume of concrete of all footings                                 = 1083.12 cft

B. Volume of concrete of grade beams:

GB-1             =1× (56′-0″×0′-1099×1′-3″                               =58.10   cft

GB-2             = 2×56′-9″×0′-10″×1′-3″                                  =117.76 cft

GB-3             = 2×37′-7″×0′-10″×1′-0″                                  =62.38   cft

GB-2             = 2×37′-3″×0′-10″×1′-0″                                  =61.83   cft

Volume of concrete of all grade beams                                  = 300.49 cft

C. Volume of concrete of columns:

C-1                  = 4×0′-10″×0′-10″×109-099                           = 27.56 cft

C-2                  = 2×1′-1″×1′-1″ ×109-099                              = 23.32 cft

C-3                  = 2×0′-10″×0′-10″ ×109-099                          = 13.78 cft

C-4                  = 2×0′-10″×0′-10″ ×109-099                          = 13.78 cft

C-5                  = 2×1′-3″×1′-3″ ×109-099                              = 31.25 cft

Volume of concrete of all columns                                         = 109.69 cft

D. Volume of concrete of floor beams:

F.B-1            = 2×27′-2″×1′-0″×29-199                                 = 113.02 cft

F.B-2             = 4×27′-2″×1′-0″×19-899                                 = 181.49 cft

F.B-3             = 4×19′-0″×1′-0″×19-399                                  =95.00   cft

F.B-4             = 2×19′-0″×1′-0″×19-399                                 =47.50    cft

F.B-5             = 2×19′-0″×1′-0″×19-399                                 =47.50    cft

F.B-6             = 1×6′-0″×1′-0″×09-1099                                 =4.98      cft

Stair beam     = 1×6′-0″×1′-0″×09-1099                                 =4.98     cft

Volume of concrete of all floor beams                                   =494.47 cft 

E. Volume of concrete of slabs:

S-1                   = 4×27′-2″×19′-0″×                                = 1118.50 cft

S-2                   = 1×6′-0″×4′-8″×                                      = 11.67    cft

S-3                   = 1×14′-6″×6′-0″×                                                = 29.00    cft

Volume of concrete of all slabs                                               = 1159.17 cft

F. Volume of concrete of stair:

Waist slab                    = 2×9′-0″×3′-9″×                          = 28.12 cft

Landing                       =2×9′-0″×3′-9″×                           = 18.75 cft

Tread & Rise               = 2 ×0.5×1099×6″× 39-999×10          = 15.56 cft

Volume of concrete of stair                                                    = 62.43 cft

Total volume of concrete (A to F) for ground floor           =3209.37 cft

 

Total volume of concrete for typical floor                          =1825.76 cft

 Estimate of volume of steel for Type-II structure:

Volumes of steel for different structural elements of the structure are estimated as below (A~F):

B.     Volume of steel of footings:

I. Footing base:

Group

No’s of footing

No’s of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F-1

4

11×2

6.25

550

#5

0.482

265.10

F-2

2

21×2

8.5

714

#5

0.482

344.15

F-3

2

14×2

6.5

364

#5

0.482

175.45

F-4

2

14×2

6.5

364

#5

0.482

175.45

F-5

1

21

16.5

346.50

#6

0.753

260.91

 

41

9.75

399.75

#5

0.482

192.67

 

 

 

 

 

Both directions

Volume of steel of all footing bases =1445.36 kg

ll. Pedestal columns:

Main bars

Group

No’s of column

No’s of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

4

6.5

104

#5

0.482

50.12

C-2

2

6

6.5

78

#5

0.482

37.59

C-3

2

4

6.5

52

#5

0.482

25.06

C-4

2

4

6.5

52

#5

0.482

25.06

C-5

2

4

6.5

52

#5

0.482

25.06

 

2

4

6.5

52

#8

1.176

61.15

Tie bars:

Group

No’s of column

No’s of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

6

2.83

67.92

#3

0.189

12.84

C-2

2

6

3.83

9.96

#3

0.189

1.88

C-3

2

6

2.83

33.96

#3

0.189

6.418

C-4

2

6

2.83

33.96

#3

0.189

6.418

C-5

2

4

4.5

36

#3

0.189

6.804

Volume of steel of all pedestal columns (main bars + ties) = 258.42 kg

Total volume of steel of all footings                                  = 1703.78 kg

B. Volume of steel of grade beams

Main steel:

Group

No’s of column

No’s of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

GB-1

1

4

66.5

226

#5

0.482

128.21

GB-2

2

4

66.5

532

#5

0.482

256.42

GB-3

2

4

42.5

340

#5

0.482

163.88

GB-4

2

4

42.5

340

#5

0.482

163.88

 

 

 

 

Extra top bars:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

GB-1

3

2

12.25

73.5

#5

0.482

35.43

GB-2

3

2

12.25

73.5

#5

0.482

35.43

GB-3

4

1

13.91

55.64

#6

0.753

    41.89

GB-4

4

1

13.91

55.64

#6

0.753

    41.89

 

 

 

 

Stirrups:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

GB-1

1

117

3.33

389.61

#3

0.189

43.64

GB-2

2

117

3.33

779.22

#3

0.189

147.27

GB-3

2

98

2.83

554.68

#3

0.189

104.83

GB-4

2

98

2.83

554.68

#3

0.189

104.83

 

 

 

 

Volume of steel of all grade beams = 1297.09 kg

C. Volume of steel of columns

Main bars:

Group

No’s of column

No’s of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

4

12

192

#5

0.482

 92.54

C-2

2

6

12

144

#5

0.482

 69.40

C-3

2

4

12

96

#5

0.482

 46.27

C-4

2

4

12

96

#5

0.482

 46.27

C-5

2

4

12

96

#5

0.482

 46.27

 

2

4

12

96

#8

1.176

 112.89

Tie bars:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

C-1

4

11

2.83

124.52

#3

0.189

23.53

C-2

2

11

3.83

84.26

#3

0.189

15.92

C-3

2

11

2.83

124.52

#3

0.189

23.53

C-4

2

11

2.83

124.52

#3

0.189

23.53

C-5

2

11

4.5

99

#3

0.189

18.71

Volume of steel of all columns = 518.87 kg

D. Volume of steel of floor beams

Main bars:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F.B-1

 

2

4

30.67

245.36

#5

0.481

118.02

 

2

4

30.67

245.36

#6

0.753

184.75

F.B-2

4

4

30.68

490.88

#5

0.481

236.11

 

4

3

30.68

368.16

#6

0.753

277.22

F.B-3

2

4

42.50

340

#5

0.481

163.54

F.B-4

2

2

21.25

85

#6

0.753

64.00

 

2

      2

21.25

85

#5

0.481

40.88

F.B-5

2

4

21.25

170

#5

0.481

81.77

 

2

1

21.25

42.50

#6

0.753

32.00

F.B-6

1

4

9

36

#5

0.481

17.32

S. Beam

1

4

9

36

#5

0.481

17.32

Extra top bars:

Group

No’s of column

No’s of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F.B-1

 

1

4

8′-10″×2

35.32

#7

0.908

32.07

F.B-2

 

4

1

6′-6″

26.00

#7

0.908

23.61

F.B-3

2

1

10′-0″

20.00

#6

0.753

15.06

F.B-4

2

2

5′-9″

23.00

#6

0.753

17.32

F.B-5

2

2

5′-9″

23.00

#6

0.753

17.32

 

2

1

5′-9″

   11.83

#6

0.753

8.91

Stirrups:

Group

No’s  of column

No’s  of bar

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

F.B-1

1

82

5.6

918.40

#3

0.189

173.57

F.B-2

4

39

4.67

728.52

#3

0.189

137.69

F.B-3

4

38

    3.83   582.16

#3

0.189

110.02

F.B-4

2

38

   3.83  291.08

#3

0.189

55.01

F.B-5

2

38

  3.33  253.08

#3

0.189

47.83

F.B-6

1

21

      3.00   63

#3

0.189

11.91

S. Beam

1

21

      3.00   63

#3

0.189

11.91

Volume of steel of all floor beams = 1874.00 kg

E. Volume of steel of slab

Long direction:

Type of bars

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

Straight bar

 4× 29× 28′- 11″

3353.56

#3

0.189

633.82

Ckd bar  4× 28× 35′- 4″

3956.96

#3

0.189

747.86

Extra top bar

 4× 7′-7″×28    848.96

#3

0.189

160.45S

Extra top bar

(23+23+10+10)×8′-10″ 582.78

#3

0.189

110.14

Straight bar

16×6′-9″ 108.00

#3

0.189

10.41

Ckd bar

17×7′-1″ 120.36

#3

0.189

22.74

Extra top bar

 8×6′-9″ 54.00

#3

0.189

10.21

Extra top bar

 9×7′-1″ 49.56

#3

0.189

9.37

 

 

 

 

 

 

Short direction:

Type of bars

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

Straight bar

      2×41× 40′- 9″

3341.50

#3

0.189

631.54

Ckd bar

2×40× 41′- 10″

3346.40

#3

0.189

632.46

Extra top bar

      2×41× 10′- 0″

2410.00

#3

0.189

455.49

Extra top bar

      2×2× 5′- 8″

22.68

#3

0.189

4.28

Binder

      8× 16′- 3″

130.00

#3

0.189

24.57

Straight bar

      7× 6′- 8″

46.69

#3

0.189

8.82

Ckd bar

      6× 7′- 3″

43.50

#3

0.189

8.22

Extra top bar

      6× 5′- 6″

33.00

#3

0.189

6.23

Extra top bar

      6× 4′- 9″

28.50

#3

0.189

5.39

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volume of steel of all slabs = 3459.26 kg

F. Volume of steel of stair

Type of bars

Length of bar

(ft)

RFT

Size of bar

Weight of bar

(kg/ft)

Volume of steel

(kg)

Straight bar

  4×2×19′- 0″

152

#3

0.189

28.73

Ckd bar

3×2×20′- 0″

120

#3

0.189

22.68

Extra top bar

4×4×9′- 6″

152

#3

0.189

28.73

Binder

26×3′- 6″

91

#3

0.189

17.20

 

Volume of steel of stair =97.34 kg

Total volume (A to F) of steel for ground floor      =8950.34 kg

Total volume of steel for typical floor                     = 5949.47 kg

Cost analysis of volume of concrete & steel for Type-I structure

This cost analyses, shown in Table 7.1, are completed according to “schedule of rate for civil works”, 12th edition, Public Works Department.

Table 7.1: Cost analysis of volume of concrete & steel for Type-I structure.

Sl. No.

Short Description

Unit

Total

Rate in Taka

Amount in Taka

I

Concrete works

 

 

 

 

A.

Foundation (Footing)
Concrete

cft

1398.44

213.30

298287.25

B.

Grade beam
Concrete

cft

332.27

213.30

70873.19

C.

Pedestal column, column.
Concrete
i.   Below PL level and in Ground Floor

cft

181.36

215.80

39137.49

ii.   Ground Floor

cft

136.78

219.30

29995.85

iii.  1st Floor

cft

136.78

222.80

30474.58

iv.  2nd Floor

cft

136.78

226.30

30953.31

v.  3rd Floor

cft

136.78

229.80

31432.04

D.

Beam:
Concrete
i.   Ground Floor

cft

344.69

213.30

73522.38

ii.  1st Floor

cft

344.69

216.80

74728.79

iii.  2nd Floor

cft

344.69

220.30

75935.21

iv.  3rd Floor

cft

344.69

223.80

77141.62

E.

Roof slab etc.
Concrete
i.   Ground Floor

cft

1000.60

213.30

213427.98

ii.  1st Floor

cft

1000.60

216.80

216930.08

iii.  2nd Floor

cft

1000.60

220.30

220432.18

iv.  3rd Floor

cft

1000.60

223.80

223934.28

F.

Stair case, slab & steps etc.
Concrete
i.   Ground Floor

cft

60.92

220.00

13402.40

ii.  1st Floor

cft

60.92

223.50

13615.62

iii.  2nd Floor

cft

60.92

227.00

13828.84

iv.  3rd Floor

cft

60.92

230.50

14042.06

II

Steel works

a.

60 grade deformed
i.   Ground Floor

Qtl.

64.82

11371.00

737068.22

ii.  1st Floor

Qtl.

28.54

11396.00

325241.84

iii.  2nd Floor

Qtl.

28.54

11421.00

325955.34

iv.  3rd Floor

Qtl.

28.54

11446.00

326668.84

b.

40 grade deformed bar
i.   Ground Floor Slab

Qtl.

14.43

8699.00

125526.57

ii.  1st Floor  Slab

Qtl.

14.43

8724.00

125887.32

iii.  2nd Floor  Slab

Qtl.

14.43

8749.00

126248.07

iv.  3rd Floor Slab

Qtl.

14.43

8774.00

126608.82

Grand Total (I+II)

TK

               39,59,720.16

 Cost analysis of volume of concrete & steel for Type-II structure:

This cost analyses, shown in Table 7.2, are completed according to “schedule of rate for civil works”, 12th edition, Public Works Department.

Table 7.2: Cost Analysis of volume of concrete & steel for Type-II structure

Sl. No.

Short Description

Unit

Total

Rate in Taka

Amount in Taka

I

Concrete works

 

 

 

 

A.

Foundation (Footing)
Concrete

cft

1021.83

213.30

217956.34

B.

Grade beam
Concrete

cft

300.49

213.30

64,094.52

C.

Pedestal column, column.
Concrete
i.   Below PL level

cft

61.29

215.80

38,071.44

ii.   Ground Floor

cft

109.69

219.30

24,055.02

iii.  1st Floor

cft

109.69

222.80

24,351.18

iv.  2nd Floor

cft

109.69

226.30

24,822.85

v.  3rd Floor

cft

109.69

229.80

25,119.01

D.

Beam:
Concrete
i.   Ground Floor

cft

494.47

213.30

1,05,470.45

ii.  1st Floor

cft

494.47

216.80

1,07,201.10

iii.  2nd Floor

cft

494.47

220.30

1,08,931.74

iv.  3rd Floor

cft

494.47

223.80

1,10,662.38

E.

Roof slab etc.
Concrete
i.   Ground Floor

cft

1159.17

213.30

2,47,250.96

ii.  1st Floor

cft

1159.17

216.80

2,51,308.06

iii.  2nd Floor

cft

1159.17

220.30

2,55,305.00

iv.  3rd Floor

cft

1159.17

223.80

2,59,422.24

F.

Stair case, slab & steps etc.
Concrete
i.   Ground Floor

cft

62.93

220.00

13,734.60

ii.  1st Floor

cft

62.93

223.50

13,953.10

iii.  2nd Floor

cft

62.93

227.00

14,171.61

iv.  3rd Floor

cft

62.93

230.50

14,390.11

II

Steel works

a.

60 grade deformed
i.   Ground Floor

Qtl.

54.91

11371.00

624381.61

ii.  1st Floor

Qtl.

22.95

11396.00

2,61,538.20

iii.  2nd Floor

Qtl.

22.95

11421.00

2,62,111.95
iv.  3rd Floor

Qtl.

22.95

11446.00

2,62,685.70

b.

40 grade deformed bar
i.   Ground Floor Slab

Qtl.

34.59

8699.00

3,00,898.41

ii.  1st Floor  Slab

Qtl.

34.59

8724.00

3,01,763.16

iii.  2nd Floor  Slab

Qtl.

34.59

8749.00

3,02,627.91

iv.  3rd Floor Slab

Qtl.

34.59

8774.00

3,03,492.66

Grand Total (I +II)

TK.

                 4539831.31

CHAPTER IX 

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

 Recommendations:

Based on the objectives, scopes and limitations of the study (stated in Chapter I) as well as discussions and conclusions that made on the obtained results, few recommendations can be proposed for further studies:

  • This study was conducted for beam supported slab only. Other types of slab (such as flat or flat slab etc.) may be considered.
  • ACI Moment Coefficient procedure was followed during analysis and design of slabs. Any other procedure (such as Direct Design or Equivalent Frame Method etc.) can be followed for comparison.
  • Structural analysis software can be used.
  • This study was conducted based on low rise concept, further analyses considering high rise design criteria can be performed.
  • Same study can be conducted considering commercial buildings instead of residential one.

 Conclusions:

After performing estimation, cost analyses and comparison for the specified four storied residential structure as well as discussions made earlier chapters, following information are obtained:

  • The total volume of Concrete required in Type-II is 1.11 times higher than Type-I structure.
  • The total volume of Steel (60 grade) required in Type-II is 1.24 times lower than Type-I structure.
  • The total volume of Steel (40 grade) required in Type-II is 2.40 times higher than Type-I structure.
  • The total costing for concrete and steel works required in Type-II is 1.15 times higher than Type-I structure.

Thesis Paper On Longer Span Floor Beams System Of Edge Supported Structures(part 1)

Thesis Paper On Longer Span Floor Beams System Of Edge Supported Structures(part 2)

Categories
Architecture

Thesis Paper on Longer Span Floor Beams System of Edge Supported Structures

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

General:

The chief task of the structural engineer is the design of structures. The single most important characteristics of any structural member is its actual strength, which must be large enough to resist, with some margin to spare, all foreseeable loads that may act on it during the life of the structure without failure or other distress. It is logical, therefore, to proportion members, i.e., to select concrete dimensions and reinforcement, so that member strengths are adequate to resist forces resulting from certain hypothetical overload stages, significantly above loads expected actually to occur in service.

 Background of study:

Concrete can be used in many different ways and often many different configurations are feasible. However, market prices, project requirements and site conditions affect the relative economics of each option. In assessing the structural cost of a multi-story building, it is evident that the bulk of the cost is often for the floor slab construction. Therefore, the overall economy of a structure may depend on the need for the efficiency and economy of the floor slab’ system. For a building, the choice of floor design is often determined by the need for long spans to provide floor space uninterrupted by cores and columns.Traditional concrete design for office/residential buildings have been associated with either beam and slab or flat slab floors typically with 18~22 ft spans. Occasionally, longer-span floors have designed using ribbed or waffle construction. In recent times changes in the requirements of end-users and in developer’s specifications have led to more open-plan floor spaces and larger floor-heights in two-way beam supported concrete floor systems. This has increased spans from 18~27 ft, even to 45 ft and more. The change in span length of the slab is directly related with the beam length and it affects the size of beams as well as columns and footings.To verify the competitiveness of concrete long-span floors based on cost analyses, this study was carried out as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Civil Engineering.

Objectives and the study:

  • To analysis and design two four storied residential building having same plinth area but different span length of the panels.
  • To analyze, design and estimate slabs, floor beams, columns, grade beams and footings both slab systems.
  • To compare between both slab systems based on required volumes of concrete & steel.
  • To compare between both slab systems based on total costing.

Organization of the Thesis Works:

The thesis has been arranged in the following order also including references as well as appendices used for the study.

Chapter I: This includes the introduction, the objectives and the scope of the study.

Chapter II: Includes Literature Review.

Chapter III: Includes Design Codes & Specifications

Chapter IV: Includes the methodology of the study.

Chapter V: Provides structural design of the four storied Type-I building (short span floor system) by USD

Chapter VI: Provides structural design of the four storied Type-II building (longer span floor system) by USD

Chapter VII: Provides estimate and cost analyses for both structures

 Chapter VIII: Provides comparative analyses between both structures and discussions

Chapter IX: Includes conclusions and suggestions for further study.

References

Appendices

 Scopes/limitations of the study:

  1. The comparative study between the structures had been made based on low rise structural design concept. Selected structures were four storied (two-unit) residential building.
  2. All Slabs had been analyzed by ‘ACI moment co-efficient procedure’.
  3. Earthquake and wind loads were not considered in design.
  4.  All slabs were considered as edge supported.
  5.  For cost analyses, only frame structure (slabs, beams, columns, footings etc.) plus stair case were estimated.
  6.  The cost analysis was done in accordance with the PWD schedule.

CHAPTER II

LITERETURE REVIEW

 General:

Design of members and structures of reinforced concrete is a problem distinct from but closely related to analysis. Strictly speaking, it is almost impossible to exactly analyze a concrete structure, and to design exactly is no less difficult. Fortunately, we can make a few fundamental assumptions, which make the design of reinforced concrete, quite simple, if not easy. A problem unique to the design of reinforced concrete structures is the need to detail each member throughout. Steel structures, in general, require only the detailed design of connections. For concrete structures, we must determine not only the area of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement required in each member, but also the way to best arrange and connect the reinforcement to insure acceptable structural performance. This procedure can be made reasonably simple, if not easy. If we understand the basic concepts behind code provisions for design, we will be able to:

• approach the design in a more knowledgeable fashion, not like following a black box;

• understand and adapt the changes in code provisions better and faster.

Concrete structures: design components & types:

Generally, a concrete structure is made of a set of frames consisting of several vertical and horizontal members. That is why, it is known as “frame structure”. There are two types of frame structures:

a)      Low Rise Structures: Total height is 40~60 ft above the ground level. Earthquake and wind loads are not considered during design of such structures. Generally, residential buildings are low-rise structures.

b)      High Rise Structures: Total height is more than 60 ft above the ground level. Earthquake and wind loads are considered during design of such structures.

