Categories
EEE

Supplier Power

Supplier power is a mirror image of the buyer power. As a result, the analysis of supplier power typically focuses first on the relative size and concentration of suppliers relative to industry participants and second on the degree of differentiation in the inputs supplied. The ability to charge customers different prices in line with differences in the value created for each of those buyers usually indicates that the market is characterized by high supplier power and at the same time by low buyer power (Porter, 1998). Bargaining power of suppliers exists in the following situations:

Where the switching costs are high (switching from one Internet provider to another);

High power of brands (McDonalds, British Airways, Tesco);

Possibility of forward integration of suppliers (Brewers buying bars);

Fragmentation of customers (not in clusters) with a limited bargaining power (Gas/Petrol stations in remote places).

The nature of competition in an industry is strongly affected by the suggested five forces. The stronger the power of buyers and suppliers, and the stronger the threats of entry and substitution, the more intense competition is likely to be within the industry. However, these five factors are not the only ones that determine how firms in an industry will compete – the structure of the industry itself may play an important role. Indeed, the whole five-forces framework is based on an economic theory know as the “Structure-Conduct-Performance” (SCP) model: the structure of an industry determines organizations’ competitive behaviour (conduct), which in turn determines their profitability (performance). In concentrated industries, according to this model, organizations would be expected to compete less fiercely, and make higher profits, than in fragmented ones. However, as Haberberg and Rieple (2001) state, the histories and cultures of the firms in the industry also play a very important role in shaping competitive behaviour, and the predictions of the SCP model need to be modified accordingly.

The power of suppliers:

The power of suppliers tends to be a reversal of the power of buyers. Where the switching costs are high e.g. Switching from one software supplier to another.  Power is high where the brand is powerful e.g. Cadillac, Pizza Hut, Microsoft. There is a possibility of the supplier integrating forward e.g. Brewers buying bars.  Customers are fragmented (not in clusters) so that they have little bargaining power e.g. Gas/Petrol stations in remote places.

Huawei began its operations in Bangladesh in 1998. Over the years the company has grown to become one of the leading communication suppliers, providing comprehensive services to all the Bangladeshi telecom operators. the company has become the second biggest supplier to Airtel..

Strategic Partnership with IBM and Ericsson for outsourcing of the Company core IT network activities.

Supplier Power

The supplies in Mobile sectors primarily comprise of Switch Suppliers, Tower Service providers and the Handset providers.

Network Equipments: There are limited Network Equipment providers like ZTE,Nokia Siemens, Ericsson, Huawei. Due to the increase in demand and limited suppliers the power of these suppliers are high and may impact the growth plan of the operators if supplies are not smooth.

Tower Providers: Though the new sharing technology has help in utilizing the Towers but still the coverage remains a problem due to few Tower provider bargaining power of Tower providers if High.

Handset Suppliers: Nokia, Samsung, LG, Sony, iPhone and numerous other players. The bargaining power of Handset Suppliers is less as they are also competing amongst themselves.

Overall we can make out that the key supplies powers are high for Mobile Industry.

Supplier Power

Categories
Architecture

Problems and Prospects of Real Estate Sector in Bangladesh

Chapter-1

ORIGIN OF THE REPORT

Introduction

Residence is one of the basic needs of human beings. The right to live in one’s own is a fundamental right of people and it is internationally recognized. The demand of housing in urban areas in developing countries like Bangladesh is dramatically increasing due to natural increase and its fast growth rate. Rural people are migrating not only to find jobs but many wealthy people are moving to urban areas like Dhaka city for the fulfillment of their expectations of better of their future generation, and for enjoying the modern facilities of the city life. This has resulted into a serious crisis all over the country especially in the major cities of Bangladesh. In recent time, the private real estate firms have taken initiatives by ensuring maximum uses of land in a planned way. In this system it is possible to accommodate more people in a comparatively small place.

Literature Review

Real estate had made a mark in the very first year of its emergence with leaping to prominence as prime & various locations of the city and in manufacturing quality concrete products that have earned them the distinguished stature they enjoy today.

Dr. Miznur Rahman, in his article “The Real Estate Business in Dhaka City” has tried to analyze the market situation, competition, and customer perceptions about the real estate developers. But in his paper he does not mention how the top ranking real estate companies are gaining competitive advantages, and he does not pass his valuable comments on promotional mix, marketing mix etc. which are very important aspects of marketing in the context of competitive market.

According to the journal of IBS Mr., Shib Shankar Roy attempt to investigate how the private Real Estate sector solving the housing need and to analyze the market situation & perception of customer about the Real Estate marketers. He also concludes that the Real Estate marketers should have appropriate plans for constructing low cost apartment in the peripheral areas of the town. But he does not mention how a company can set their marketing strategy for their apartments.

Mr. Taluckder and others has tried to examine and assess the present of apartment marketing and its future. Now, the business environment has changed to multi-various purposes, such as for business, residence etc. The business activities have not been focused through their paper like the promotional activities, as the problems associated with the business have not yet been highlighted exactly.

Also, the paper does not pin point how to overcome the major barriers of the Real Estate Companies that are being faced by the developers as well as buyers in the context of present competitive market of the apartment marketing. The study suggests that the future apartment building projects should be planned to cater to the needs of the middle-income people. Banks and other financial institutions should extend their assistance to the apartment builders. But they do not mention in their paper that how the problems of the Real Estate Business can be solved. However, they have extended their hands to highlight the various problems by providing information in the arena of Real Estate Business.