The whole frame structure is divided into three parts:

1)      Superstructure: This is the portion which is above the ground level and consisted of the following design components:

a)      Beams – All horizontal reinforced concrete member.

b)      Slabs    – Plain and flat reinforced concrete surfaces, which rest on beams. Two types: 1. Roof- Top slabs     2. Floors- all slabs except the top one.

c)      Columns- all vertical reinforced concrete members on which beams rest.     

2)      Substructure: Portion of the structure, which is below the ground level. Basement floor, car parking etc. are constructed under the ground. Substructure also consists of beams, slabs and columns.

3)      Foundation: This is the portion on which the total structure rest. Foundation of a structure may be footing or piling type.

 Concrete structures: design basis:

The design of a concrete structure is based on the following design criteria:

1) Codes and specifications:

Structures must be designed and constructed according to the provisions of a code, which is a legal document containing requirements related to such things as structural safety, fire safety, plumbing, ventilation, and accessibility to the physically disabled. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published the ACI Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, which is usually referred to as the “ACI Code”. This is widely used as a legal set of rules by which r/c buildings are designed. If a structural designer correctly follows this set of rules, and the building, which the designer has designed, has structural problems or failures, then the designer cannot be blamed.

2) Loads

Loads that act on structures can be divided into three general categories:

Dead loads

Such loads are constant in magnitude and fixed in location throughout the lifetime of the structure. This is a fixed position gravity service load. This includes the weight of the actual structure itself, as well as anything non-movable that is permanently attached to the structure. Therefore, dead load includes the gravity load from floors, beams, ceilings, roofs, pipes (plumbing), ventilation ducts, and windows. It does not include furniture because they are movable. Dead loads can be accurately estimated by adding up the weights of the various parts of the structure.

Live loads

They are either fully or partially in place or not present at all, may also change in location. This is also a gravity load, but it is different from dead load because it varies in magnitude and location. Examples include people, furniture, cars, and stored goods. Live loads cannot be accurately estimated because the load is variable and unknown. For instance, before the building is built and the tenants have moved in, the designer does not know how many people and how much or what kind of furniture will be on any floor of the structure.

Environmental loads:

Loads from nature such as wind, earthquake, and snow loads, are known as Environmental Loads. They may change in magnitude as well as location.

All dead and live loads are considered as uniformly distributed loads acting on the structures.

Total uniformly distributed loads = Total dead loads + Total live loads

3) Materials

Concrete structures are made of two different types materials: Concrete and reinforcing steel

Concrete is a composite material composed of Portland cement, fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (gravel/stone), and water. Quality of concrete is measured by its compressive strength, f’c.

Concrete has high strength when it is in compression. However, it is brittle and will crack when it is under tension. To increase the tension strength, steel reinforcing bars are added to the concrete while it is still wet. The concrete hardens around the reinforcing bars and the steel and concrete acts as one unit. To make the bond between the concrete and steel stronger, the reinforcing bars have small deformations, which interlock with the concrete.

The most common type of reinforcing steel is in the form of round bars, often called “rebars” available in diameters ranging from 3/8 to 1 3/8 in (Nos. 3 through 11) for ordinary applications such as in beams and in two heavy bar sizes of about 1 3/4 and 2 1/4 in (Nos. 14 and 18) such in columns.

Quality of the reinforcing steel is expressed by it yield strength, fy. Reinforcing bars with 40-ksi-yield stress, almost standard 20 years ago, have largely been replaced with 60-ksi-yield stress because they are more economical and their use tends to reduce congestion of steel in forms.

4) Safety

A structure must be safe against collapse; strength of the structure must be adequate for all loads that might act on it. If we could build buildings as designed, and if the loads and their internal effects can be predicted accurately, we do not have to worry about safety. But there are uncertainties in:

1. Actual loads;

2. Forces/loads might be distributed in a manner different from what we assumed;

3. The assumptions in analysis might not be exactly correct;

4. Actual behavior might be different from that assumed;

Finally, we would like to have the structure safe against brittle failure (gradual failure with ample warning permitting remedial measures is preferable to a sudden or brittle failure).

5) Design Methods

Two philosophies of design have long been prevalent. The working stress method, focusing on conditions at service load (that is, when the structure is being used), was the principal method used from the early 1900s until the early 1960s. Today, with few exceptions, the strength design method is used, focusing on conditions at loads greater than service loads when failure may be immanent. The strength design method is deemed conceptually more realistic to establish structural safety.

Review of the structural elements of a building:

Slab:

The slab provides a horizontal surface and is usually supported by columns, beams or walls. Slabs can be categorized into two main types: one-way slabs and two-way slabs. One-way slab is the most basic and common type of slab. One-way slabs are supported by two opposite sides and bending occurs in one direction only. Two-way slabs are supported on four sides and bending occurs in two directions. However, slabs supported by four sides may be assumed as one-way slab when the ratio of lengths to width of two perpendicular sides exceeds 2. Although while such slabs transfer their loading in four directions, nearly all load is transferred in the short direction.

Two-way slabs carry the load to two directions, and the bending moment in each direction is less than the bending moment of one-way slabs. Also two-way slabs have less deflection than one-way slabs. Compared to one-way slabs, Calculation of two-way slabs is more complex. Methods for two-way slab design include Direct Design Method (DDM), Equivalent frame method (EFM), Finite element approach, and Yield line theory. However, the ACI Code specifies two simplified methods, DDM and EFM.

Types of Slabs

• One-way slab

1. One-way beam and slab / One-way flat slab:

These slabs are supported on two opposite sides and all bending moment and deflections are resisted in the short direction. A slab supported on four sides with length to width ratio greater than two, should be designed as one-way slab.

2. One-way joist floor system:

This type of slab, also called ribbed slab, is supported by reinforced concrete ribs or joists. The ribs are usually tapered and uniformly spaced and supported on girders that rest on columns.

• Two-way slab

1. Two-way Edge Supported slab:

If the slab is supported by beams on all four sides (as shown in Figure 2.1), the loads are transferred to all four beams, assuming rebar in both directions.

n  Advantages:

  • Increased gravity and lateral load resistance
  • Increased torsional resistance
  • Decreased slab edge displacements
  • Economical for longer spans and high loads

n  Disadvantages:

  • Presence of beams may require greater storey height
  • Requires a regular column layout
  • Grid of downstand beams deters fast formwork recycling
  • Flexibility of partition location and horizontal service distribution may be compromised.

n  Typical Applications:

  • Economical for more heavily loaded spans from 25 to 35 ft
  • Generally used for retail developments, warehouses, stores, etc

2. Two-way flat plate slab:

A flat plate slab (as shown in Figure 2.2) usually does not have beams or girders and is supported directly on columns. All loads are transferred to the supporting column, with punching shear resisted by slab itself.

n  Advantages:

  • Simple and fast formwork and construction
  • Absence of beams allows lower storey heights
  • Flexibility of partition location and horizontal service distribution
  • Architectural finish can be applied directly to the underside of slab

n  Disadvantages:

  • higher cost and higher deflections
  • Holes can prove difficult, especially large holes near columns
  • Shear provision around columns may need to be resolved using larger columns, column heads, drop panels or proprietary systems

n  Typical Applications:

  • Flat slabs are popular for office buildings, hospitals, hotels, blocks of flats, etc.
  • For LL=50 psf, 25’ – 30’ spans
  • For LL=100 psf, 20’ – 30’ spans

3. Two-way Flat slab:

Flat plate with drop panels, shear capitals, and/or column capitals (as shown in Figure 2.3).

Advantages:

  • Reduced slab displacements
  • Increased slab shear resistance
  • Relatively flat ceilings (reduced finishing costs)
  • Low story heights due to shallow floors

 Disadvantages:

  • Need more formwork for capital and panels

Typical Applications:

  • Medium spans with moderate to heavy loading
  • Popular for office buildings, hospitals, hotels, etc.
  • For LL=50 psf, 30’ – 35’ spans
  • For LL=100 psf, 25’ – 35’ spans

 Beam:

Beams can be described as members that are mainly subjected to flexure and it is essential to focus on the analysis of bending moment, shear, and deflection. When the bending moment acts on the beam, bending strain is produced. The resisting moment is developed by internal stresses. Under positive moment, compressive strains are produced in the top of beam and tensile strains in the bottom. Concrete is a poor material for tensile strength and it is not suitable for flexure member by itself. The tension side of the beam would fail before compression side failure when beam is subjected a bending moment without the reinforcement. For this reason, steel reinforcement is placed on the tension side. The steel reinforcement resists all tensile bending stress because tensile strength of concrete is zero when cracks develop. In the Ultimate Strength Design (USD), a rectangular stress block is assumed. The design of beam is initiated by the calculation of moment strengths controlled by concrete and steel

Types of beam:

Most common shapes of concrete beams: single reinforced rectangular beams, doubly reinforced rectangular beams, T-shape beams; spandrel. In cast–in-place construction, the single reinforced rectangular beam is uncommon. The T-shape and L-shape beams are typical types of beam because the beams are built monolithically with the slab. When slab and beams are poured together, the slab on the beam serves as the flange of a T-beam and the supporting beam below slab is the stem or web. For positive applied bending moment, the bottom of section produces the tension and the slab acts as compression flange. But negative bending on a rectangular beam puts the stem in compression and the flange is ineffective in tension. Joists consist of spaced ribs and a top flange.

 Column:

Columns support primarily axial load but usually also some bending moments. The combination of axial load and bending moment defines the characteristic of column and calculation method. A column subjected to large axial force and minor moment is design mainly for axial load and the moment has little effect. A column subjected to significant bending moment is designed for the combined effect. The ACI Code assumes a minimal bending moment in its design procedure, although the column is subjected to compression force only. Compression force may cause lateral bursting because of the low-tension stress resistance. To resist shear, ties or spirals are used as column reinforcement to confine vertical bars. The complexity and many variables make hand calculations tedious which makes the computer-aided design very useful.

Types of columns:

Reinforced concrete columns are categorized into five main types; rectangular tied column, rectangular spiral column, round tied column, round spiral column, and columns of other geometry (Hexagonal, L-shaped, T-Shaped, etc).

Tied columns have horizontal ties to enclose and hold in place longitudinal bars. Ties are commonly No. 3 or No.4 steel bars. Tie spacing should be calculated with ACI Code. Spiral columns have reinforced longitudinal bars that are enclosed by continuous steel spiral. The spiral is made up of either large diameter steel wire or steel rod and formed in the shape of helix. The spiral columns are slightly stronger than tied columns.

 Footing:

The foundation of a building is the part of a structure that transmits the load to ground to support the superstructure and it is usually the last element of a building to pass the load into soil, rock or piles. The primary purpose of the footing is to spread the loads into supporting materials so the footing has to be designed not to be exceeded the load capacity of the soil or foundation bed. The footing compresses the soil and causes settlement. The amount of settlement depends on many factors.

Excessive and differential settlement can damage structural and nonstructural elements. Therefore, it is important to avoid or reduce differential settlement. To reduce differential settlement, it is necessary to transmit load of the structure uniformly. Usually footings support vertical loads that should be applied concentrically for avoid unequal settlement. Also the depth of footings is an important factor to decide the capacity of footings. Footings must be deep enough to reach the required soil capacity.

Types of footings:

The most common types of footing are strip footings under walls and single footings under columns.

Common footings can be categorized as follow:

1. Individual column footing:

This footing is also called isolated or single footing. It can be square, rectangular or circular of uniform thickness, stepped, or sloped top. This is one of the most economical types of footing. The most common type of individual column footing is square of rectangular with uniform thickness.

2. Wall footing:

Wall footings support structural or nonstructural walls. This footing has limited width and a continuous length under the wall.

3. Combined footing:

They usually support two or three columns not in a row and may be either rectangular or trapezoidal in shape depending on column. If a strap joins two isolated footings, the footing is called a cantilever footing.

4. Mat foundation:

Mats are large continuous footings, usually placed under the entire building area to support all columns and walls. Mats are used when the soil-bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy, single footings cannot be used, piles are not used, or differential settlement must be reduced through the entire footing system.

CHAPTER III

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS & PROCEDURES

Introduction

Structures must be designed and constructed according to the provisions of a code, which is a legal document containing requirements related to such things as structural safety, fire safety, plumbing, ventilation, and accessibility to the physically disabled. Many countries have building codes to define material properties, quality controls, minimum size, etc for safety constructions.

Design code & specifications:

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is leading the development of concrete technology. The ACI has published many references and journals. Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete (ACI318 Code) is a widely recognized reinforced concrete design and construction guide. Although the ACI Code dose not has official power of enforcement, it is generally adapted as authorized code by jurisdictions not only in United States but also many countries.

The ACI318 Code provides the design and construction guide of reinforced concrete. ACI has been providing new codes depending on the change of design methods and strength requirement. In our country, we have similar design standard which is “Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC). This confronts with the ACI specifications.

Two major calculating methods of reinforced concrete have been used from early 1900’s to current. The first method is called Working Stress Design (WSD) and the second is Ultimate Strength Design (USD).

Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Method:

The Ultimate Strength Design method, also called Strength Design Method (SDM), is based on the ultimate strength, when the design member would fail. The USD method provides safety not by allowable stresses as for the ASD method but by factored loads, nominal strength and strength reduction factors θ, both defined by the ACI code.

Select concrete dimensions and reinforcements so that the member strength are adequate to resist forces resulting from certain hypothetical overload stages, significantly above loads expected actually to occur in service. Based on strength design the nominal strength of a member must be calculated on the basis of inelastic behavior of material. In other words, both reinforcing steel and concrete behave inelastically at ultimate strength condition.

The strength design method may be expressed by the following,

“Strength provided Strength required to carry factored loads”

Where the “strength provided” such as moment strength is computed in accordance with rules and assumptions of behavior prescribed by a building code, and the “strength required” is that obtained by performing a structural analysis using the factored loads.

Combination of loads & ACI load factors:

The required strength U is expressed in terms of factored loads, or related internal moments and forces. Factored loads are the loads specified in the general building code multiplied by appropriate factors. The factor assigned is influenced by the degree of accuracy to which the load effect can be determined and the variation, which might be expected in the load during the lifetime of the structure. Dead loads are assigned a lower load factored than live load because they can be determined more accurately. Load factors also account for variability in the structural analysis used to compute moments and shears. Since the factored load is a failure load greater than the actual working loads, the load factors are usually greater than unity.

The code gives load factors for specific combinations of loads. In assigning factors to combinations of loading, some consideration is given to the probability of simultaneous occurrence. While most of the usual combinations of loadings are included, the designer should not assume that all cases are covered.

Load combinations:

U = 1.4D only for dead loads

U = 1.2D + 1.6L for dead plus live loads combined.

Design considerations & ACI/BNBC code provisions

Slab

Minimum slab thickness

Minimum thickness h of non pre stressed one-way slabs

  • Simply supported, h =                         
  • One end continuous, h =
  • Both ends continuous, h=
  • Cantilever, h =  ;                where, L = clear span

The slab thickness for a two ways slab (edge supported by DDM) must not be less than

  inch (for)

  inch (for )

Where,            = Clear span in long direction, in.

= Average value of  for all beams on edges of a panel.

Ratio of clear span in long direction to clear span in short direction.

And

Ib , Is = Moment of Inertia of beam and slab

To limit deflections, the ACI code provides that the minimum thickness of a two way slab shall be 3.5 inch or the ‘panel perimeter divided by 180’, whichever is larger.

Provision for reinforcement arrangement:

Deformed reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with the following:

# Minimum Main reinforcement: The ACI code requires the area provided must not be less then

# According to ACI code minimum ratios of temperature and shrinkage reinforcement in slabs based on gross concrete area.

  • Slabs where ‘Grade 40’ or ‘Grade 50’ deformed bars are used = 0.0020
  • Slabs where ‘Grade 60’ deformed bars or welded wire fabric (smooth or deformed) are used = 0.0018
  • Slabs where reinforcement with yield strength exceeding 60,000 psi.  measured at yield strain of 0.35 percent is used

For arrangement of steel the BNBC code provides the following specifications

  • Surface not exposed to weather, clear covering
  • Surface exposed to weather, clear covering
  • The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer shall be equal to one bar diameter or  1 inch
  • Placed directly above those in the bottom layer with clear distance between layers 1 inch.
  • In one-way slabs the maximum bar spacing shall be 3h 18 inch.
  • For two-way slabs, maximum spacing of bars shall be 2h 18 inch.
  • For temperature steel only, maximum spacing shall be 5h 18 inch.

Load calculation

Total load, Wt = 1.6 x Live load + 1.2 x (Self weight of slab + Load due to floor finish etc)

Effective depth check

Where, = Maximum ultimate moment.                    = Strength reduction factor.

             = Maximum Steel ratio.

Reinforcement calculation and arrangement

Where checking the assumed depth by,

Spacing =

Where, = Area of using reinforcement.

Beam

Reinforcement arrangement in a beam based on ACI code:

ACI Code has specified many rules and restrictions on placement of the tensile reinforcements in a beam. Standard bend points for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed loads are shown in Figure 3.1. If Exterior support is a simply supported (such as brick wall), bend point for the main steel will be L1/7 from the ext. support face instead of L1/4, where L1 = clear span.

# Stirrups: They are used to hold the main (tensile) steel in their places and sometimes; they resist shear force in the beam. Generally, #3 and #4 bars are used as stirrups but in the bridge girders, #5 bar is used. Stirrups should be carried as close as possible to the compression and tension faces of a beam and special attention must be given to proper anchorage. Stirrups normally are types-open & closed and are provided with 90° or a 135° hooks at their upper end and at their lower end, are bent 90° to pass around the longitudinal reinforcement. Details of stirrups are shown in Figure 3.2.

# Tensile bars: They are the main bars in a beam and placed in tension side. The strength of a beam is directly related to this steel and if they fail, the beam collapses as a whole. The most common type of tensile reinforcement is available in diameters ranging from 3/8 to 1 3/8 in (Nos. 3 through 11) for ordinary applications such as in beams and in two heavy bar sizes of about 1 3/4 and 2 1/4 in (Nos. 14 and 18) such in columns. The total numbers required for design is denoted by “n” and the diameter of a bar is expressed by “db”.

# Hooked bars: In event that the desired tensile stress in a bar cannot be developed by bond alone, it is necessary to provide special anchorage at the ends of the bar, usually by means of a 90° or a 180° hook. They are known as hook bars. Generally, such bars are bent or straight types and are provided at the end of the tensile bars and stirrups and tie bars. The dimensions and bend radii for such hooks have been standardized in ACI Code as follows:

For tensile bars:

  1. A 180° bend plus an extension of at least 4 bar diameters, but not less than 2.5 in. at the free end of the bar, or
  1. A 90° bend plus an extension of at least 12 bar diameters at the free end of the bar.

For tie bars:

  1. For #5 bars and smaller, a 90° bend plus an extension of at least 6 bar diameters at the free end of the bar, or
  1. For #6, #7 and #8 bars, a 90° bend plus an extension of at least 12 bar diameters at the free end of the bar, or

For stirrups:

For #8 bars and smaller, a 135° bend plus an extension of at least 6 bar diameters at the free end of the bar.

Bar placement is described with the help of the cross-section of the beam in Figure 3.3 and Figure 3.4. 

Bar arrangement in a beam

Proper placement

# Minimum clear spacing between bars: Minimum spacing (horizontally Sh and vertically Sv, face-to-face) between bars is required to ensure proper placement of concrete around them. Air pockets below the steel are to be avoided and full surface contact between the bars and the concrete is desirable to optimize bond strength. The horizontal spacing is directly related to the beam width, b.

# Effective Depth: The distance between the upper face of the beam and the centroid of the tensile steel. It is denoted by “d”.

d = Total depth – concrete cover – stirrup diameter – half of the main bar diameter

   = Total depth – clear cover

Considering this,

d    = h – 2.5 for single layer of steel

      = h – 3.5 inch for double layers of steels

      = h – 4.5 inch for three layers of steels

# Hanger bars: In simple spans, or in the positive bending region of continuous spans, where no top bars are required for flexure, stirrups support bars should be used. Such bars are known as hanger bars. These are usually about the same diameter as the stirrups themselves, and they not only provide improved anchorage of the hooks but also facilitate fabrication of the reinforcement case, holding the stirrups in position during pouring of the concrete.

# Minimum Concrete Cover: It is required for the following reasons:

[a] Bonds reinforcement to concrete              [b] Protect reinforcement against corrosion

[c] Protect reinforcement from fire (over heating causes strength loss)

Development of flexural reinforcement

According to BNBC code

  • Reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required to resist flexure for a distance not less than d nor less than 12, except at supports of simple spans and at free end of cantilevers.
  • At least one-third of the total tension reinforcement provided for negative moment at the support shall be extended beyond the extreme position of the point of inflection a distance not less than ‘one-sixteenth the clear span’, or 12, whichever is greater
  • At least one-third of the positive moment reinforcement in simple members and one-fourth of the positive moment reinforcement in continuous members shall extend alone the same face of member into the support. In beams, such reinforcement shall extend into the support at least 6 inch.

Beam design:

Depth check:

Steel ratiovaries (ACI) from an upper limit of  to a lower limit of  . But code specifies a check for deflections if

 where for flexural member

 where,

Design of beam for shear

Due to local compressive forces from the support, diagonal tension failure cannot occur very near to support, as shown in Figure 3.5 below:

Design of beam for shear

For this reason, ACI Code defines,

a) For beams, monolithically cast with the support (i.e. direct support such as column), the critical section is at a distance “d” from the support face, as shown in Figure 3.6,

where, “d” = effective depth of beam. Also, for simply supported beam, this critical section is at a distance “d” from the support centerline.

Critical sectionCritical section

b) If support is not a direct support (beam etc), then critical section should be taken at the face of support.

A typical example is shown in the below Figure 3.7. The load of beam 1 is transmitted to beam 2 mainly through the last inclined concrete strut. Beam 1 has an indirect support and critical section is at the face of indirect support.

If load is applied to beam on tensile face, critical section for shear is at the face of support. If beam is hanging to another member and tension occurs in that member, than support of beam is indirect support.

Critical section for shear of an indirect support

Critical sections for different types of structures are shown in Figure 3.8 below:

Critical sections for different types of structures are shown

Design of shear reinforcement

Shear strength provided by concrete

Simply

Maximum allowable shear

Design for web:

When , web must be provided

For vertical stirrups

Spacing of shear reinforcement:

If then  (i)  Or (ii)  Or (iii)

should be the smaller one of above.

If , then shall be reduced by one-half of (i), (ii), (iii)

For doubly reinforced beam stirrups diameter  and spaced not farther apart than. Ties should be used throughout the distance in which the compression reinforcement is required.

Column:

Specifications  

(i) Limiting dimension

  • Tide column least dimension
  • Spiral column diameter
  • Provided that gross area should not be less than 96 sq.inch

(ii) The reinforcement ratio of the longitudinal steel shall be not less then 0.01 nor more than 0.08 (Usually less than 0.04).

(iii) Size of longitudinal bars used #5

  • For tide column at least 4 bars.
  • For spiral column at least 6 bars.

(iv) Arrangement of lateral ties

  • All bars shall be enclosed by lateral ties, at least #3 in size for longitudinal bars for and  #4 in size for longitudinal bars for #11, #14 and  #18
  • Vertical spacing of ties shall not exceed ‘16 longitudinal bar diameters’ or ‘48 tie diameters’, or the ‘least dimension of the compression members’.
  • Ties shall be arranged such that every corner and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of a tie with an included angle not more than 135 deg. No vertical bar shall be farther than 6 inch clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally supported bar. Where longitudinal bars are located around the perimeter of a circle, a complete circular tie is allowed.
  • The lowest tie in any storey shall be placed within one-half the required tie spacing from the top most horizontal reinforcement in the slab or footing below. The uppermost tie in any storey shall be within one-half the required tie spacing from the lowest horizontal reinforcement in the slab or drop panel above.

(v) Arrangement of lateral spirals

  • Spirals shall consist of evenly spaced continuous bar or wire of such size and so assembled as to permit handling and placing without distortion from designed dimensions.
  • Size of spirals shall not be less than #3 in size for cast-in-place construction.
  • The minimum and maximum clear spacing between spirals shall be 1 inch and 3 inch respectively.
  • Anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by 1.5 extra turns of spiral bar or wire at each end of a spiral unit.

Column design.

1. For tide column:

        (Where)

( is selected)

2. For spiral column:

      (Where)

( is selected)

Spiral reinforcement design

 (Where  and spiral pitch,

CHAPTER IV

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

 General:

This chapter gives the outlines of the procedures that were followed to complete this study. Few steps were considered, many references (Chapter II) were gone through and ACI/BNBC Building Design Codes/Specifications (Chapter III) were followed to get perfect result so that the objectives of this study can be fulfilled.

Research procedures:

Step-I: Selection and planning of the structure

Two four storied residential (two unit) frame structure (edge supported) having same floor plan has been selected-one has regular floor spans and other has longer spans. Their typical floor plan, panel plan, floor beam layout plan, column and footing layout plan and grade beam layout plan are drawn as given in Appendices VI ~ XV.

Step-II: Selection of the material properties & loadings

As per discussions made in Chapter II and based on design code/specifications of ACI/BNBC, material properties (compressive strength of concrete, yield stress of steel, unit weight of concrete, soil, brick etc.) and loadings (standard live load, floor finish, partition wall loads etc.) are selected. No wind and earthquake loads are considered.

Step-III: Design of the structure

The both structures are designed by ultimate strength design (USD) following low rise design concept. Chapter V & VI provides detailed structural design of the structure having edge supported slab with regular span (Type-I) and other with longer span (Type-II) respectively.

Step-IV: Estimation & cost analysis

After completion of the design, the volume of concrete and steel are estimated and finally, their costing are determined for both types of structures. Chapter VII presents this information.

Step-V: Comparison between both type structures

All results are summarized in several tabular forms as presented in Chapter VIII and in order to make comparative analyses, following criteria are considered:

  • Sectional properties
  • Volume of concrete
  • Volume of steel
  • Costings.

Step-VI: Conclusions & Recommendations

Based on comparative analyses and discussions, few concluding remarks are drawn. To carry out further study on this topic, recommendations are proposed in the Chapter IX.

 Design data and specifications considered in this study:

The whole study was carried out based on few considerations and specifications which are summarized in Table 4.1 below.

Table 4.1: Summary of the design considerations and specification of the study

Items

Description

Design method

Ultimate Strength Design (USD)

Design procedure

  • ACI Moment co-efficient Method for slab/beam analysis

Design Code

For design purposes:

  • American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building design code, 2005
  • BangladeshNationalBuilding Code (BNBC), 1993

For estimation and costing:

  • Schedule of Rate for Civil Works, 12th edition, Public Works Department (PWD), 2008

Types of structures

 

 

Type-1: Edge supported structure having regular floor spans

Type-II: Edge supported structure having longer floor spans compared to the Type-I.

Building system

  • Frame structure
  • Low rise
  • Residential (4 storied double unit)

Table 4.1: Summary of the design considerations and specification of the study (contd…)

Design considerations

  • Estimation and cost analyses are done only for concrete and steel works of the frame structures (slab, floor beams, columns, grade beams and footings plus stair case).
  • Brick works, shuttering works, electrifications and wiring works, sanitary works, plastering & finishing works, earth cutting & filling works and all fitting & fixing works, all types of labor costing etc are not considered in estimation and cost analysis
  • Underground reservoir tank, overhead water tank, lintels over doors & windows, sunshade, porch etc are not considered in estimation and cost analyses.

Material properties

  • Reinforcing bars : fy = 40 ksi for slab and 60 ksi for other cases
  • Concrete compressive strength, f’c  = 3,000 psi
  • Normal density concrete having wc = 150 pcf
  • Unit weight of soil, ws = 100 pcf
  • Unit weight of brick, wb = 120 pcf
  • Bearing capacity of soil, qa = 4.5 ksf
  • Steel ratio for column, ρg = 2%
  • Ratio of the ingredients = 1.0:1.5:3.0
  • FM of normal sand = 2.5

Loadings

  • Floor plus ceiling finish and partition walls = 30 psf
  • Live load = 40 psf for slab and 100 psf for stair
  • No earthquake and wind load are considered

Members’ Sectional properties

  • Slab type = Two-way and one-way
  • Beam type = Singly rectangular
  • Column type = Tied
  • Footing type = Square, rectangular and combined
  • Grade beam position = 5 ft. from footing base level
  • Thickness of all walls = 5 inch

 

CHAPTER V

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF TYPE-I BUILDING

 Introduction:

In this chapter, the four storied building is analyzed and designed by ultimate strength design (USD) method as per discussions made in Chapter III and references provided by Winter and Nilson (1997 & 2003). For space limitations, one set of design example is presented here in detail from each component of the building such as slab, floor beam, column, grade beam and footing. The cross-sectional dimensions along with reinforcement arrangement of the rest are shown in a tabular form.

 Analysis and design of building components

 Design of slab

All slab panels are analyzed and designed by following the ‘ACI Moment Coefficient procedure’ (Appendix I). Typical floor plan and panel plan are given in Appendix VI and Appendix VIII respectively. Analysis and design of the largest panel group (S-1) are presented below.

Design data:

Design procedure – ACI moment co-efficient

Materials:

                                                 = 40 ksi

                                                    = 3 ksi

                                                     = 150 pcf

                                           = 120 pcf

Loadings:

                     F.F + partition wall        = 30 psf

                     L.L                                 = 40 psf

Slab panel S -1

Panel size                                            = 14’x 22’

Beam width                                        = 12″

Clear span size                                    =13’x 21’

Panel ratio,

Panel type                                           = Two-way slab (case – 4)

1) Load calculation:

Slab thickness

Self weight of slab

Floor finish +P-wall                      = 30 psf.

Live load                                       = 40 psf.

Factored load = 1.2 WDL + 1.6 WLL

                        = 1.20×92.5+1.6×40

                        = 175 psf

ll) Moment calculation:

 Support moment  

Mid span moment

lll) Check for d :  

Maximum moment = 2561.19 lb-ft.                             

lV) Reinforcement calculation:

Short direction (mid span)

< 200 psi

Use # 3 bar which area = 0.11

Spacing≈   > 2h = 2 x 5 =

Use # 3 @  alternate cranked bars.

Short direction (at support)

> 2h = 10’’

Crank to crank spacing

So we provide 1#3 extra top in between ckd. bars.

Long direction (mid span)

+MB = 689.28 lb – ft

Spacing  > 2h = 2 x 5 = 10” c/c

Use # 3 @  alternate cranked bars.

Long direction (at support)

-MB = 1034.145 lb – ft

Spacing                

Spacing > 2h = 2 x 5 = 10” c/c

Crank to crank spacing

So we provide 1#3 extra top between ckd. bars.

A detail of slab reinforcement arrangement of all panels (S-1 ~ S-5) is given in Table 5.1 and Figure 5.1.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bent up, bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Table 5.1: Details of slab reinforcement arrangement of all panels (S-1 ~ S-5)  

Panel

Length (feet)

Moment  

(pound-feet)

Area of steel

(inch sq./ft)

Spacing 

(inch c/c)

LA

LB

Negative

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

(Extra top)

Positive

(Main bar)

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

LA

LB

S-1

13

21

2561.19

1034.14

1652.68

689.28

0.144

0.24

0.096

0.096

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @10”

S-2

13

21

2478.38

555.66

1258.51

544.72

0.144

0.24

0.096

0.096

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @10”

S-3

13

18

2129.4

1587.6

1274.43

965.24

0.122

0.096

0.096

0.096

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @10”

S-4

13

18

2235.87

929.88

1014

673.98

0.127

0.096

0.096

0.096

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @10”

S-5

7

12

711.72

393.12

487.37

164.59

0.096

0.096

0.096

0.096

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @ 10”

#3 @10”

LA – Short direction

LB – Long direction

Figure 5.1: Details o

Design of floor beam:

All floor beams are analyzed and designed by following the ‘ACI Moment Coefficient procedure’ (Appendices I & XVII). Typical lay-out plan of all floor beams is given in Appendix-X. Analysis and design of one of the heavily loaded beam group (F. B – 2) is presented below.

Design data:

Design procedure = ACI moment co-efficient

Materials:

                                         = 60 ksi

= 3 ksi

= 150 pcf

= 120 pcf

Main wall thickness                = 5”

Floor beam F.B-2

Beam size                    = 12”x18”

Effective depth, d       = 18”- 2.5” = 15.5”

l) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam F.B-2     =

All main wall weight

Load coming from slabs

S-1 & S-2   DL                       = 92.5x 14x.897 = 1161.615   lb / ft

Total DL                                = 1161.615+225+425 = 1812 lb / ft

LL                                 = 40x14x.897 = 502.32   lb / ft  

Factored load F.B-2                = 1.2DL+1.6LL           = 1.2×1.81+1.6x0.502 = 2.975   k / ft

ll) Moment calculation & d check:  

– ve moment at Ext. support =

+ ve moment at mid span =

– ve moment at Int. support =

= 160 k-ft

lll) Reinforcement calculation :

Mid span steel:

Use 1#7 Extra top in between 2#7 straight bars.

Steel for Int. support:

Use 2#8 Extra top in between 2#7 hanger bars.

lV) Stirrup design:

Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all floor beams (FB -1 ~ FB-5) are given in Table 5.2 and Figure 5.2 & Figure 5.3.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bent up, bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Table 5.2: Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all floor beams (FB -1 ~ FB-5)

Floor beam

group

Floor beam

size

Moment

(kip-ft)

Area of steel req.

(sq. inch)

Quantity of bars

Stirrups

(spacing,  inch c/c)

At Ext.

M-ve

At Mid

M+ve

At Int.

M-ve

At Ext.

As-ve

At mid

As+ve

At Int.

M-ve

Main bars

Extra top

Use 2 Legs “U” #3 bar

F.B-1 & 3

12” x 16

54.75

62.57

97.34

0.97

1.20

1.84

At Ext. suppt: 2- #6

1- #5

@ 6.5”c/c

At mid span  : 2- #6

1- #6

@ 6.5”c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2- #6

2- #7

@ 6.5”c/c

F.B-2

12” x 18

90.00

102.85

160.00

1.42

1.64

2.78

At Ext. suppt: 2- #7

1- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

At mid span  : 2- #7

1- #7

@ 5.5”c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2- #7

2- #8

@ 5.5”c/c

F.B-4

12” x 12

13.59

15.96

24.17

0.32

0.47

0.63

At Ext. suppt: 2- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

At mid span  : 2- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2- #5

1- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

F.B-5

12” x 12

16.78

19.60

30.48

0.41

0.49

0.76

At Ext. suppt: 2- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

At mid span  : 2- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2- #5

1- #5

@ 5.5”c/c

 Design of column:

Typical lay-out plan of all columns is given in Appendix XII. Analysis and design of one of the heavily loaded column group (C – 3) is presented below.

Design data:

Column height                        =

Column type                           = Tied

Clear cover                              =

Materials:

                                          = 60 ksi

= 3 ksi

= 150 pcf

Column C-3 (Ground column Interior):

Assume Column size =

l) Load calculation:

Load from F.B-2                     = kip

Load from F.B-2                     = kip

Load from F.B-5                     = kip

Self weight of column                        == 1.58 kip

Factored load                          = 1.2×1.58+32.45+26.55+19.6= 80.5 kip

Total column load for 4-story = 4x 80.5 =322 kip

 

ll) Check for size:

PU = 322 kip (Story-1)

III) Calculation of steel

Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all columns (C -1 ~ C -3) are given in Table 5.3 and Figure 5.4.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Table 5.3: Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all columns (C -1 ~ C -3)

Column

group

Number of column

Column size

Column load

Area of steel req. (sq. inch)

Quantity of bars

Tie bars spacing

Pu  (kip)

Ast

Main bars

Use #3 bars

C-1

04

115.72

0 .84

4-#5

10”c/c

C-2

10

189.40

0.31

4-#5

10”c/c

C-3

04

322

2.55

8-#5

12”c/c

Design of grade beam:

All grade beams are analyzed and designed by following the ‘ACI Moment Coefficient procedure’ (Appendices I & XVII). Typical lay-out plan of all grade beams is given in Appendix XIV. Analysis and design of one of the heavily loaded beam group (GB-2) is presented below.

Design data:

Design procedure = ACI moment co-efficient

Materials:

                                          = 60 ksi

= 3 ksi

= 150 pcf

= 120 pcf

Thickness of wall on GB        = 5”

Clear cover                               = 3”

Grade beam GB-2:

Size                                         =10” x 12”

Effective depth d =12-3.00    = 9 inch

I) Load calculation:

Self weight of beam GB-2      =

All main wall weight

Total DL                                  = 125+425 = 550 lb / ft

Factored load GB-2 = 1.2DL   = 1.2×0.55 = 0.66 k / ft

ll) Moment calculation & d check:

– Ve moment at Int. support   =

+ Ve moment at mid span       =

– Ve moment at Ext. support =

Now,

= 35.49 k-ft

lll) Reinforcement calculation :

Mid span steel:

Steel for Int. support:

Use 1#6 extra top in between 2#5 hanger bars

lV) Stirrup design:

Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all grade beams (GB -1 ~ GB-2) are given in Table 5.4 and Figure 5.5.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bent up, bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Table 5.4: Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all grade beams (GB -1 ~ GB-2)

Grade beam

group

Grade beam

size

Moment

(kip-ft)

Area of steel req.

(sq.inch)

Quantity of bars

Stirrups

(spacing, inch c/c)

At Ext.

M-ve

At Mid

M+ve

At Int.

M-ve

At Ext.

As-ve

At mid

As+ve

At Int.

M-ve

Main bars

Extra top

Use 2Legs “U” #3 bar

G.B-1

10”x12

19.96

22.82

35.49

0.49

0.57

0.92

At Ext. suppt: 2-#5

@ 3.5”c/c

At mid span  : 2-#5

@ 3.5”c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2-#5

1-#5

@ 3.5”c/c

G.B-2

10”x10”

7.72

8.82

13.72

0.23

0.27

0.43

At Ext. suppt: 2-#5

@ 4.5”c/c

At mid span  : 2-#5

@ 4.5”c/c

At Int. suppt.: 2-#5

@ 4.5”c/c

Design of footing:f all footings is given in Appendix XII. Analysis and design of one of the heavily loaded footing group (F-3) is presented below.

Design data:

Materials:                       = 60 ksi

= 3 ksi

= 150 pcf

Unit wt. of                    = 100 pcf

Allowable soil pressure  = 4.5 ksf

Footing (F-3):

Depth of base below GL = 5’

l) Load calculation:

Weight coming from column C-3                   = 322 k

Weight coming from   GB-1                           =

Weight coming from    GB-2                          =

Self weight of footing 10% of (1+2)              = 34.40 k

Pu = 322+13.2+8.82+34.40                            = 378.42 k

Unfactored load                                              =

II) ‘d’ Check

Check for “d” (one way shear)

So ok.

Check for “d” (Two way shear)

So ok.

III) Design of steel

Short direction

Long direction:

A detail of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all footings (F -1 ~ F-3) are given in Table 5.5 and Figure 5.6.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Table 5.5: Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all footings (F -1 ~ F-3)

Footing group

Number of  footing

Footing size

Footing load

(kip)

Moment

(k-ft)

Area of steel req.

(sq. inch)

Quantity of bars

Short

direction

Long

direction

Short

direction                (Ast)

Long

direction

(Ast)

Short

direction

Long

direction

F-1

04

140.12

50.50

93.25

2.50

3.00

9-#5

10-#5

F-2

10

227.71

108.23

170.73

3.72

4.34

12-#5

14-#5

F-3

04

378.42

322.69

289.39

5.54

6.23

18-#5

21-#5

Detail of reinforcement arrangement of stair

 Details of dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all footings (F -1 ~ F-3)

 Design of Stair

Design Data

Materials:

                                         = 60 ksi

= 3 ksi

= 150 pcf

Effective span of length         = 12.5’

Tread                                       = 10”

Rise                                         = 6”

Loading:

Floor finish                              = 30 psf.

LL                                           = 100 psf.

l) Load calculation:

Assume thickness of waist slab = 6’’

Effective d = 6’’- 1’’ = 5’’ and inclination of the waist slab, Ө = tan -1

Self load of waist slab

Self wt of steps                                   lb / ft

Floor Finish                                           = 30 lb / ft

DL = 90.14+41.67+30                        = 161.81 lb / ft

Factored load = 1.2DL+1.6LL           =1.20´161.81+1.6´100=354.17 lb / ft

ll) d check: 

Positive Moment

Negative Moment

So ok.

lll) Design of steel:

For Positive Moment:

Use #3 bar which area = 0.11

Spacing

Use # 3 bar@ .

For Negative Moment:

Here, CKD to CKD @13”c/c

So, Req. steel

Use 2#3 Extra Bar between Cranked.

Temperature and shrinkage

Use #3bar which area = 0.11

Spacing

Use # 3 bars@.

Details of reinforcement arrangement of stair is shown in Figure 5.7.

Bar arrangement, cut-off and bent up, bar spacing etc. are done as per discussions and ACI/BNBC Codes provisions presented in Chapter III.

Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all footings

Thesis Paper On Longer Span Floor Beams System Of Edge Supported Structures(part 1)

Thesis Paper On Longer Span Floor Beams System Of Edge Supported Structures(part 2)

Categories
Architecture

Report on Organizational Structure and Critical Review of Diamond Valley Homes

Background of the Term Paper  

This Term paper entitled “Organizational Structure in My Organization: A Critical Review” is a fundamental requirement for the completion of the course ETHM-505. The main purpose of this term paper is to relate the issues covered in this course with the activities of my organization and to extract information of the organizational structure using both the primary and secondary sources of information. Under the instruction and guidance of the course instructor Professor Muhammad Mohiuddin, I have taken the initiative to prepare this term paper with much precision and by being completely unbiased. This term paper was prepared for fulfilling the requirement of Fundamentals of Management (ETHM-505) course. The work started as assigned by the honorable Course Instructor. It took about two weeks to finish.

Objectives

The general objective of this term paper is to provide a synopsis of the Organizational Structure in My Organization: A Critical Review related to ETHM – 505. It is also required for the completion of this course. Beside the general objective, the objectives behind this term paper are given below:

Main Objectives

The primary objective of the term paper is—

  •       To analyze on the issue Organizational Structure in My Organization.
  •       To disclose the precise scenario of the ‘Organizational Structure in My Organization’.
  •       To analyze and recommend on the mentioned issues.

Specific Objectives

The secondary objectives to prepare this term paper is—

  •       To fulfill the requirements of my course ETHM-505.
  •       To Relate Organizational Structure in My Organization with the issues covered in my course.
  •       To gather experience and knowledge of preparing a professional term paper.

Scope of the Term Paper

This research study will cover the topic “Organizational Structure in My Organization: A Critical Review” and its related issues. It also includes recommendations against the selected issues. This term paper can be used as a secondary source for further purposes.

Sources of Information

To fulfill the objective of this term paper collection of relevant, accurate, standardized and needful information was required. To make this term paper reliable I have collected data from secondary sources. The whole term paper is prepared based on secondary sources. That is why there is no primary source. Special consideration was given so that chances of biasness could not arise.

Primary Source

Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. I have collected my information by talking with the owners and employees of my organization. I have also conducted some customer surveys to experts. From those surveys, I got some information that has helped in preparing this term paper.

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are those, which simplify the process of finding and evaluating the primary literature. Secondary data may be available which is entirely appropriate and wholly adequate to draw conclusions and answer the question or solve the problem.

To know exactly how to prepare the term paper, I have referred different secondary sources. Secondary sources were consulted for an understanding of techniques of writing feasibility studies and for other relevant information. Few publications and web pages were also browsed.

I have also collected my data from the following secondary sources:

  •    bibliographies
  •    biographical works
  •    commentaries
  •    dictionaries and encyclopedias
  •    handbooks and data compilations
  •    history

Methodology

This term paper covers the different aspects and activities that are required to make a term paper on ‘Organizational Structure in My Organization: A Critical Review’. However, the term paper is prepared based upon the information collected from primary and secondary sources. The findings are strictly structured upon information provided by these sources and some secondary sources. The focus here is on presentation of facts as discovered.

The methods that I followed to prepare the term paper are as follows:

  •       At first I took the main issues studied in this course.
  •       Related the issues studied with my organizational structure.
  •       Studied several books, articles, newspapers, and other secondary sources.
  •       Collected information related to this term paper and the topic.
  •       I have discussed with my honorable course instructor.

Limitation

No study is beyond any limitations. While doing this research study I had to face some difficulties. The limitations of the research activities are as follows—

  •       I did not have so much experience for conducting research and preparing the term paper very frequently, though I am in learning position.
  •       There was lack of precise information;
  •       There was not enough time to analyze the selected issues.
  •       My resources were limited. So, it was hard for me to prepare a professional term paper with my limited resources.
  •       It was very hard to get the real information, which was needed to explore the current situation
  •       I do have a little experience of writing this type of Term Paper. That is why I faced some problems while preparing it. 

Organizing

Definition

  1. “Organizing is deciding how best to group organizational elements” – Ricky W. Griffin
  2. “Organizing is the structuring of a coordinated system of authority relationships and task responsibilities.” – Robert Kreitner

Organizing Process

  1. Establish organizational objectives
  2. Formulate supporting objectives, policies and plans.
  3. Design jobs for people within the organization
  4. Group jobs
  5. Establish reporting relationships between jobs
  6. Distribute authority among jobs
  7. Coordinate activities between jobs
  8. Differentiate positions
  9. Tie groups together horizontally& vertically through authority relationships and information flow

Principles of Organizing

  1. Principle of unity of objective
  2. Principle of organizational efficiency
  3. Principle of unity of command
  4. Principle of absoluteness of responsibility
  5. Principle of parity of authority and responsibility
  6. Principle of delegation by results expected
  7. Principle of balance
  8. Principle of flexibility
  9. Principle of leadership facilitation
  10. Principle of functional definition
  11. Principle of scalar chain
  12. Principle of division of authority relationships of work and information flow 

Departmentation

Concept

Departmentation is dividing or grouping the jobs of the organization in some logical manner.

Bases

  1. Function: – Grouping the jobs of the organization on the basis homogeneous functions. E.g. marketing, production etc.
  2. Product: – Grouping activities around products or product groups. E.g. Square – pharmaceuticals, textile, toiletries etc.
  3. Process: – Based on stages of a process of production. E.g. Textile process: spinning, knitting, dyeing.
  4. Location/Territory: – Grouping jobs on the basis of defined geographic sites or areas. (E.g. Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna etc.)
  5. Time: – 24 hours service like in hotel and hospital. Morning shift, day shift, night shift etc.
  6. Customer: – Grouping activities to respond to and interact with specific customers or customer groups. On the basis of client characteristics. E.g. airlines industry – business, executive, and economic class.

Why do we do Departmentation?

  1. Expansion of size of operation
  2. Facilitate job specialization i.e. develop expertise
  3. Achieving efficiency
  4. Cost reduction
  5. Consideration of local condition
  6. Facilitate control
  7. Facilitate coordination

Organization Structure

Organization structure is the authority relationship among people working in the organization. It is the establishment of relationships between and among the divided parts of the organization.

Organization chart is the graphical presentation of the organizational structure. It is the line diagram that depicts the relationships between positions in an organization.

One of the most challenging tasks of a business may be organizing the people who perform its work. A business may begin with one person doing all the necessary tasks. As the business becomes successful and grows, however, there is generally more work, and more people are needed to perform various tasks. Through this division of work, individuals can become specialists at a specific job. Because there are several people—often in different locations—working toward a common objective, “there must be a plan showing how the work will be organized. The plan for the systematic arrangement of work is the organization structure. Organization structure is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities, authorities, and communications of individuals within each department” (Sexton, 1970, p. 23). The typical depiction of structure is the organizational chart. The formalized organizational chart has been around since 1854, when Daniel McCallum became general superintendent of the New York and Erie Railroad—one of the world’s longest railroads. According to McCallum, since the railroad was one of the longest, the operating costs per mile should be less than those of shorter railroad lines. However, this was not the case. To remedy management inefficiencies, McCallum designed the first organizational chart in order to create a sense of structure. The organizational chart has been described as looking like a tree, with the roots representing the president and the board of directors, while the branches symbolize the various departments and the leaves depict the staff workers. The result of the organizational chart was a clear line of authority showing where subordinates were accountable to their immediate supervisors (Chandler, 1988, p. 156).

Types of Organization Structure

1.Line/Military Organization —-The relationship in which a superior exercises direct supervision over a subordinate. The line structure is defined by its clear chain of command, with final approval on decisions affecting the operations of the company still coming from the top down. Because the line structure is most often used in small organizations—such as small accounting offices and law firms, hair salons, and “mom-and-pop” stores—the president or CEO can easily provide information and direction to subordinates, thus allowing decisions to be made quickly (Boone and Kurtz, 1993, p. 259).

Line structures by nature are fairly informal and involve few departments, making the organizations highly decentralized. Employees are generally on a first-name basis with the president, who is often available throughout the day to answer questions and/or to respond to situations as they arise. It is common to see the president or CEO working alongside the subordinates. Because the president is often responsible for wearing many “hats” and being responsible for many activities, she or he cannot be an expert in all areas.

 2.Line and Staff organization –— The nature of staff relationship is advisory. The function of people in a pure staff capacity is to investigate, research, and give advice to line managers. While the line structure would not be appropriate for larger companies, the line-and-staff structure is applicable because it helps to identify a set of guidelines for the people directly involved in completing the organization’s work. This type of structure combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff departments that service, advice, and support them (Boone and Kurtz, 1993, p. 259).

Line departments are involved in making decisions regarding the operation of the organization, while staff areas provide specialized support. The line-and-staff organizational structure “is necessary to provide specialized, functional assistance to all managers, to ensure adequate checks and balances, and to maintain accountability for end results” (Allen, 1970, p. 63).

An example of a line department might be the production department because it is directly responsible for producing the product. A staff department, on the other hand, has employees who advise and assist—making sure the product gets advertised or that the customer service representative’s computer is working (Boone and Kurtz, 1993, p. 259).

3.Functional Organization (by F. w. Taylor) — The right delegated to an individual or a department to control specified processes, practices, policies or other matters relating to activities undertaken by persons in other department. When a staff unit exercises command authority over specific matters relating to some aspect of line functions, it creates a functional structure. A functional structure is also created when the corporate executives exercise functional control over there respective counterparts in the semi-autonomous divisions of the company.

4.Matrix – An organizational structure that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects. A variation of the line-and-staff organizational structure is the matrix structure. In today’s workplace, employees are hired into a functional department (a department that performs a specific type of work, such as marketing, finance, accounting, and human resources) but may find themselves working on projects managed by members of another department. Organizations arranged according to project are referred to as matrix organizations. Matrix organizations combine both vertical authority relationships (where employees report to their functional manager) and horizontal, or diagonal, work relationships (where employees report to their project supervisor for the length of the project). “Workers are accountable to two supervisors—one functional manger in the department where the employee regularly works and one special project manager who uses the employee’s services for a varying period of time” (Keeling and Kallaus, 1996,p. 43).

Since employees report to two separate managers, this type of organizational structure is difficult to manage—especially because of conflicting roles and shared authority. Employees’ time is often split between departments and they can become easily frustrated if each manager requires extra efforts to complete projects on similar time-lines.

Because the matrix structure is often used in organizations using the line-and-staff setup, its also fairly centralized. However, the chain of command is different in that an employee can report to one or more managers, but one manager typically has more authority over the employee than the other manager(s). Within the project or team unit, decision making can occur faster than in a line-and-staff structure, but probably not as quickly as in a line structure. Typically, the matrix structure is more informal than line-and-staff structures but not as informal as line structures

Delegation of Authority

Concept

Delegation of authority is the process of granting the authority (power) to subordinate positions to perform a given task or to take decision about specific matters. It is a process to assign tasks to subordinates to perform.

Delegation Process

  1. Determine the results expected from the subordinates.
  2. Assign tasks to subordinates
  3. Delegate authority to perform the given task properly
  4. Create accountability for the subordinates. It is making subordinates obliged to do the given job.

When will one delegate?

  •   Overburden situations
  •   Complex job that needs extra analysis (or time)
  •   Unique knowledge or skill required
  •   Local situation

Why do people not delegate?

  1. Believe in the fallacy, “If you want it done right, do it yourself”
  2. Lack of confidence and trust on subordinates.
  3. Low self-confidence
  4. Vague job description
  5. Lack of control mechanism to provide early signals of problems with given job.
  6. Fear of being called ‘lazy’
  7. Fear of competition from subordinates.
  8. Reluctant to take the risk involved in depending on others.

How to relieve an overburden executive?

  1. By giving an assistant.
  2. Creating parallel/horizontal subordinate position
  3. Creating extra layer
  4. Consultant hiring

Centralization of Authority

Definition

Centralization is the process of systematically retaining power and authority in the hands of higher level managers. — R. W. Griffin

Where Centralization is Beneficial?

  1. Uniformity of actions are necessary
  2. Integration and coordination of the tasks are significant for the success of the firm
  3. Emergency situations
  4. Where significant allocation of resources are needed
  5. Where cost of failure is high for the organization
  6. Size of firm is small

Decentralization of Authority

Definition

Decentralization refers to a high degree of delegation of decision making authority along with responsibility to certain position of organization.

Favorable Factors Affecting Decentralization

  1. Local situation is to be incorporated into decision
  2. Availability of quality managers
  3. Management philosophy
  4. Size and character of the organization is large and research oriented
  5. Effective control mechanism exists
  6. Desire for independence of subordinates
  7. Task is geographically dislocated
  8. Cost of mistake is insignificant

Principles of Delegation

  1. Principle of avoiding dual subordination
  2. Principle of parity of authority and responsibility
  3. Principle of absoluteness of responsibility:
  4. Principle of involvement of subordinates.
  5. Principle of definition of authority and task
  6. Principle of adequate control

Span of Control

Concept

Span of control and supervision refers to the numbers of subordinates an executive can effectively control/supervise.

Relations to be maintained with the people by an executive

  1. Direct relations
  2. Cross relations
  3. Group relations

Factors Determining Optimum Span of Control

  1. Level of skill and expertise of the executive
  2. Level of skill and expertise of the subordinate
  3. Geographical distance with the subordinates
  4. Complexity of the supervisory work
  5. Time and energy of the supervisor
  6. Frequency of new problems.
  7. Similarity of task supervised
  8. Extent of standardized procedure

Success lies in the ability to adapt with changing times. That is something Diamond Valley Homes Ltd wants to use as its strategy to anticipate that change and mould its services to meet the needs of its valuable clients.

Diamond Valley Homes Limited (DVHL) is a new and small company with little experience in the Property & Land business, and has enough connections with many of the most successful architects, planning specialists and other property and Land professionals in its one year journey.

The basic demand of a civil citizen is food, shelter, clothes and medicine. But considering the present scenario shelter is the main problem to all of us. Dhaka is now one of the fast growing and densely populated metro-city in the world. It has been an unplanned city with disorganized facilities for residents. But there should be a change; it is the demand of time. And the change maker is going to be none other than Diamond Valley Homes Limited.

We are committed to providing our customers with quality, affordable Lands. We visit all of our Lands to ensure accuracy in the descriptions we provide.

We are delighted to offer to people the lands we currently have available. We strive after 100% customer satisfaction. We achieve this by personal and individual customer treatment. We will assist our customers with thinkable help during the whole buying process.

Our business has been around for one year. However, our team is young and ambitious. We continuously grow, innovate, and reinvent ourselves. We take pride in what we do and it is always a pleasure for us to serve our customers.

Mission Statement

Our mission is to be the leading provider of land development solutions today and tomorrow by building on our strong foundation of integrity and on our commitment to associates, clients, and communities. Our commitment is to preserve the natural beauty of the environment and generate economic growth for the area.”

Vision Statement

”With ethics and integrity, DVHL strives for excellence in all facets of Land Development services in order to enhance our position as an industry leader.”

Project

There is only one project DVHL currently has and the name of this project is GulshanDestinyValley.

GulshanDestinyValley will be the most planned modern city where one can get all the facilities for a better and comfortable lifestyle for him and as well as his future generation. DVHL will design this model city with all best standard facilities for the peace lovers. Being the member of the metro-city, we offer a futuristic living plots within the most suitable location in Dhaka City that gives people natural fresh environment, broad roads and lanes, power, water, IT communication, club, college, corner shop, hospitals, katcha bazaar, lake, mosque, school, park, and round the clock security facility to make our life peaceful and happy.

As I have mentioned above that the DVHL is a small and new company in this industry, the organizational structure (organogram) is also very small. The organogram is ‘unstructured’ or ‘informal’ in that sense that it does not maintain any formal or theoretical types that we have studied in management.

Major General (Rtrd.) Jamil D. Ahsan is the President of DVHL. There is only one ongoing project of DVHL is Gulshan Destiny Valley (GDV). At this moment, the whole organizational objective is to develop and sell the project. The Director Program by himself is doing the job of the project manager getting full support from other departments and the workforce. To develop the project, he has hired some engineers and other employees from outside the organization with contractual basis.

My designation is Executive (Marketing and Sales) in DVHL working specially to promote and to sell the lands of the GDV under the brand name DVHL. I work directly under the Director – Marketing and Sales Mr. Mahmodur R. Towaf.

Because of the new entrance in this industry, a very small workforce under the name of DVHL is working towards its goal. So, there is less concern about the formal rules, methods, and policies of making organization structure, departmentation, and delegation of authority. Formal organizing process is clearly absent here though the top management claims that they have done it formally.

I am working here for about two months, but still I don’t have clear idea about the process, methods, and policies of organogram of DVHL. There is no Human Resources Division for hiring and selecting the employees of the organization. My direct superior (boss) is the Marketing and Sales Director, but often I suffer from multiple subordination, which makes my job sophisticated.

The organogram of DVHL is not applied or used or written for which I get the detailed information to make this assignment properly. I asked Mr. Mahmodur R. Towaf about the organogram, but even he couldn’t provide me detailed information about it (which proves the poor organizing and my ‘informal’ and ‘unstructured’ naming above). So, I had to collect the data and information from observation and survey to see the organogram at present situation.

After studying this course (Fundamentals of Management—ETHM 505) specially the Organizing chapter, I have able to learn many things about the organizing and the reason of mismanagement in my organization is clear to me. From that viewpoint, my major critical reviews are as follows:

  1. There is no organizing process to have a formal organizational structure.
  2. The Principle of unity of objective prevails little bit here but not properly.
  3. No unity of command and absoluteness of responsibility
  4. Authority and responsibility do not match.
  5. No division of authority relationships of work and information flow.
  6. Lack of attitude to achieve efficiency, effectiveness, and cost control policy.
  7. Lack of absolute control by the Managing Director over the subordinates
  8. Conflict between the President and MD in the case of having superiority.
  9. Lack of knowledge of formal management theories to apply in the organization by the top management.
  10. No formal basis of departmentalization but matches to Functional Basis majority percent.
  11. Delegation of authority is not properly done but the accountability process is done more harshly.
  12. Job descriptions are vague
  13. No Human Resources division
  14. Lack of control mechanism to provide early signals of problems with given job as the employees suffer from multiple subordination.
  15. No necessary steps or mechanism to be taken to relieve an overburden executive.
  16. No difference between centralization and decentralization of authority to applied.
  17. Proper span of control is not recognized.
  18. Not adequate workforce to achieve the organizational objective as the activities is going to be complex by its nature.
  19. Designations to the employees below the directors are not properly given. That is why the chain of command is not properly recognized and thus the organogram.
  20. Conflicts between the authority and the task to perform.
  21. No permanent project manager and engineers are hired. The Director Program himself working as the project manger for the company’s only one project GDV but the authority and responsibility even for his position is not clearly recognized and he often is confused about his task. Conflicts among the Directors arise for these reasons too.
  22. No management concern to have a clear defined organizational structure.

Recommendation

The best practices to ensure organizational success come from a wide variety of organizational thinkers. The first important practice is to ensure that the organizational systems and structures support the organizational goals. This means that the administrative policies and budgetary decisions flow from the vision. The vision guides the organizational mission, which is operationalized by identifying concrete goals, and putting into place strategies that will enable progress to occur. This assumes that the organization’s directors have a thorough knowledge of the current political and funding climate, and that the organization is responsive in its key relationships. In addition, the organization must be agile and able to respond to emerging trends and opportunities.

In addition, the leadership style should mesh with the organizational purpose. For example, an organization which seeks to include community participation will probably wish to reflect that type of inclusiveness in its management structure. This could result in self-managing work teams, or customer advisory groups. The objective being to make sure that the organizational structure reflects, and never hinders, the organizational goals.

Similarly, the creation of the new organization’s culture should be deliberate. This can in part be accomplished through the formulation of effective personnel policies.  The deliberate construction of clear, frequent, and effective communications strategies would be one example of creating organizational culture. For example, weekly staff meetings, shared scheduling software, and a constant flow of information available to all employees regarding the degree of organizational movement toward goals. The next important task for a new organization is to attend to inter-organizational linkages. This means attending to existing relationships with individuals and organizations throughout the region, as well as seeking to expand the network of affiliations.

I don’t have that much knowledge to recommend a perfect organogram for this company as I am a new and entry level employee. I have only the theoretical knowledge I have had in my course (Fundamentals of Management). I could not find any sample organogram to suggest from a company having similar characteristics not only in Bangladesh but also in foreign countries. However, I can make some suggestions for this company to standardize its organizing function, specially the organogram. The company must make some changes in the root level of these problems. These are follows:

  •   Hold a structured conversation with key stakeholders and decision makers to decide which option represents the best interests of the LDL.
  •   Create an action plan with a time line and definitive responsibility chart to manage the organizational transition.
  •   Appoint a transition plan project manager or project team with a clear leader.
  •   Create an inclusive communications plan to ensure that all stakeholders remain knowledgeable and involved, to the appropriate degree, in the organizational change.
  •   Create a plan to manage any personnel issues, including staffing, morale and administration.
  •   Designate a clear decision making structure for the new organizational structure including financial, and administrative practices.
  •   The organization will need to attend to a wide variety of organizational structural requirements.
  •   The Board of Directors must be chosen and must provide a vision and mission for the organization.
  •   Employees must be hired, and compensation structures must be designed which will attract and retain qualified employees.
  •   Organizational policies and procedures covering topics ranging from purchasing to progressive discipline must be established.
  •   Decision-making structures, lines of authority, and conflict resolution practices need to be stipulated.
  •   Fiscal policies must be developed, and procedures for day to day management of funds must be delineated.
  •   Bookkeeping and payroll systems must be put into place.
  •  Budgets must be formulated and approved by the Board of Directors.

  It is entirely possible that some additional staff with different skills sets will be needed.

The GDV project needs team work in order to have a proper project management. Human Resource Management is needed everywhere, at home, at the office, and especially when working on a project with a group of people. Using human resources during a project requires getting the most effective use of the people involved with the project. This includes everyone associated with the project: sponsors, customers, partners, and individual contributors.

According to the specialists, there are three major aspects of project human resource management: organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.

Organizational Planning

Organizational planning identifies, documents, and assigns project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. Before the project begins, all role and responsibilities should be designated. This will cut down on any confusion after the project starts. Each team member will know what is expected of him or her and will be able to follow through on the assigned tasks. Having a staff development plan and an organizational chart will also decrease uncertainty and conflict. A staff development plan describes how and when human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team. An organizational chart is a graphical way to breakdown the project reporting relationship. It diagrams who is to report to whom. There will not be any question as to the chain of command with a detailed organizational chart. Good organizational planning also includes any supporting documents needed to outline each job title and description or any training needs.

Staff Acquisition

Staff acquisition is the process of getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project. Choosing the correct people for a project is almost as important as the project itself. Without a knowledgeable team, the project will be much more difficult. Some things to consider when picking a team are previous experience, personal interests, personal characteristics, availability, and competencies and proficiency. The resources for finding team members are endless. They may come from negotiations with managers and other project teams, pre-assignment from another project, or even from outside the organization. It also be needed to determine whether each team member will be working on the project full or part time. Thinking ahead of the ideal team members will save the valuable time later.

Team Development

Team development includes developing individual and group competencies to enhance project performance. By coming together as a true team, the project will be more successful. The project manager follows the following ways to achieve team Development:

  •       Team building activities
  •       General management skills
  •       Reward and recognition systems
  •       Collocation or frequent face-to-face meetings
  •       Training

Significant improvements in team morale will cause an increase in team mentality. Other improvements that will be seen include performance improvements, improvements in individual skills, improvements in team behaviors, and improvements in either individual or team competencies.

After studying several books, journals, articles etc. and by talking to some experts in this part of management, I have come to know that a Matrix Organizational Structure is needed for the company as it has to deal with more and more projects at a time. First of all a specialist Project Manager is needed for the GDV project.

Conclusion

In spite of having conflicts, problems, and being unstructured, small, I love my organization very well. It is the assignment’s requirement of making some criticism, there are lots of positive thing for which I love it. I want to gain some experiences from such an ‘unstructured’ organization in order to get some expertise and to recognize my skills to face organizational problems. This will help me to manage an organization properly when I will become a manager.

The organization is new and this is the main reason for having such problems. Gradually it will become a large organization and will have a complete organizational structure by working through its missions and towards its vision to achieve.

May Allah bless my organization Diamond Valley Homes Ltd.

Categories
EEE Science

Report on Electronic Media

 Introduction:

Television is a medium which attract a wide audience. It is an ideal tool for information, communication, education, entertainment and news etc. Television is like a window to see outer world. Through this window we can see what is happening around us. In Bangladesh there are many television channels. These televisions channels are working as strong electronic media in our country. These channels have created so much competitive field among them that continuously surfing those channels has become a habit for us. Thus a research was conducted through questionnaire survey to extract the information based on the perception of the audience about the electronic media in our country.

This report entitled ‘Urban Based Electronic Media Preferences Analysis’ is a fundamental requirement for the completion of the course Marketing Research (MKT-409). The main purpose of this report is to extract the information of the electronic media in the context of Bangladesh using specific research method. Under the instruction and guidance of the course instructor Mr. Shamsad Ahmed, we have taken the initiative to conduct the research and prepare this report with much precision and by being completely unbiased.

Electronic Media

The general objective of this report is to provide a synopsis of the electronic media of Bangladesh. It is also required for the completion of this course. Beside the general objective, the objectives behind this report are given below:

Primary objective:

The primary objective of the report is—

      To analyze on the issue ‘Urban Based Electronic Media Preferences Analysis’.

      To disclose the precise scenario of the electronic media through survey and SPSS software.

      To analyze and recommend on the mentioned issues.

Secondary objective:

The secondary objective to prepare this report is—

      To fulfill the requirements of our course Marketing Research.

      To have a clear understanding about the activity of specific research technique that is survey.

      To illustrate the position of Electronic Media based companies.

      To analyze the audiences demographic profile.

      To identify the audiences preference.

      To have a clear understanding about the SPSS software.

      To fulfill the requirements of our course “Marketing Research”.

      To gather experience and knowledge of doing a professional report.

This research study will cover the topic “Urban Based Electronic Media Preferences Analysis’” and its related issues. It also includes recommendations against the selected issues. This report can be used as a secondary source for the Electronic Media based companies.

To fulfill the objective of this report collection of relevant, accurate, standardized and needful information was required. To make this report reliable we have collected data from both primary sources and secondary sources. Special consideration was given so that chances of biasness could not arise. Special consideration was given so that chances of biasness could not arise. The sources used were:

Primary sources:

Primary data is defined as data which originates as a result of that particular investigation. We have collected primary data through questionnaire survey with various people. The primary data related to Electronic Media of Bangladesh was collected from the audiences by the method of survey that we conducted. Structured close ended questions were constructed to extract the primary data.

Secondary sources:

Secondary data represents the data which are made by others but it is useful for another purpose or research. As a part of collecting data from secondary sources, we have referred different books of Marketing Research. We collected our data from the magazine, news paper, libraries and also from the websites.

No study is beyond any limitations. While doing this research study we had to face some difficulties. The limitations of the research activities are as follows—

      We did not have so much experience for conducting research and preparing the report very frequently, though we are in learning position.

      In questionnaire survey some participants were unenthusiastic to provide enough information.

      The respondents hid their personal information.

      There was lack of precise information; both primary and secondary.

      There was not enough time to analyze the selected issues.

      Our resources (such as, human resource, financial resource, etc) were limited. So it was hard for us to prepare a professional report with our limited resources.

      First time ever we are using the SPSS software.

Research Design:

The design of the research that we carried to explore the opinion of the audiences of electronic media was conclusive to large extent. The research was formal and structured. It is based on large, representative sample, and the data obtained from the research will be used for Managerial decision making.

Sampling Design:

The size of the sample for the research was 500 respondents. The procedure adopted for sampling was Non Probabilistic Quota Sampling. The quota was formed based on occupations. The numbers of respondents was restricted by ten categories of occupations.

 Instruments:

The basic instruments used for the research were:

 SPSS software

      Structured Close Ended Questionnaire

      Computer

      MS Words

      Printer

Data Analysis Method:

For analyzing the data, we used SPSS software. The questionnaire consisted of ten close ended questions. The questions were basically formed with the purpose of providing descriptive information regarding the electronic media of Bangladesh. The data analyzed provided the information regarding the channel preference, program preference, factor preference, ranking of the channels, favorable program, unfavorable program and demographic profile of the respondents.

The factors for influencing the audiences were analyzed by factor reductions. This was done to separate the factors in two groups based on similarities in meaning.

The demographic profile of the respondents was used to formulate three clusters. The clusters were differentiated by the characteristics like gender, age, occupation, family members and family income.

Gender Distribution

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

342

68.4

68.4

68.4

2

158

31.6

31.6

100.0

Total

500

100.0

100.0

We have surveyed total 500 respondents (audiences). 342 of them were male and rests of 158 were female. That is out of the total respondents who were surveyed, 68 per cent of them turned out to be male whereas the rest 32 per cent were female. This vast difference is due to the number of respondents that were kept under each occupation.

Initial Cluster Centers

Cluster

1

2

3

Gender

1

2

1

Age

6

4

3

Education

7

4

1

Occupation

7

1

5

Family member

4

3

1

Monthly family income

500000

3000000

1500

Iteration History (a):

Iteration

Change in Cluster Centers

1

2

3

1

.000

.000

28042.266

2

.000

.000

.000

a. Convergence achieved due to no or small change in cluster centers. The maximum absolute coordinate change for any center is .000. The current iteration is 2. The minimum distance between initial centers is 498500.000.

Final Cluster Centers:

Cluster

1

2

3

Gender

1

2

1

Age

6

4

5

Education

7

4

6

Occupation

7

1

5

Family member

4

3

3

Monthly family income

500000

3000000

29542

Number of Cases in each Cluster:

Cluster

1

1.000

2

1.000

3

459.000

Valid

461.000

Missing

39.000

 

 

Bangla Channel Viewer:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid Viewer

478

95.6

95.6

95.6

Non viewer

22

4.4

4.4

100.0

Total

500

100.0

100.0

From the surveyed prople about 95.6% of the audiences watch Bangladesh TV channels and rests of the 4.4 % do not watch Bangladeshi TV Channels.

Statistics:

r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

r6

r7

r8

r9

r10

N Valid

429

438

452

458

451

383

412

400

367

414

Missing

71

62

48

42

49

117

88

100

133

86

Mean

5.12

7.12

3.32

2.62

2.78

6.80

5.81

5.62

7.61

5.73

Mode

5

10

1

2

1

8

5

7

10

7

BanglaVision is a new satellite TV channel that pledges to play a positive role in building the nation through healthy entertainment. It’s program lineup includes dramas, talk shows, feature films, entertainment programs etc and eight news bulletins in Bangla and one in English.

For the first time ever you can watch uninterrupted coverage of Asia’s leading international TV channels, over the Internet.

Jump TV proudly presents bangla language channels from Bangladesh. Enjoy an enticing palate of top quality programs ranging from news, entertainment, popular drama serials, musical programs, movies, documentaries, children’s programs to cultural programs and much more!

Amaar Ami

Bangla vision:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

25

5.0

5.8

5.8

2

43

8.6

10.0

15.9

3

56

11.2

13.1

28.9

4

62

12.4

14.5

43.4

5

65

13.0

15.2

58.5

6

54

10.8

12.6

71.1

7

33

6.6

7.7

78.8

8

44

8.8

10.3

89.0

9

34

6.8

7.9

97.0

10

13

2.6

3.0

100.0

Total

429

85.8

100.0

Missing System

71

14.2

Total

500

100.0

One of the main types of broadcast media in Bangladesh is TV, namely: “Bangladesh Television”. Bangladesh Television is the only terrestrial channel in the country. Several satellite TV stations have also made headway in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Television is a government owned TV station. Very few broadcasts contain information about the political opposition until the general elections become nearer and the government in power takes control.

BTV:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

31

6.2

7.1

7.1

2

24

4.8

5.5

12.6

3

14

2.8

3.2

15.8

4

36

7.2

8.2

24.0

5

31

6.2

7.1

31.1

6

26

5.2

5.9

37.0

7

29

5.8

6.6

43.6

8

33

6.6

7.5

51.1

9

64

12.8

14.6

65.8

10

150

30.0

34.2

100.0

Total

438

87.6

100.0

Missing System

62

12.4

Total

500

100.0

ATN Bangla is the first Bengali digital cabletelevision channel. It transmits from its studio in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The channel is transmitted in South Asia, the Middle-east, Europe, and North America. The channel offers a wide variety of programming including news, movies, dramas, talk shows, and more.

ATN:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

98

19.6

21.7

21.7

2

93

18.6

20.6

42.3

3

88

17.6

19.5

61.7

4

62

12.4

13.7

75.4

5

42

8.4

9.3

84.7

6

30

6.0

6.6

91.4

7

17

3.4

3.8

95.1

8

8

1.6

1.8

96.9

9

9

1.8

2.0

98.9

10

5

1.0

1.1

100.0

Total

452

90.4

100.0

Missing System

48

9.6

Total

500

100.0

Channel-i, a Bangla-language channel, offers entertainment for the whole family and was the first digital Bangla channel in Bangladesh. Channel-i, one of the most highly rated Bangla channels, has become very popular among views for its wide range of programming including dramas, mega serials, musical programs, live interactive talk shows, magazine programs, agricultural programs and informative news bulletins broadcast 4 times a day.

Channel i

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

126

25.2

27.5

27.5

2

140

28.0

30.6

58.1

3

98

19.6

21.4

79.5

4

48

9.6

10.5

90.0

5

16

3.2

3.5

93.4

6

10

2.0

2.2

95.6

7

6

1.2

1.3

96.9

8

4

.8

.9

97.8

9

7

1.4

1.5

99.3

10

3

.6

.7

100.0

Total

458

91.6

100.0

Missing System

42

8.4

Total

500

100.0

NTV is a Bengali language satellite television channel based in Bangladesh. It started operation in 2003. It was founded by Mosaddeq Ali Falu, a politician and former Member of Parliament from the ruling Bangladesh Nationalist Party. It is one of the most popular Bengali TV channels in the country. In the anniversary of the channel, the founder expressed interest in creating NTV2 to satisfy the watchers further, but however it is a matter of fun now that he is in jail and, all of his properties have been seized by the government. The channel broadcasts excellent coverage of news, soap shows, educational, religious and politics related programs.

NTV:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

143

28.6

31.7

31.7

2

105

21.0

23.3

55.0

3

82

16.4

18.2

73.2

4

60

12.0

13.3

86.5

5

22

4.4

4.9

91.4

6

16

3.2

3.5

94.9

7

3

.6

.7

95.6

8

9

1.8

2.0

97.6

9

4

.8

.9

98.4

10

6

1.2

1.3

99.8

21

1

.2

.2

100.0

Total

451

90.2

100.0

Missing System

49

9.8

Total

500

100.0

Boishakhi Media Lid. is a private sector effort, dedicated to the creative presentation of television technology for Bangla speaking people all over the world. The company has established round-the clock satellite television channel aimed at the a worldwide audience with programming depicting Bangla culture, history, geography, people, language, and faiths responding to both national and international needs and demands. The name of the channel is “BOISHAKHI”.

Boishakhi has a very experienced team of programmed makers, technical and management consultants with intimate knowledge and experienced of running a television station. Boishakhi has its own digital facilities with a large scale studio, a dedicated news studio, news room with its own independent news

gathering facilities, computerized editing facility and in house transmission/broadcast facility based in

Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Boishakhi will maintain a high-level of quality, technical efficiency and reliability while keeping up to date with state of the art technology. Given the need for a widely accessible platform Boishakhi intends to broadcast Globally, reaching out to a language group that is the world’s”4th most widely spoken” as declared by the United Nations.

It can be safely said that “Boishakhi” as a global and Bangla speaking channel will be available to 210 Million Bangalis worldwide.

Boishakhi:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

5

1.0

1.3

1.3

2

7

1.4

1.8

3.1

3

15

3.0

3.9

7.0

4

25

5.0

6.5

13.6

5

48

9.6

12.5

26.1

6

62

12.4

16.2

42.3

7

64

12.8

16.7

59.0

8

66

13.2

17.2

76.2

9

57

11.4

14.9

91.1

10

34

6.8

8.9

100.0

Total

383

76.6

100.0

Missing System

117

23.4

Total

500

100.0

RTV is a satellite television channel broadcast from Bangladesh. It started operation on 26 December2005.[1] It mainly broadcasts programmed in Bengali language.

RTV:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

14

2.8

3.4

3.4

2

16

3.2

3.9

7.3

3

27

5.4

6.6

13.8

4

40

8.0

9.7

23.5

5

85

17.0

20.6

44.2

6

77

15.4

18.7

62.9

7

64

12.8

15.5

78.4

8

45

9.0

10.9

89.3

9

29

5.8

7.0

96.4

10

15

3.0

3.6

100.0

Total

412

82.4

100.0

Missing System

88

17.6

Total

500

100.0

Ekushey Television (ETV) was the first private terrestrial channel in Bangladesh. Official transmission began on April 14, 2000, after a very short time of transmission it became the voice of the nation and the most popular TV channel in Bangladesh through its news and other innovative programs. However, it was closed down on August 29, 2002, when Managing Director Simon Dring and three other executives were charged with fraud. Dring, a British journalist, had his visa and work permit cancelled.

However, permission for the station to continue transmission once more was granted on April 14, 2005, and transmission was resumed, on December 1, 2006. Its official transmission started 29 March 2007 and, started 24 hour transmission on June 1.

ETV

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 0

1

.2

.3

.3

1

20

4.0

5.0

5.3

2

19

3.8

4.8

10.0

3

38

7.6

9.5

19.5

4

54

10.8

13.5

33.0

5

56

11.2

14.0

47.0

6

57

11.4

14.3

61.3

7

63

12.6

15.8

77.0

8

48

9.6

12.0

89.0

9

28

5.6

7.0

96.0

10

16

3.2

4.0

100.0

Total

400

80.0

100.0

Missing System

100

20.0

Total

500

100.0

Islamic TV

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 0

2

.4

.5

.5

1

6

1.2

1.6

2.2

2

8

1.6

2.2

4.4

3

10

2.0

2.7

7.1

4

19

3.8

5.2

12.3

5

25

5.0

6.8

19.1

6

30

6.0

8.2

27.2

7

39

7.8

10.6

37.9

8

58

11.6

15.8

53.7

9

78

15.6

21.3

74.9

10

92

18.4

25.1

100.0

Total

367

73.4

100.0

Missing System

133

26.6

Total

500

100.0

Channel One is a Bengali language satellite television channel from Bangladesh. It started broadcasting from Dhaka on 24 January2006. [1]

It is owned by the Masud Entertainment Limited, a sister concern of One Group.

This third generation television channel is the 8th private television in Bangladesh. This is an infotainment channel by nature. Its office is in Gulshan of Dhaka city. News times are 8 am, 12 pm, 2.30 pm, 6.30 pm, 7.30 pm, 10.00 pm, 12.30 am and 3.00 am in Bangladesh Time.

The channel’s journalists include Saiful Hasan, Saiful A Chowdhury, Shujon Mehedi, Shamim Al Amin and K U Biplob. Its producers include AKM Nazim, MAK Tuhin, Rana Islam and Iqbal Khokon. It uses final cut pro machines for video editing, and is the only channel that uses ENPS for news networking.

Channel One

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 0

1

.2

.2

.2

1

13

2.6

3.1

3.4

2

20

4.0

4.8

8.2

3

45

9.0

10.9

19.1

4

56

11.2

13.5

32.6

5

60

12.0

14.5

47.1

6

49

9.8

11.8

58.9

7

63

12.6

15.2

74.2

8

49

9.8

11.8

86.0

9

45

9.0

10.9

96.9

10

13

2.6

3.1

100.0

Total

414

82.8

100.0

Missing System

86

17.2

Total

500

100.0

Correlation Matrix

   

fa1

fa2

fa3

fa4

fa5

fa6

fa7

fa8

fa9

fa10

fa11

Correlation fa1

1.000

.178

.000

.026

-.018

.064

.153

.158

.187

.015

-.048

  fa2

.178

1.000

-.002

.101

.037

.036

.103

.084

.125

.082

.004

  fa3

.000

-.002

1.000

-.097

.664

.751

-.071

-.079

-.102

-.123

.019

  fa4

.026

.101

-.097

1.000

-.088

-.098

.150

.180

.183

.056

-.052

  fa5

-.018

.037

.664

-.088

1.000

.687

-.012

-.060

-.055

-.068

.017

  fa6

.064

.036

.751

-.098

.687

1.000

-.062

-.107

-.092

-.111

.048

  fa7

.153

.103

-.071

.150

-.012

-.062

1.000

.166

.314

.194

-.025

  fa8

.158

.084

-.079

.180

-.060

-.107

.166

1.000

.300

.226

.053

  fa9

.187

.125

-.102

.183

-.055

-.092

.314

.300

1.000

.182

-.046

  fa10

.015

.082

-.123

.056

-.068

-.111

.194

.226

.182

1.000

.162

  fa11

-.048

.004

.019

-.052

.017

.048

-.025

.053

-.046

.162

1.000

The positive value that the two variables have a correlation. The maximum value that can be extracted is 1 which states the strongest relation among the variables.

KMO and Bartlett’s Test:

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .715
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 971.211
df 55
Sig. .000

The suitability of data for factor analysis depends on two measures: KMO index and Bartlett’s test. To be a suitable data, a data need to have a KMO index with minimum value of 0.6 and the Bartlett’s test for sphericity should be less than less than .05.

The data out here have KMO index value of .715 which is less than 0.6 but close enough to 0.6, and the Bartlett’s test for sphericity value is .000 which is less than.05.

Therefore, we can go for the Factor extraction.

Communalities

Initial

Extraction

fa1

1.000

.701

fa2

1.000

.812

fa3

1.000

.811

fa4

1.000

.827

fa5

1.000

.768

fa6

1.000

.830

fa7

1.000

.476

fa8

1.000

.422

fa9

1.000

.560

fa10

1.000

.569

fa11

1.000

.708

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Total Variance Explained

Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
1 2.544 23.130 23.130 2.544 23.130 23.130
2 1.846 16.777 39.907 1.846 16.777 39.907
3 1.175 10.686 50.593 1.175 10.686 50.593
4 .998 9.072 59.666 .998 9.072 59.666
5 .920 8.368 68.033 .920 8.368 68.033
6 .851 7.733 75.766
7 .774 7.037 82.802
8 .686 6.238 89.040
9 .623 5.664 94.704
10 .342 3.105 97.809
11 .241 2.191 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

By the Kaiser’s criterion, the factors with eigenvalue equal to or greater to 1 are retained for further investigation. The eigenvalue of a factor represents the amount of the variance explained by that factor.

Out here, there are four components with eigenvalue greater to 1.

Therefore, these values will be taken for further analysis.

As we know that Kaiser’s criterion results in the retention of too many factors, therefore we need to go through Scree test. By the Scree test the factors above the elbow, or break in the plot, as the factors are considered to be the factors that contribute the most to the explanation of the variance in the set.

In this case, there are two factors that are above the elbow.

Component Matrix (a)

Component

1

2

3

4

5

fa1

-.088

.449

-.343

.556

-.253

fa2

-.066

.406

-.164

.548

.562

fa3

.851

.278

.018

-.098

.000

fa4

-.271

.323

-.190

-.480

.619

fa5

.801

.332

.047

-.116

.000

fa6

.856

.312

.015

-.015

.007

fa7

-.258

.550

-.043

-.168

-.278

fa8

-.312

.529

.171

-.121

-.034

fa9

-.332

.609

-.094

-.161

-.208

fa10

-.293

.367

.586

-.006

-.070

fa11

.030

.041

.780

.256

.177

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a 5 components

News

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

226

45.2

52.4

52.4

2

42

8.4

9.7

62.2

3

25

5.0

5.8

68.0

4

21

4.2

4.9

72.9

5

19

3.8

4.4

77.3

6

5

1.0

1.2

78.4

7

13

2.6

3.0

81.4

8

15

3.0

3.5

84.9

9

11

2.2

2.6

87.5

10

7

1.4

1.6

89.1

11

8

1.6

1.9

91.0

12

4

.8

.9

91.9

13

5

1.0

1.2

93.0

14

4

.8

.9

94.0

15

2

.4

.5

94.4

16

3

.6

.7

95.1

17

3

.6

.7

95.8

18

4

.8

.9

96.8

19

1

.2

.2

97.0

20

2

.4

.5

97.4

21

4

.8

.9

98.4

23

2

.4

.5

98.8

24

1

.2

.2

99.1

25

1

.2

.2

99.3

27

3

.6

.7

100.0

Total

431

86.2

100.0

Missing System

69

13.8

Total

500

100.0

  Statistics:

Bangla Cinema:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

49

9.8

13.4

13.4

2

12

2.4

3.3

16.7

3

21

4.2

5.8

22.5

4

19

3.8

5.2

27.7

5

28

5.6

7.7

35.3

6

21

4.2

5.8

41.1

7

20

4.0

5.5

46.6

8

13

2.6

3.6

50.1

9

4

.8

1.1

51.2

10

15

3.0

4.1

55.3

11

9

1.8

2.5

57.8

12

11

2.2

3.0

60.8

13

5

1.0

1.4

62.2

14

8

1.6

2.2

64.4

15

7

1.4

1.9

66.3

16

15

3.0

4.1

70.4

17

11

2.2

3.0

73.4

18

7

1.4

1.9

75.3

19

6

1.2

1.6

77.0

20

12

2.4

3.3

80.3

21

12

2.4

3.3

83.6

22

7

1.4

1.9

85.5

23

5

1.0

1.4

86.8

24

9

1.8

2.5

89.3

25

8

1.6

2.2

91.5

26

11

2.2

3.0

94.5

27

20

4.0

5.5

100.0

Total

365

73.0

100.0

Missing System

135

27.0

Total

500

100.0

Drama

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

67

13.4

15.6

15.6

2

99

19.8

23.1

38.7

3

80

16.0

18.6

57.3

4

43

8.6

10.0

67.4

5

35

7.0

8.2

75.5

6

17

3.4

4.0

79.5

7

15

3.0

3.5

83.0

8

10

2.0

2.3

85.3

9

9

1.8

2.1

87.4

10

10

2.0

2.3

89.7

11

7

1.4

1.6

91.4

12

8

1.6

1.9

93.2

13

6

1.2

1.4

94.6

14

4

.8

.9

95.6

15

4

.8

.9

96.5

16

5

1.0

1.2

97.7

18

2

.4

.5

98.1

19

1

.2

.2

98.4

20

2

.4

.5

98.8

22

1

.2

.2

99.1

23

2

.4

.5

99.5

25

1

.2

.2

99.8

27

1

.2

.2

100.0

Total

429

85.8

100.0

Missing System

71

14.2

Total

500

100.0

Drama Serial

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

50

10.0

12.1

12.1

2

104

20.8

25.2

37.3

3

56

11.2

13.6

50.8

4

48

9.6

11.6

62.5

5

25

5.0

6.1

68.5

6

24

4.8

5.8

74.3

7

18

3.6

4.4

78.7

8

12

2.4

2.9

81.6

9

10

2.0

2.4

84.0

10

10

2.0

2.4

86.4

11

5

1.0

1.2

87.7

12

6

1.2

1.5

89.1

13

8

1.6

1.9

91.0

14

2

.4

.5

91.5

15

3

.6

.7

92.3

16

4

.8

1.0

93.2

17

6

1.2

1.5

94.7

18

1

.2

.2

94.9

19

5

1.0

1.2

96.1

21

3

.6

.7

96.9

22

3

.6

.7

97.6

23

3

.6

.7

98.3

25

3

.6

.7

99.0

26

3

.6

.7

99.8

27

1

.2

.2

100.0

Total

413

82.6

100.0

Missing System

87

17.4

Total

500

100.0

Entertainment Magazine Program:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

21

4.2

5.1

5.1

2

28

5.6

6.7

11.8

3

62

12.4

14.9

26.7

4

61

12.2

14.7

41.4

5

60

12.0

14.5

55.9

6

37

7.4

8.9

64.8

7

27

5.4

6.5

71.3

8

17

3.4

4.1

75.4

9

18

3.6

4.3

79.8

10

17

3.4

4.1

83.9

11

9

1.8

2.2

86.0

12

7

1.4

1.7

87.7

13

8

1.6

1.9

89.6

14

7

1.4

1.7

91.3

15

5

1.0

1.2

92.5

16

4

.8

1.0

93.5

17

5

1.0

1.2

94.7

18

3

.6

.7

95.4

19

2

.4

.5

95.9

20

3

.6

.7

96.6

21

3

.6

.7

97.3

23

3

.6

.7

98.1

24

1

.2

.2

98.3

25

4

.8

1.0

99.3

26

2

.4

.5

99.8

27

1

.2

.2

100.0

Total

415

83.0

100.0

Missing System

85

17.0

Total

500

100.0

News Related Magazine Program:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

4

.8

1.3

1.3

2

8

1.6

2.5

3.8

3

22

4.4

7.0

10.8

4

21

4.2

6.7

17.5

5

17

3.4

5.4

22.9

6

21

4.2

6.7

29.6

7

20

4.0

6.4

36.0

8

13

2.6

4.1

40.1

9

12

2.4

3.8

43.9

10

16

3.2

5.1

49.0

11

15

3.0

4.8

53.8

12

11

2.2

3.5

57.3

13

6

1.2

1.9

59.2

14

13

2.6

4.1

63.4

15

18

3.6

5.7

69.1

16

7

1.4

2.2

71.3

17

7

1.4

2.2

73.6

18

8

1.6

2.5

76.1

19

14

2.8

4.5

80.6

20

12

2.4

3.8

84.4

21

11

2.2

3.5

87.9

22

12

2.4

3.8

91.7

23

5

1.0

1.6

93.3

24

8

1.6

2.5

95.9

25

6

1.2

1.9

97.8

26

5

1.0

1.6

99.4

27

2

.4

.6

100.0

Total

314

62.8

100.0

Missing System

186

37.2

Total

500

100.0

Religious Program:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

7

1.4

2.2

2.2

2

26

5.2

8.0

10.2

3

27

5.4

8.3

18.5

4

23

4.6

7.1

25.6

5

17

3.4

5.2

30.9

6

22

4.4

6.8

37.7

7

10

2.0

3.1

40.7

8

8

1.6

2.5

43.2

9

13

2.6

4.0

47.2

10

11

2.2

3.4

50.6

11

10

2.0

3.1

53.7

12

14

2.8

4.3

58.0

13

6

1.2

1.9

59.9

14

5

1.0

1.5

61.4

15

6

1.2

1.9

63.3

16

10

2.0

3.1

66.4

17

10

2.0

3.1

69.4

18

16

3.2

4.9

74.4

19

12

2.4

3.7

78.1

20

13

2.6

4.0

82.1

21

6

1.2

1.9

84.0

22

8

1.6

2.5

86.4

23

6

1.2

1.9

88.3

24

8

1.6

2.5

90.7

25

6

1.2

1.9

92.6

26

8

1.6

2.5

95.1

27

16

3.2

4.9

100.0

Total

324

64.8

100.0

Missing System

176

35.2

Total

500

100.0

Cooking Program:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

6

1.2

1.9

1.9

2

6

1.2

1.9

3.7

3

9

1.8

2.8

6.5

4

9

1.8

2.8

9.3

5

25

5.0

7.7

17.0

6

17

3.4

5.2

22.2

7

12

2.4

3.7

25.9

8

12

2.4

3.7

29.6

9

14

2.8

4.3

34.0

10

7

1.4

2.2

36.1

11

7

1.4

2.2

38.3

12

10

2.0

3.1

41.4

13

12

2.4

3.7

45.1

14

8

1.6

2.5

47.5

15

10

2.0

3.1

50.6

16

6

1.2

1.9

52.5

17

12

2.4

3.7

56.2

18

9

1.8

2.8

59.0

19

10

2.0

3.1

62.0

20

20

4.0

6.2

68.2

21

13

2.6

4.0

72.2

22

15

3.0

4.6

76.9

23

16

3.2

4.9

81.8

24

9

1.8

2.8

84.6

25

9

1.8

2.8

87.3

26

18

3.6

5.6

92.9

27

23

4.6

7.1

100.0

Total

324

64.8

100.0

Missing System

176

35.2

Total

500

100.0

                         

Talk Show

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

2

.4

.6

.6

2

16

3.2

4.9

5.5

3

24

4.8

7.4

12.9

4

22

4.4

6.8

19.7

5

21

4.2

6.5

26.2

6

25

5.0

7.7

33.8

7

18

3.6

5.5

39.4

8

14

2.8

4.3

43.7

9

13

2.6

4.0

47.7

10

14

2.8

4.3

52.0

11

18

3.6

5.5

57.5

12

15

3.0

4.6

62.2

13

12

2.4

3.7

65.8

14

7

1.4

2.2

68.0

15

8

1.6

2.5

70.5

16

3

.6

.9

71.4

17

6

1.2

1.8

73.2

18

9

1.8

2.8

76.0

19

5

1.0

1.5

77.5

20

8

1.6

2.5

80.0

21

7

1.4

2.2

82.2

22

7

1.4

2.2

84.3

23

8

1.6

2.5

86.8

24

9

1.8

2.8

89.5

25

12

2.4

3.7

93.2

26

12

2.4

3.7

96.9

27

10

2.0

3.1

100.0

Total

325

65.0

100.0

Missing System

175

35.0

Total

500

100.0

Band Show Program:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

4

.8

1.2

1.2

2

9

1.8

2.7

4.0

3

7

1.4

2.1

6.1

4

11

2.2

3.4

9.5

5

15

3.0

4.6

14.0

6

24

4.8

7.3

21.3

7

12

2.4

3.7

25.0

8

16

3.2

4.9

29.9

9

16

3.2

4.9

34.8

10

8

1.6

2.4

37.2

11

14

2.8

4.3

41.5

12

13

2.6

4.0

45.4

13

17

3.4

5.2

50.6

14

10

2.0

3.0

53.7

15

14

2.8

4.3

57.9

16

9

1.8

2.7

60.7

17

14

2.8

4.3

64.9

18

11

2.2

3.4

68.3

19

14

2.8

4.3

72.6

20

4

.8

1.2

73.8

21

8

1.6

2.4

76.2

22

13

2.6

4.0

80.2

23

12

2.4

3.7

83.8

24

8

1.6

2.4

86.3

25

12

2.4

3.7

89.9

26

12

2.4

3.7

93.6

27

21

4.2

6.4

100.0

Total

328

65.6

100.0

Missing System

172

34.4

Total

500

100.0

Tele Film:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

12

2.4

3.1

3.1

2

7

1.4

1.8

4.9

3

23

4.6

5.9

10.8

4

30

6.0

7.7

18.5

5

22

4.4

5.6

24.1

6

39

7.8

10.0

34.1

7

28

5.6

7.2

41.3

8

28

5.6

7.2

48.5

9

25

5.0

6.4

54.9

10

19

3.8

4.9

59.7

11

19

3.8

4.9

64.6

12

16

3.2

4.1

68.7

13

16

3.2

4.1

72.8

14

15

3.0

3.8

76.7

15

17

3.4

4.4

81.0

16

14

2.8

3.6

84.6

17

8

1.6

2.1

86.7

18

6

1.2

1.5

88.2

19

12

2.4

3.1

91.3

20

2

.4

.5

91.8

21

7

1.4

1.8

93.6

22

3

.6

.8

94.4

23

3

.6

.8

95.1

24

9

1.8

2.3

97.4

25

1

.2

.3

97.7

26

4

.8

1.0

98.7

27

5

1.0

1.3

100.0

Total

390

78.0

100.0

Missing System

110

22.0

Total

500

100.0

 

Correlation Matrix

 

RON1

RON2

RON3

RON4

RON5

RON6

RON7

RON8

RON9

RON10

Correlation Bangla Vision

1.000

.177

.070

.140

.163

.133

.224

.044

.157

.307

BTV

.177

1.000

-.020

.047

-.116

.173

.181

.095

.290

.172

ATN

.070

-.020

1.000

.158

.137

.053

-.008

.164

.004

.000

Channel i

.140

.047

.158

1.000

.218

.040

.110

.179

.117

.190

NTV

.163

-.116

.137

.218

1.000

.045

.144

.038

.115

.190

Baishakhi

.133

.173

.053

.040

.045

1.000

.290

.131

.210

.241

RTV

.224

.181

-.008

.110

.144

.290

1.000

.205

.147

.292

ETV

.044

.095

.164

.179

.038

.131

.205

1.000

.080

.151

Islamic TV

.157

.290

.004

.117

.115

.210

.147

.080

1.000

.172

Channel One

.307

.172

.000

.190

.190

.241

.292

.151

.172

1.000

KMO and Bartlett’s Test

 

 

 

 

 

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.693

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square

329.400

df

45

Sig.

.000

Communalities:

Initial

Extraction

Bangla Vision (RON 1)

1.000

.477

BTV (RON 2)

1.000

.713

ATN (RON 3)

1.000

.716

Channel I (RON 4)

1.000

.628

NTV (RON 5)

1.000

.704

Baishakhi (RON 5)

1.000

.732

RTV (RON 6)

1.000

.601

ETV (RON 7)

1.000

.749

Islamic TV (RON 8)

1.000

.671

Channel One (RON 10)

1.000

.561

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis

Total Variance Explained:

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

2.297

22.974

22.974

2.297

22.974

22.974

2

1.336

13.355

36.329

1.336

13.355

36.329

3

1.076

10.758

47.087

1.076

10.758

47.087

4

.972

9.720

56.808

.972

9.720

56.808

5

.871

8.709

65.516

.871

8.709

65.516

6

.854

8.543

74.059

7

.722

7.223

81.283

8

.677

6.773

88.055

9

.630

6.300

94.355

10

.565

5.645

100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.                                

Component Matrix (a)

Component

1

2

3

4

5

ron1

.546

.011

-.368

.131

-.162

ron2

.436

-.536

.224

.398

-.164

ron3

.180

.548

.448

.213

.369

ron4

.419

.487

.062

.272

-.370

ron5

.356

.564

-.432

.016

.268

ron6

.525

-.259

.147

-.315

.519

ron7

.611

-.125

-.026

-.459

-.026

ron8

.397

.195

.640

-.252

-.283

ron9

.498

-.266

.005

.521

.284

ron10

.648

-.013

-.259

-.180

-.203

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a 5 components extracted.

  • 7 – 9 am ……………………………….. (1)
  • 9 am – 1 pm ………………………….. (2)
  • 1 – 5 pm ……………………………….. (3)
  • 5 – 7 pm ……………………………….. (4)
  • 7 – 8.5 pm …………………………….. (5)
  • 8.5 – 10 pm …………………………… (6)
  • 10 – 12 pm ……………………………. (7)
  • After 12 am …………………………… (8)

Statistics:

N

Valid

482

Missing

18

Mode

6

Std. Deviation

1.151

Range

7

Preferable Time:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

2

.4

.4

.4

2

5

1.0

1.0

1.5

3

21

4.2

4.4

5.8

4

26

5.2

5.4

11.2

5

55

11.0

11.4

22.6

6

238

47.6

49.4

72.0

7

125

25.0

25.9

97.9

8

10

2.0

2.1

100.0

Total

482

96.4

100.0

Missing System

18

3.6

Total

500

100.0

Time of Watching Bangladeshi Channels:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

99

19.8

20.5

20.5

2

140

28.0

29.0

49.6

3

126

25.2

26.1

75.7

4

98

19.6

20.3

96.1

5

19

3.8

3.9

100.0

Total

482

96.4

100.0

Missing

System

18

3.6

Total

500

100.0

Foreign Movie (Action, science fiction, comedy etc)

      Sports Channel

      Talent Hunting Program

      Children Related Program

      Comedy Type Program

      Adventure Program

      Computer / Technological Program

      Cultural Program

      Award Show

      Science Related Program

      Animal Life Program

Statistics:

N Valid

500

Missing

0

Mode

4

Variance

1.627

Age:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid 1

1

.2

.2

.2

2

9

1.8

1.8

2.0

3

46

9.2

9.2

11.2

4

240

48.0

48.0

59.2

5

96

19.2

19.2

78.4

6

53

10.6

10.6

89.0

7

38

7.6

7.6

96.6

8

17

3.4

3.4

100.0

Total

500

100.0

100.0

  • Illiterate ……………………………………………………… (1)
  • Literate ……………………………………………………. (2)
  • Secondary Level ……………(Bangali)………………….(3)
  • Ordinary Level …………………………………………… (4)
  • Higher Secondary Level ……..(Bangali)…………….. (5)
  • Advanced Level ………………………………………….. (6)
  • Under Graduate …………………………………………..(7)
  • Post Graduate ……………………………………………..(8)

Statistics

                                                Edu

N Valid

500

Missing

0

Std. Error of Mean

.099

Std. Deviation

2.216

Range

7

Minimum

1

Education:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

16

3.2

3.2

3.2

2

55

11.0

11.0

14.2

3

68

13.6

13.6

27.8

4

4

.8

.8

28.6

5

87

17.4

17.4

46.0

6

5

1.0

1.0

47.0

7

165

33.0

33.0

80.0

8

100

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

500

100.0

100.0

      1 Person …………………………. (1)

      2 – 3 Person ………………………(2)

      4 – 5 Person ………………………(3)

      6 – 8 Person ………………………(4)

      8 + …………………………………. (5)

Statistics:

N Valid

498

Missing

2

Mode

3

Range

4

Percentiles 25

3.00

50

3.00

75

4.00

Family Member:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

1

3

.6

.6

.6

2

71

14.2

14.3

14.9

3

283

56.6

56.8

71.7

4

118

23.6

23.7

95.4

5

23

4.6

4.6

100.0

Total

498

99.6

100.0

Missing

System

2

.4

Total

500

100.0

CONCLUSION:

Television is playing a good role in our country. Though several television channels are operating in our country all of them are not providing same services. They have to count every nick of time in news presenting and other programs presenting. Analyzing the urban based electronic media preference the following result can be summarized in conclusion—

      As per the survey done through structured questionnaire 95.6 % of the watch Bangladeshi TV channels and the rests of 4.4 % do not watch Bangladeshi TV channels.

      Out of the 500 respondents, who participated in the survey, most of them turned out to be audiences of NTV and their first preference was also NTV as it provides realistic news and quality programs.

      Audiences spend about 60 % time in seeing Bangladeshi channels.

      Preferable time slot of the audiences is 8. 30 pm to 10 pm.

      Most of the audiences mentioned that news is their first preference.

      Most of the audiences stated that NTV are presenting realistic news.

      According to the audiences magazine program Ittady is their most favourite program.

      Talkshow programs are the most disliked by the audiences.

      Audiences want to watch programs with clear picture and sound.

      Audiences want to watch programs that started at the mentioned time.

      Audiences dislike govt. follower programs

      So much commercial Ad is not expected by the audience.

      TV channels involved in public welfare are expected by the audiences.

The 10 television companies those are broadcasting in our country are very alluring and competitive. But to be a realistic and preferable channel in context of the audiences they have to provide according to the demand of the audiences. These TV channels have to provide such programs that the audiences want to watch. TV channels should not concern only about programs but also preferable time slot for the target audiences should be concerned by those TV channels.

We are very pleased to have such a wonderful experience in getting this report to existence, and we feel inculcated to do such a report on such an interesting topic. This study will help us to explore the preferences of the audiences of the TV channels.

Categories
Architecture

Internship Report on Land and Flat Pricing

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In spite of noticeable fall in prices of major construction materials, the prices of apartments in the capital city did not come down to a reasonable level over the past several months. Even, many developers have increased their flat prices in recent period, citing high prices of land in the capital.

According to market sources, the prices of Mild Steel (MS) rod decreased more than Tk 10,000 per tonne, and cement by Tk 40 per 50-kg bag. Prices of other construction materials also decreased. Still, there is no standard flat now being sold in the range of Tk 4.0 million and Tk 5.0 million. The prices of flats have decreased sharply across the world, but surprisingly they are rising in Bangladesh. However, the realtors say high land price is the main reason behind high prices of flats in the city. They say the landowners demand around 70 per cent share of total flats and for this reason, the prices are not coming down.

Realtors develop lands through partnership deals, where landowners, depending on the locations, get 30 to 60 per cent of the total flats. Currently, flat prices in the city’s Gulshan and Banani areas range between Tk 10,000 and Tk 12,000 per square feet, at DhanmondhiTk 7,000 and Tk 8,000, at old parts of Dhaka Tk 4,000 and Tk 5,000, at Uttara (section 3 and 4) Tk 5,000 and Tk 6,000, and at other sectors of UttaraTk 4,000 and 4,500.

Realtors allege that the prices of rod and cement were still high in the local markets, although their prices have fallen sharply in the international markets. Prices of MS rod, a major construction material, fell to around Tk 40,000 per tonne a few weeks back, but it increased again, they said. Some cement manufacturers reduced the prices of per 50-kg bag cement by Tk 40 in recent months following decline of the clinker prices in the international market. Clinker is the major raw material for producing cement, and its prices now range between US$45 and $46 per tonne.

Experts have predicted a price hike of the steel and rod in the local markets in the near future, as the consumption of the item is not rising, as it should be. The price of iron ore is also rising in the international market. The annual demand for the rod and steel in the country is between 2.0 million and 2.5 million tonnes. Their consumption has remained almost steady over the last three years. About 40 per cent to 45 per cent supply of raw materials for production of rod and steel are available locally and the rest is imported involving higher duties. The prices of rod and cement may go high in the markets again if the US dollar appreciates against the local currency. Besides, the importers of the raw materials recently are forced to pay additional amount of surcharge and bribe at the Chittagong Port. The prices of paints have fallen by over 5.0 per cent in recent months, as prices of their raw materials had fallen in the international market. Currently, per gallon distemper ranges between Tk 270 and Tk 280, and paints between Tk 630 and Tk 650.

Around 400 REHAB (Real Estate Housing Association of Bangladesh) members along with 200 non-REHAB members are developing land and constructing apartments in the major cities of the country, and the contribution of the sector to the GDP is around 8.0 per cent. The ongoing global economic downturn has hit the local estate sector as well. Very recently, the realtors have demanded a Tk 10 billion special soft loan fund to boost up sales of flats as the housing industry has been badly affected. REHAB president TanveerulHaqProbal said sales of apartments in the country have fallen by 30 per cent between January and March and the housing industry needed a ‘package’ to face the meltdown. He said flat sales have been plunging alarmingly over the last few months. The downturn would continue unless the government comes up with a rescue act and include the housing sector in its stimulus package. The REHAB president said the industry does not require any direct cash injection like the ones announced for the export-oriented manufacturing industry. But they have demanded creation of Tk 10 billion fund through which apartment buyers would be financed on easy loan term. The fund will inject a momentum in the housing industry and make flats affordable to buyers, he said.

According to the REHAB, the housing and construction industry, which make up some 10 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), was affected by last year’s record price hike of construction materials and the anti-graft drive against flat buyers. It said the global economic crisis has compounded the problem. Buyers are hesitant than ever before due to the uncertain economic climate. The country’s real estate companies sell 7000-10,000 flats a year. But in 2007 sales halved to about 4000 flats following a nationwide anti-corruption drive that targeted some top apartment buyers. Last year, a number of companies halted construction of new apartment buildings after mild steel rod prices doubled to Tk 80,000 per tonne.

The increased demand for ready flats and residential plots has should have propelled a higher growth of the real estate sector. But, there is a problem of availability of land in the city and its adjacent areas. The land is very much scarce. The price of land in Gulshan posh area is now between Tk 6.0 million and Tk 8.0 million per katha, against Tk 3.0 million and Tk 4.0 million even a couple of years ago. Similarly, the land price at the city’s Dhanmondi and Uttara area has registered an unusual hike recently due to higher demand for both land and ready flats. Now, the question is the availability of land, not its price. The cost of construction laborers has also gone unusually higher in the city. Even many firms are unable to hire masons and workers in the industry due to acute shortage of skilled manpower. There is a huge demand for skilled masons and construction workers in the Middle East. Many skilled workers have found jobs in the Middle East following their high demand.

In fact, very often, the real estate developers miss deadline of handing over flats to the buyers. While RAJUK exists as a regulatory authority to ensure that apartment complexes meet building standards, there is no regulatory body to ensure that real estate companies meet their commitments as specified in the agreement drawn up with the buyer.

1.1 Background

In third World Counties, Urbanization is an outcome of population growth and inadequate development. Migration of the people from rural areas towards the cities also increases when their means of livelihood gradually diminishes. Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries of the world, where the basic needs of the people are not addressed effectively. At the present, with the Constitution of our country being extensively and exhaustively discussed by people at all levels, the crucial issues like shelter for all, which is one the basic rights of all citizens, still remain on the back burners. To all intent and purposes, it is not possible for the Government alone to ensure shelter for its people. Therefore, the role of the private sector developers becomes crucial. In our country real estate business started in Dhaka in late seventies. The Eastern Housing of Islam Group is the pioneer in this business. During 1970s there were fewer than 5 companies in Bangladesh engaged in this business. In 1988 there were 42 such developers working in Dhaka and now in 2005 there are about 250 companies engaged in this business. From the early 1980s the business has started to flourish and in 1990s it has reached its peak. Towards the end of year 2000 there was slight downfall in real estate sector. In 2003 this sector started showing growth again. To strengthen the role of real estate sector some pioneer real estate companies together built up an association named REHAB in 1991. At present it has 1081 members. Over the last 15 years, the real estate development sector has been made significant contribution to our economy. Since1985 this sector has created homes for over 20,000 families in the Dhaka Mega City.

1.2.1 Pros: advantages of investment properties

In general, property is considered a fairly low-risk investment, and can be less volatile than shares (although, this is not always the case). Some of the advantages of investing in property include:

  • Tax benefits – a number of deductions can be claimed on your tax return, such as interest paid on the loan, repairs and maintenance, rates and taxes, insurance, agent’s fees, travel to and from the property to facilitate repairs, and buildings depreciation.
  • Negative gearing – tax deductions can also be claimed as a result of negative gearing, where the costs of keeping the investment property exceed the income gained from it.
  • Long-term investment – many people like the idea of an investment that can fund them in their retirement. Rental housing is one sector that rarely decreases in price, making it a good potential option for long-term investments.
  • Positive asset base – there are many benefits from having an investment property when deciding to take out another loan or invest in something else. Showing your potential lender that you have the ability to maintain a loan without defaulting will be highly regarded. The property can also be useful as security when taking out another home, car or personal loan.
  • Safety aspect – low-risk investments are always popular with untrained “mum and dad” investors. Property fits these criteria with returns in some country areas reaching 10% per year. Housing in metropolitan areas is constantly in demand with the high purchase price being offset by substantial rental income and a yearly return of between 4% and 8%.
  • High leverage possibilities – investment properties can be purchased at 80% LVR (loan to valuation ratio), or up to 90% LVR with mortgage insurance. The LVR is calculated by taking the amount of the loan and dividing it by the value of the property, as determined by the lender. This high leverage capacity results in a higher return for the investor at a lower risk due to having less personal finances ties up in the property (80% of the purchase price was provided by the mortgagee).

·         Significant Profits-There can be a major advantage to investing in real estate if you find property at a price low enough to result in a significant profit. For example, some investors buy real estate they intend to flip. Flipping can result in huge profits for investors. The property may be in foreclosure, in danger of foreclosure or needs little or no repair. You may purchase the property for much less than its value, repair or update it, and resell or flip it at a much higher selling price. Exercise extreme caution in this kind of venture.

·         Access to Credit-Contingent on a variety of factors, additional income generated from real estate investments may give you access to more credit. Generally, lending institutions lend more money to people who make more money. The additional income made from real estate investments may open broader credit lending doors.

·         Leave a Legacy-Real estate may be willed to family members after your death. You could leave a legacy for your children by investing in real estate. By choosing a property intelligently, investors can make this form of investment work for them. However, as with all investments there are some disadvantages to be aware of.

1.2.2 Cons: disadvantages of investment properties

Some potential problems to consider:

  • Liquidity – it’s true, you can sell the property if things go bad. However this can take many months unless you’re willing to accept a price less than the property is worth. Unlike the stock market, you will have to wait for any financial rewards.
  • Vacancies – there will be times when mortgage payments will need to be covered out of your own pocket due to your property being untenanted. This could just be a result of a gap between tenants or because of maintenance issues.
  • Bad tenants – it’s every investment property owner’s worst nightmare: problem tenants. They can significantly damage your property, refuse to pay rent and refuse to leave. Disputes can sometimes take months to resolve.
  • Rising interest rates – if your investment loan has a variable interest rate, there is always the risk of economic conditions causing interest rates to rise. If not properly budgeted for, rising interest rates could cause an investor financial stress where concerns of liquidity and quickly selling the property become a reality. When interested rates are on the up, liquidity in property markets starts to dry up.
  • Property oversupply – in recent years, inner-city builders have created a glut of high-rise apartment blocks, resulting in fierce competition and many units being increasingly difficult to rent out
  • Ongoing costs – in addition to the standard costs associated with a property, ongoing maintenance costs, especially with an older building, can be substantial.
  • Putting all your eggs in one basket – if you have all your money tied up in property, overexposure to one particular type of investment can be a dangerous thing. If the property market crashes you can stand to lose significantly.
  • Capital Gains Tax – imposed by the Federal Government on the appreciation of investments and payable on disposal.
  • Other costs – negative gearing may offer tax deductions each financial year, however ongoing payments to cover the shortfall need to be budgeted for every month.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally every study is conducted to find one or mere findings, if the findings are predetermined they called the objectives of the study. The main purpose of my study is to evaluate the Land & Flat Pricing in Bangladesh. Thus the main objectives of the study are as follows.

  • To show overall Sceneries of Real Estate Market and Opportunities in Bangladesh and the market condition.
  • To analyze the Present  Real Estate Market Scenario
  • To define the Pros & Cons of Real Estate in Bangladesh
  • To determine the Pricing Strategy
  • To identify Problems faced by the customers as well as the marketers in the market of the same.
  • To Identify the Reason behind the Real Estate Boom
  • To analyze the Present  Real Estate of Bangladesh & South Asian Countries
  • To analyze the present flat sales decrease
  • To put forward some recommendation in the light of the problems identified.

1.4 Scope of the study

The duration of the study was Three months. This is an individual study, which is worked for this particular study under my internship program supervisor. Since this is a formal study, the scope of the study was not so detail. I just tried to give an overall scenario of the Real Estate Market and Opportunities as well as an actual market image in Bangladesh. The study covers overall Real Estate scenario of Bangladesh & South Asian countries and all the data are collected from the Internet & NewVison Landmark Ltd and from other paper which are mainly secondary sources.

1.5 Importance

Human being has always been in search of new and better homes. Thus cities, towns and villages grew, flourished and wither away. In the process, societies forever demand and produce all kinds of goods and services, through, never satisfied, we ask for things more different. Real estate visibly shapes the way people live, work and innovates and therefore most strongly defines culture and civilization. Today Real state is recognized the world over as the main engine that runs the economy, creating work not only for masons and managers, accountants and architects, but also for makers and sellers of building materials. It means work for maintenances, security cleaning and other services; work for makers and sellers of appliances, furniture and vehicles; work for bankers and bureaucrats, lenders and lawyers Purpose of this study is to overall Real Estate scenario of Bangladesh & South Asian countries.

1.6 Methodology of the Study

Methodology is the process or purpose of collecting of data and information which are required in connecting with finding tools for best possible situation of problems.

1.6.1 Data Collection Methods

For data collecting I have used both primary and secondary data. At the starting point I have started by examining primary data to see whether the problem can be fully or purely solved without collecting secondary data. When the needed data did not exit, then I had gone to collect the secondary data. So, data gathered for specific purpose or a specific reason.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

It couldn’t be claimed that this study was 100% based on impractical data. Undoubtedly it has got some limitation regarding the representation of the factors which are collected from customers and people of the company. At the data collection for the study, I have been facing following problems.

1.7.1 Time Limitation

 Time limitation is one of the major problems for most researchers’ to diagnose the problem. Like the other study, it has time limitation to identify the actual problem and provide some recommendations.

1.7.2 Sample Size

 Though the sample size was fixed for the study, with this sample size it is very difficult to get good result.

1.8 Output Trend

During the peak years of the early 1990s, over 3,000 apartment units were built by developers every year. Today around 10,000 units are built, but recent time this trend has declined due to delayed delivery of apartments by an average of six months, economic downslide, global recession, and the poor law and order situation.

 1.9 Linkage contribution

 The real estate sector has also made substantial contributions to the growth of a host of backward and forward linkage sectors which include Rod, Cement, Bricks, paints, ceramics, aluminum, furniture, consultancy and many others. In this context, he provided examples of catalytic influence of the real estate and housing sector in development of linkage industries whereby the sector is immensely contributing to employment and the GDP. Those include Bangladeshi state-of-the-art ceramic industries, Thai and Kai aluminum, More than a dozen paint industries, a large number of furniture making and interior design companies, an exponentially growing cement sector, which is helping the country to attain self-sufficiency in this important input

2.1 House Prices and Housing Production

The provision of standard housing and residential infrastructure has not kept up with population increases, because of constraints in the main supply factors, such as land and finance, and severe affordability problems. Indeed, land and construction prices for new formal sector housing are high relative to incomes, particularly in urban areas. The GOB Housing Indicators Report calculated that urban households spend on average 10 to 17.5 percent on housing related expenditures (GOB, 1995).

2.1.1.1 Land.

There is an active land market that prices land according to location characteristics, distance from main centers and physical quality of the site. Because of the exponential increase in population in Dhaka, land prices have escalated during the last few decades. Trends in land prices will be included in the land study, which is simultaneously conducted by UNCHS. Prices for land and construction were only available for Dhaka since most of the formal construction activities take place in the metropolitan area. For the purpose of this study we compiled current prices for developed land within the metropolitan area of Dhaka (estimates by REHAB):

Table I: Land price per khata (720sq.ft)

• High income areas such as Gulshen, Benani, Baridharah Tk.14 to 20 million
• Middle income areas such as Dalmundi Tk.10 to 20 million
• Other Dhaka neighborhoods Tk.5 to 7 million
• Mirpur and other suburban areas Tk.4 to 6 million
• Undeveloped land at 20 to 30km from CBD Tk.1 million per acre ( 60 khata)

Source: REHAB

With a minimum plot area of 2100 sq.ft in urban areas, a building plot in the lowest income area would still exceed Tk.3 million. In suburban areas no minimum plot size is stipulated and land can be subdivided in small plots for single-story housing developments. Construction costs. REHAB provided the following construction costs per sq.ft. at different levels of finishes:

Table II: Construction costs per sq.ft

  • High cost construction/multi
  • family Tk.1000 to 1200/sq.ft
  • Middle cost construction/ multi
  • family Tk.850 to 1000/sq.ft
  • Simple construction/ multi
  • family Tk.650 to 850/sq.ft
  • Single story low
  • cost house Tk.450 to 600/sq.ft

These figures show that the construction costs for a small 300 sq.ft house, excluding land cost, would be in the order of Tk.150, 000. Such a house would be quite affordable at a median income level of Tk.5000. The inclusion of the costs of developed land, would multiply the cost by ten, rendering such housing solutions inaccessible even for households well above the median income. These figures show that high-density multi-family developments are the only feasible alternative in Dhaka.

2.2.1 Area:

It is a crucial variable for pricing a property. In our country its significance is more important than any other country. Depending on the area price fluctuate incredibly.

Source: REHAB

Table III: Comparison of deferential price based on area

Area

Flat Price (taka per square foot)

Dhanmondi

7000-11000

Uttara

4000-5000

Gulshan

5000-12000

Banani

5000-9000

Mohammadpur

4000-7000

Baddah

4000-5000

Lalmatia

5000-7000

Motijheel

7000-11000

Shahabag

4000-7000

Mohakhali

4000-5000

2.2.2 Plot location:

This variable affects the pricing decision of New Vision developers to a great extent. Within a particular area based on the road number or sector price of flat building varies accordingly.

Dhanmondi

Table IV: Comparison of deferential price based on plot location

Road No.Price (taka per square foot)3/A (old)80003/A (new)900010/A     7000

2.2.3 Size:

As the norms depending on the size, price of apartments varies by a direct proportion. In some cases this proportion does not remain constant.

2.2.4 Facing:

Facing of the apartments is also an important variable in the pricing pattern of those apartments.  Like south facing or north facing flat of a particular apartment building differs hugely in price:

Table V: Comparison of deferential price based on plot facing

Face Price (taka per square foot)
 South face 5000
 North face 4500

2.2.5 View:

 Depending on the view of flats price can also vary.

  Table VI: Comparison of deferential price based on plot view
              View Price (taka per square foot)
South Facing Lake View     6000
North Facing Lake View      5000
East Facing Lake View 4500
East Facing       4000
West Facing Lake View    4500
West Facing     4000

2.2.6 Flat Feature:

Flat feature of the apartments is also an important variable in the pricing pattern of apartments. It consists of the interior design and fittings. The mentioned factors affect the pricing of the apartments.

2.2.7 Floor:

It is also a prominent factor that heavily induces the pricing of flat. The price decreases as the number of story increases.

    Table VII: Comparison of deferential price based on floor
                    Floor Price (taka per square foot)
1st                        4000
2nd                          4500
3rd

5000

4th

5500

5th

4500

6th

4200

7th

4000

 2.3 Construction Quality:

This includes materials used for construction, roof design, column design etc.  As the buyers are becoming sophisticated day by day this variable becomes important to the developers at the time of pricing.

2.4 Land Owner’s Share:

Nowadays most of the apartments are developed by various real estate firms in the form of joint venture.

In this venture land owners and developers share total number of flats in a particular apartment. In the most of the cases the ratio of sharing flats is 40:60. In case of lucrative areas this ratio is often 50:50. Besides these landowners also demands a certain amount of cash benefit for staying away from their own home at the time of construction.

2.5 Existence of Amusement Place:

Existence and non existence of amusement place also affects the pricing of flat building.

2.5.1 Pricing of Car Parking:

Car parking is fully independent with the overall price of any apartment. It is priced as per the current market price. Nowadays it ranges from 2 to 3 lakh.  Any apartment holder wishing to purchase more than one car parking space has to pay a higher amount than the normal range. It varies according to the variation of area.

2.5.2 Maintenance & Security:

 After the hand over of an apartment, its maintenance is no more a responsibility of a developer. The same is applicable for the security purpose. These two responsibilities are handed over to the buyers association of a particular apartment with a hand over of flats to them.

3.0 Pricing Strategy

Generally price is the amount of money charged for a product or service, or sum of the value that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. Again pricing policy is the course of action or guiding philosophy that helps a business firm to pricing decisions smoothly and perfectly. It also guides the firm to achieve its goals. It is an important element of the entire marketing strategy of a firm. A firm can easily manipulate the demand of the target market by handling its price carefully. At the present time, the market is highly segmented, primarily based on location, price of the land and size of the apartments.

3.1 Maximum Current Profit:

 It estimates its demand and costs associated with alternative prices and choose the price that produces the maximum current profit, cash flow and rate of return on investment.

3.2 Maximum sales Growth:

Real estate Company’s sets a reasonable price for its products (lands and apartments) considering the competitors prices. The company wants to maximize unit sales and thus profit.

3.3 Pricing methods

 There are a number of price setting approaches, these are- markup pricing, target return pricing; buyer based pricing, going rate pricing, sealed bid pricing approach. At the present time, most of the company’s adopts going rate pricing method for its products. In going rate pricing the firm bases its price largely on the competitor’s prices with less attention paid to its own costs and demands. The study shows the pricing of the real estate depends on certain factors such as location, square feet, quality of construction, construction cost, and amenities, markup policy, competitors’ price and demand for the product.

3.4 Promotion Strategy

Promotion mix is composed of four tools of communications- advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and publicity. In the face of today’s competitive business environment, most of the companies develops and retains high achieves and a motivated workforce.

3.4.1 Advertising

Here most of the importance is given to the advertisement and on creating customer faith and also to the after sales services. Most of the real estate companies spends the biggest portion of its total promotion budget for advertising. When we look at the company, we can easily realize that the company could successfully anticipate the effectiveness of advertising. Here some of vehicles used as media for the advertisement of the real estate companies products.

3.4.1.1 Newspaper

Advertisements are published frequently on the most of the national dailies citing feasibility, opportunities, advances etc along with attractive photograph of the projects.

3.4.1.2 Neon Sign Billboard

Lots of billboard and neon sign are established at the different places of the city. Generally these places are selected according to the commercial importance.

4.4.1.3 Television

Advertisement is also frequently shown on the national and private channeling order to attract the potential customers and also to get the people to know about the projects.

3.4.2 Personal Selling

Company maintains good relationship with the customers. Generally, the company follows two mode of personal selling for maintaining long term relationship with their target customers.

3.4.2.1 Field force employees

A number of employees are engaged in door to door marketing. They go to the customer’s houses, explain them about projects and request them to come to the office about the real condition of the projects. Generally this is the task of influencing the people to make a purchase decision.

3.4.2.2 In House Marketing Team

In house marketing team is the part of the marketing department of the company. Usually they work with the direct customers who come to the office directly for land and office purpose. Different personnel of the in house marketing team co-ordinates with the customers. The personnel explain explain different aspects of the projects to the customers and also give them answer of questions. However their main motto is to sell their products by giving service.

3.4.3 Sales Promotion

Sales promotion is another essential ingredient in marketing campaign. Advertisement offers a reason to buy, whereas sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. The companies offers the following – discounts, gifts, low cost services price off, cost free services etc. Company maintains good relationship with the customers. Generally, the company follows two mode of personal selling for maintaining long term relationship with their target customers.

 3.4.3.1 Sales policy of the Companies:

Most of the company in this industry develops sales policy based on in house in house sales personnel. The outside sales forces are generally used to create customers. In case of purchasing a plot or a flat the first task a customer has to do is booking the plot or flat with a specified amount of money. After the booking rest of the are done by sales and credit realization personnel.

3.4.3.2 Sales at a time with cash payment

In this case at first the customer pays the booking money and after one month of booking pays the rest of amount.

3.4.3.3 Sales on installment

 This is comparatively relaxed policy. There are several installment schemes. In this case the purchaser can pays a specified amount either in 12 or 24 or36 or 60 or 72 installments.

4.1 Current Scenario of the Real Estate Market in India

The Indian economy has witnessed robust growth in the last few years and is expected to be one of the fastest growing economies in the coming years. Demand for commercial property is being driven by India’s economic growth. Real estate in India contributes about 5 per cent to India’s gross domestic product (GDP). The total revenue generated in 2010-11 stood at US$ 66.8 billion.

Demand is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19 per cent between 2010 and 2014—Tier 1 metropolitan cities are projected to account for about 40 per cent of this. Growing requirements of space from sectors such as education, healthcare and tourism provide opportunities in the real estate sector. FDI of more than US$ 9 billion was infused in real estate in the last decade.

In 2010, over 11 per cent of total FDI in India was in the real estate sector. There have been 110 deals in this sector during the period 2001 to the first half of 2011.

Urban population has been increasing and is expected to cross 590 million by 2030. Urbanisation and growing household income are some of the major factors that influence demand for residential real estate and growth in the retail sector.

Commercial real estate sector is in boom in India.  In the last fifteen years, post liberalization of the economy, Indian real estate business has taken an upturn and is expected to grow from the current USD 14 billion to a USD 102 billion in the next 10 years. This growth can be attributed to favorable demographics, increasing purchasing power, existence of customer friendly banks & housing finance companies, professionalism in real estate and favorable reforms initiated by the government to attract global investors.

Table VIII: Flat price in India(per sq ft)

location Price(Indian rupee) taka(1 INR = 1.6154 BDT)

Mumbai

30500

49260

Delhi

16890

27284

Chennai

10533

17015

Bangalore

11840

19126

Hyderabad

5500

8885

Kolkata

6750

10904

Pune

6750

10904

 

4.1.1 Driving Forces

Stated below are the reasons that have led to the real estate boom in the country.

• Booming economy; accelerated GDP to 8% p.a.

• India’s emergence as an attractive offshoring destination and availability of pool of highly skilled technicians and engineers ; Development of large captive units of major players include GE, Prudential, HSBC, Bank of America, Standard Chartered and American Express

•Rise in disposable income and growing middle class, increasing the demand for quality residential real estate and real estate as an investment option.

• Entry of professional players equipped with expertise in real estate development;

•Relaxation of legal rulings and processes by the governing bodies encouraging investments in real estate

•Improvement in infrastructure facilities

4.1.2 Investments

Real estate emerged as the popular sector for private equity funds who invested US$1,700 million in this sector during 2011. Private equity in real estate projects will fetch considerable returns by next year-end or early 2013, as per Vikram Hosangady, Partner, KPMG.

Some of the recent investments in this sector are mentioned below:

  • Sahara India has joined hands with the US-based Turner Construction Company. The JV, Sahara Turner Construction, will build integrated townships called Sahara City Homes and other Sahara India projects in India worth US$ 25 billion over the next 20 years
  • DLF acquired the additional 26 per cent stake in its joint venture company—DLF Hotels & Hospitality Ltd (DHHL)—from Aro Participation Ltd and Splendid Property Company Ltd, affiliates of Hilton International. At present, the company holds 74 per cent equity in DHHL
  • Pride Group of Hotels, which owns a chain of upscale mid-market and business hotels is planning to set up a series of new properties and this will involve an investment of Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 203.18 million) over the next few years. The company plans to have a mix of owned and managed properties having 3,500 rooms by 2015-16

4.1.3 Government Initiatives

  • The foreign direct investment (FDI) up to 100 per cent is allowed with Government’s permission for developing townships and settlements
  • New home loan borrowers of up to Rs 1.5 million (US$ 30,477) will get Rs 14,865 (US$ 302) as interest subsidy from the Government, on the condition that the cost of the house should not exceed Rs 2.5 million (US$ 50,798)
  • Allowing 100 per cent FDI under the automatic route in development of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), subject to the provisions of Special Economic Zones Act 2005 and the SEZ Policy of the Department of Commerce.

In the Union Budget 2011-12, Mr Pranab Mukherjee, Union Finance Minister presented various initiatives for the real estate sector, especially focussing on affordable housing. Some of these initiatives are listed below:

  • Increasing the limit on housing loans eligible for a 1 per cent subsidy in interest rates
  • Widening the scope for housing under “priority-sector lending” for banks, making interest rates cheaper on them
  • Allocating substantial amount to the Urban Development Ministry for spending on extension of Metro networks in Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai
  • Earmarking US$ 20.03 million for the urban infrastructure development project. The Urban Development Ministry received US$ 1.5 billion, an increase of US$ 68.53 million from the last fiscal 2010-11

4.1.4 Road Ahead

Real estate plays an important role in the Indian economy. This sector happens to be the second largest employer after agriculture and is expected to grow at the rate of 30 per cent over the next decade. The size of the Indian real estate market is expected to touch US$ 180 billion by 2020.

The housing sector alone contributes to 5-6 per cent of the India’s GDP. Retail, hospitality and commercial real estate are also growing considerably, providing the much-awaited infrastructure towards India’s growing needs.

According to a study by ICRA, the construction industry in India ranks 3rd among the 14 major sectors in terms of direct, indirect and induced effects in all sectors of the economy. A unit rise in construction spending generates five times the income, having a multiplier effect across the board. With backward and forward linkages to over 250 ancillary industries, the positive effects of real estate growth spread far and wide. Therefore, real estate acts as a catalyst for adding momentum to growth of the Indian economy.

4.2 An overview of housing in Pakistan

Pakistan witnessed a real estate boom after the 9/11 and war on terror. Property prices skyrocketed across the country and to buy a home resembled something beyond the bounds of possibility for an ordinary Pakistani. The expatriate Pakistanis invested their money in the real estate and the continuous flow of dollars swelled the volume of market. According to modest estimates during past four to five years the money invested into the real estate market was nearly equal to Rs.250 billion rupees and this resulted into an upward and sharp increase in the prices which produced a hyper effect on the market. But now market analysts are of the view that the real estate bubble had come to an end and market is going through a slump. What really happened is that a conventionally unorganized and unnoticed sector at once recorded such an amazing potential which was unsustainable and slowing of massive money influx can’t be termed as a crash.

At the same time the country’s housing situation is aggravating with each passing day. Our bourgeoning population, its stunning 2.4 annual growth rate and strong inward migration (rural-urban migration) trends are compounding the problem. The decrease in the average household size or the nuclear family notion is also gaining popularity in the urban centers. It is also resulting into more houses for small number of people. There are nearly 19 million houses in the country against the population of 149 million and the required number of housing units for the population is 25.83 millions. Thus we are falling short of nearly more than 6 millions. This is huge number if seen against the backdrop of the housing units being built annually.

At present the urban housing demand stands at 8 percent per annum. In addition to this rural- urban migration is also gaining momentum. Although Urban- rural population migration is a global phenomenon and mega cities are facing the challenges caused by the deluge of the rural migrants and Pakistan is no exception to this rule. Only Karachi is attracting more than 250,000 to 300,000 people annually.

This is adding to already tightly crowded population and scarce resources of the cities and in case of Karachi it deprives nearly1/3rd of population of the potable water.As cities are already over populated, so, these peoples are inhibiting in the squatter settlement or shanties called katchi abadis in the local jargon. According to the reports there are nearly “539 squatter settlements across Karachi” and nearly 49 percent of the city population lives in these squatter settlements.

We have to construct more than 500,000 housing units annually to meet the backlog in 20 years. We have not taken the factors of population growth and stock depletion into account, only what I have tried to show is current backlog.

 At present he number of housing units being constructed is only 300,000 which is really a fraction of the gigantic demand. The demand and supply gap is resulting into serious repercussions for the society as it had changed the more than half of Pakistan urban land into squatter settlements and is eating away the agricultural land of the country. What is the need of the hour is that to exploit the hidden potentials of the housing sector. It is a two prong strategy to fight against poverty and raise the standards of public living.

As in the first place this strategy provides public with house which is a basic necessity and in the second revive the industrial sector. As more than 40 industries are directly related to the construction industry. The growth of housing industry is a sure recipe for the economic growth. As it also entails the growth of construction and allied sectors which includes, “ceramics, cement, paints, electrical goods, floorings, carpets, tiles and marbles, stone crushing etc….”

Moreover it will boost the banking sector by utilizing the mortgage facility that banks provide. At present the mortgage finance was 18 billion rupees for 2005 and it has growth potential of Rs. 135 billion at 35 percent urban housing needs. In addition to this many foreign real estate investors has announced heavy investment in the residential sector including the Dubai’s construction giant Emaar which is going to construct housing projects worth US$2.4 billion in Islamabad and Karachi, Diamond Bar Island City Karachi will obviously help in restoring the confidence of local investors.

4.2.1 Property boom emerging again in Pakistan

The property markets of Karachi, Lahore & Islamabad is once again attracting a lot of money these days due to stable stock, gold and currency markets. Particularly in Karachi, a large number of new schemes of plots as well as flats near the Northern Bypass have been announced (and also extensively advertised), which are drawing a number of buyers.

A luxury flat of 180 square yards in a recently announced project, 10 kilometres from Sohrab Goth, is priced at no less than Rs4 million. This gives an idea of how expensive the houses are, even if located in the outskirts of the city. A residential plot of 80 square yards in a project near the Northern Bypass is available at Rs249,000, although it is as far as 35 kilometres from Sohrab Goth. In the same scheme, a residential plot of 120 square yards costs Rs379,000.

Builders say Pakistanis working in Arab countries and the US are the most attractive clients for them because they are able to make timely payments. It is for them that most of the builders announce and advertise their projects around Eid days.

Builders say usually they experience difficulties in obtaining agreed money from buyers residing locally, but those working abroad are their ideal buyers.

Similarly, in a much advertised scheme, which is located far away from the main city, a 200 square yard plot is being offered at a price of Rs695,000 and 400 square yard plot for Rs1,395,000. The commercial plots in such schemes are even more expensive. A 400 square yard plot is priced at Rs2,995,000. In another scheme, a 100 square yard commercial plot is being offered at Rs700,000 and 200 square yard plot for Rs1,800,000.

The projects being built in the main city are certainly more expensive. On average, flats in Clifton and Defense areas are priced at Rs5,000 per sq ft, in Bahadurabad at Rs6,000 per sq ft and in PECHS Rs6,000 per sq ft. In Gulistan-e-Jauhar, which is an area of lower middle and middle income groups, flats are available at Rs2, 500 per sq ft on average.

Table IX: Flat price in Pakistan

 

Sl. Location Price per sq ft(PKR) Price per sq ft(BDT)

1 PKR = 0.9074 BDT1Islamabad55004990.72Karachi62005625.883Lahore40003629.964Rawalpindi500045375 Bahadurabad6,0005444.46In Gulistan-e-Jauhar2,5002268.5

Besides, the financing facilities being offered by banks and other institutions are also a factor behind this activity in the construction industry, as now people can obtain loans from more sources. In recent years, the monetary authorities of the country have encouraged banks to lend money for housing, giving impetus to this industry.

4.3 Real Estate Business in Nepal

  Real estate refers to the immovable property such as land, land and house or any type of building or infrastructure used for either residential or business or any other purposes. Until recently, investment in real estate sector was increasing in Nepal due to lack of alternative investment opportunity in the country. The increase in the demand for land, especially in urban areas, is attributed to the inelastic supply of land and absence of viable investment opportunity. The speculative assumption of people that price of real estate will never decline and it is the safest sector to invest, has played an instrumental role in increasing in the real estate price.

Table X: Flat Price in Nepal

 

SL. Location Price per sq ft(nepali rupee) Price per sq ft(BDT)

1Nrs = 1.0002 BDT1Merocity ApartmentHattiban51155116.0232Estern ApartmentKaushaltar36083608.7223The sun cityGothatar39383938.7884City ScapeHattiban52005201.045Down TownKhumaltar40404040.8086Sunshine ApartmentSukedhara62036204.2417Park View HorizonDhapasi76507651.538Chacrapath HeightChacrapath49574957.999Imperial courtSanepa95809581.92

Since the past few years, remittances have become the most important source of financing economic activities in Nepal. Lack of employment opportunities accompanied by political instability and delayed peace process in the country pushed thousands of Nepalese workers abroad for employment. This resulted into massive inflows of remittances accounting for about 20 percent of GDP. With accelerating growth of remittances and lack of alternative investment opportunities, huge amount of money has gone into land and housing business that created a real estate boom.

The proliferation of financial institutions together with an excess liquidity situation in the past also fueled the real estate boom, especially in the urban areas.  According to the IMF (2010a)  “the land transactions in the  urban area almost doubled in 2009 alone compared to the previous year and the prices in the Kathmandu valley were reported to have quintupled in some areas in the recent years. However, in response to the corrective measures undertaken by the NRB, these trends have started reversing in the recent months.” The tendency of migrating from rural areas to urban has fueled the real estate business in Nepal. Basically people are purchasing real estate (land or land with house) for two general motives:  first, for self residence and second, for business purpose.

The first motive has boosted up the second one. There are different views pertaining to the extent the motive of self residence has shaped the business scenario in Nepal.

The banks and financial institutions are financing in real estate sector as one of the important sector for lending. In the loan portfolio of banks and financial institutions the real estate lending has a significant share. Similarly, in the composition of collateral types, house and land holds 61 percent of share (NRB, 2010).  According to the IMF (2010a) “Although banks’ direct exposure to real estate and housing loans is not particularly high at about  20 percent of the total loan portfolio, the actual exposure could be higher due to loan misclassification problems.

In addition, total exposure, including loans collateralized with real estate properties, account for 70 percent of total.” Due to upsurge in loan in real estate, the NRB has issued some regulatory directives to banks and financial institutions to limit the loan flow in real estate.  The Monetary Policy of 2010/11 has provided some guidelines for real estate financing. Paragraph 59 of the policy urges bank and financial institutions to curb down the real estate and housing loan to a specified limit. This is to reduce the risk associated with the high concentration of loan in a single sector. Similarly, paragraph 98 of the policy has reduced the limit in housing and residential lending.  It has also restricted lending to 10 percent limit in land purchase and plotting (NRB, 2010).  The real estate business is being done largely in the unorganized sector that purchases large area of land and do plotting with or without developing residential facility.

 However, there is a growing trend to develop land and construct residential housing by organized real estate developers. The organized sectors are those which are formally registered institutions for the real estate business that are involved in developing mass residential infrastructures. They are basically involved in purchase of large area of land and developing  the land with proper  planning along with various residential facilities. They can often  sell the plotted land with basic infrastructures. The organized sector comes under the government law and regulations, but the unorganized sector generally does not come under the law and regulation of government.

4.3.1 Nepal real estate is in Progress

Real estate marketing Nepal has flourished more from the last two decades specifically in large municipalities and fringe areas. Almost all economic activities in these areas depend on lands and so it is the pivotal for economic development. Although unsystematic and unhealthy real estate market does exist, most of the remittances and local savings are invested in the real estate because of the lack of other investment sectors. The buyers and sellers of land have to search the parties through unreliable or unprofessional brokers which would result in land disputes and many fraud cases. The land price sometime has huge difference from the market value and the utility services are also very poor in the developmental areas due to lack of land development planning.

4.4 Real Estate Sector of Srilanka

Banking and non-banking institutions provide housing finance in Sri Lanka. There are three specialized housing banks in the country. Two of them are government-owned: the State Mortgage and Investment Bank (SMIB) and the Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC). The only private sector housing finance institution is Housing Bank, a new entrant that was established in 2001. In addition, the National Savings Bank (NSB), which again is a government-owned entity, is a significant contributor to the housing finance market. These institutions are the main players in housing finance among the specialized banks.

They account for a significant volume of the housing finance business in the country (Piyasiri, 2006). Practically all the domestic commercial banks currently provide housing finance. All advertise and promote housing finance aggressively. Special housing product brands are available in the market. Among the foreign banks, and more recently, the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) has become a very aggressive player in the market, with variable interest rate.  These would fall into the category of specialized banks. Smaller volumes of housing finance are provided by rural development banks as well.

A number of micro-finance institutions seem to be providing limited housing finance to the low-income segment of the population. Most of these institutions have the objective of uplifting the quality of life through income-generating activities. In that process, they find that one aspect of uplifting involves improving housing conditions as well. Another group that contributes to the housing sector is the finance companies. One of the key asset products of these institutions is real estate development. Most of these institutions specialize in land development only. However, a few have also been involved in construction as well.  Housing development lacks Government funding due to budgetary constraints.

Consequently, activities of institutions such as the National Housing Development Authority are confined to recoveries only. Other state-owned institutions such as SMIB and HDFC depend on deposit mobilization and funds borrowed from the debt market for their mortgage market activities.

In contrast, the NSB funds its housing finance operations by deploying 100% of its own mobilized funds. NSB’s current strategy of enlarging its retail portfolio has helped its housing finance operations immensely. Most commercial banks deploy their own mobilized funds for housing finance operations (Piyasiri, 2006).  Housing finance has grown significantly in the last few years. Most commercial banks have housing finance in their product range. The estimated housing portfolio of commercial banks stands at around Rs. 55-60 billion.

The specialized banks, including three specialized housing banks, have an estimated portfolio of around  Rs 25  billion. Rural development banks and a number of micro-finance institutions are also involved in housing finance. The total estimated housing finance portfolio in the country may be in the region of Rs 80-85 billion. A large variety of housing products/brands and competitive options are available in the market. However, rate volatility would always be a challenge and hurdle for sustained growth.  As per the 2001 survey, there were 4.7million housing units in the country.

The Central Bank annual report of 2003 estimated the housing shortage in the country at 400,000 units. The report also stated that the shortage is expected to increase to 600,000 units by 2010. This means that the annual demand for new housing is not being met by new construction. In addition, the above shortfall is prior to the December 2004 tsunami. The housing need of the war-affected regions of the Northeast of the country is also acute. Moreover, analysis of the quality of housing reveals that significant upgrading of existing housing can be effected. Therefore, the need for new housing and for financing is very significant.

4.4.1 Sri Lanka’s property prices continue to rise!

Property prices continue to rise in Sri Lanka, as the security situation stabilizes. There’s no official house price data in Sri Lanka, but developers and homebuyers confirm there have been double-digit property price rises in recent years. The value of apartments in the secondary market has risen more than 100% in the past 3 to 4 years, say local real estate analysts.  Land prices in residential areas of Colombo, the capital, have gone through the roof. However, a period of high inflation and higher construction costs mean that the real rise in property values is less than appears.

The long run of price increases dates back to the 2001 ceasefire, which led to a surge in investments by overseas Sri Lankans – working in the US, Australia, Canada, UK, and the Middle East. More than 50% of Colombo’s condominium buyers are overseas Sri Lankans. The housing boom has of course excluded foreigners, who since 2004 have been required to pay a 100% tax on landed properties purchased in Sri Lanka. The 100% surcharge is also imposed on apartments below the 4th floor.

In March 2010:

  • The average sale price of houses in Sri Lanka was LKR13.8 million (US$124,026), according to Lanka Property Web, one of the country’s leading property portals.
  • The average price of apartments (1400 sq ft) is LKR12.5 million (BDT per sq ft 5528)

5 Concluding Remarks

There is no question that real estate industry is one of the most potential industries in Bangladesh. The industry has been witnessing an investment boom for the last couple of years.