 Mr. Belayed and others has attempted to investigate the nature of real estate business, psychological aspect of buyers, and policy decision of the firms. But the study does not highlight the subject in details. For purchasing high involvement product like an apartment, there is various economic and psychological factors influence the buyers purchasing decisions. Also, the study does not suggest what kind of government help and facilities will specifically be effective for growing Real Estate Business. But the study mentions some significant aspects of Real Estate Business like the nature of Real Estate Business, pricing policy etc.

Importance of the study report:

In developing the urban area, Real Estate plays an important role as well as solving housing problem. Now a day’s real estate business in Bangladesh became very much competitive. Competitors are moving very aggressively to achieve their target as well as increase their market share. On the other hand, the customers are become very much aware about the current market of apartments as a result it became very difficult to take decisions. Primary data that are collected and analyzed in this study will be helpful for the decision makers of Advanced Development Technologies Limited.

 Objectives of the study report:

Every study must have its objectives. Again the objectives should be specified and well defined. So the main objective of this study is to analyze the problems and prospects of Real estate sector in Bangladesh.

Bearing the above view in mind, I have notified the following objectives for my research.

  1. To identify the problems and prospects of Real estate sector in Bangladesh
  2. To analyze the SWOT of real estate company.
  3. To analyze the present real estate business situation.
  4. To develop project
  5. To develop marketing mix & strategy

Scope of the Study report:

Real estate had made a mark in the very first year of its emergence with leaping to prominence as prime & various locations of the city and in manufacturing quality concrete products that have earned them the distinguished stature they enjoy today. Attuned to the rhythms tomorrow, Real Estate business humbly launched its journey to reach to its noble vision to ensure a new standard of living

Methodology:

This paper has reviewed extensively the real estate financing issues providing updated data and literatures considering both developed and developing real estate financing markets along with discussions regarding problems, prospects and some policy implications of this sector in Bangladesh. Information has been sourced from two ways: Primary data and Secondary data.

Secondary data:  Academic journals, white papers, industry portals, government agencies, trade associations, industry news and developments

 Analysis of Data and Information

 Housing finance is defined as the extension of loans to consumers to acquire houses; leasing of houses to the consumers through financial leasing; and extension of loans to consumers where such loans are secured by the houses that the consumer owns. In addition, loans extended to refinance the loans explained in this context are also included in the housing finance.

 Housing Finance Systems in the Developing Countries

Housing finance systems in many developing and emerging economies share several characteristics. First, most housing finance systems are “institutional patchworks” that comprise private sector lenders as well as several government-managed housing finance institutions or programs (Renaud, 1996). From a regional perspective, the mortgage markets in South Asia are small and fragmented with the unorganized sector. Regarding the organized segments, there are distinct commonalities that characterize some of the mortgage markets of South Asia, such as a heavily subsidized monolith-like state run institution, a fledgling private sector catering to the middle and upper income segments and players from the banking sector that provide housing finance as a part of their retail portfolio. The mortgage markets in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan are such archetypes (Karnad, 2004). The residential housing sector of Bangladesh is characterized by a three-tier market. First are those households with the highest disposable income (less than 3 percent of the housing market), able to afford high quality housing in fully serviced neighborhoods, and able to utilize bank financing or specialized housing finance institutions. The second tier is the relatively narrow stratum of middle-income households (represents 12 to 15 per cent of the housing market) that are the main users of specialized housing financial institutions such as Bangladesh House Building Finance Corporation (BHBFC). This group is the major beneficiary of available public subsidies and is composed predominantly of public servants and wage/salary earners of large private companies and public sector corporations. The third and largest of the tiers is the low-income households, for which housing is provided largely by the private sector, often under illegal and unsatisfactory site conditions (ADB, 1995).

 Limitations of the study report :

There are limitations in every research that interrupt the workings of the research. The limitations, which are faced by me in conducting the study, are as follows,

  Time constraints.

  Lack of adequate financial support.

  Unavailability of previous research work.

  Conservativeness of respondents.

CHAPTER-2

Purpose of real estate business

The purpose of our real estate business is, obviously, to earn profit, but the promoters and the equity holders are ware of their commitment to the society to which they belong. A chunk of the profit is kept aside and/or spent for socioeconomic development through trustee and in atomization of art, culture and sports of the country. We want to make a substantive contribution to the society where we operate, to the extent of our separable resources.

Vision of Real Estate. 

 Application of modern information technology in business activities, offering high standard clientele services and proper coordination of business is the core of their vision.

Mission of Real Estate.

With a view to achieving objective of the real estate sector, their sincere and al out efforts stay put unabated. Respected clients and stakeholders are attached to us for our transparency, accountability, social commitments and high quality of clientele service.

Objective of Real Estate.

Bring Modern facilities to the doorstep of general public through diversification of their service. They try to maintain their quality of the product. They try to maintain their commitment to the client.

  • Professionalism.
  • Transparency.
  • Service.

Business goal of Real Estate.

To patronize, sponsor and encourage games and sports, entertainment and other social activities, alongside providing the best services to the clients.

Growth & development of Real Estate.

Real Estate business carried out all traditional functions, which a real estate performs such as installment, discount, festival, offer, trade & commerce & industry. Real estate business earning amount are increasing day by day.

Pricing policy:

Considering the customer’s demand schedule, the cost function, and competitor’s prices the companies set their product’s price. Costs set a floor to the price; and the price of the substitute products provides an orienting point. Customer’s assessment of unique product features establishes the price in the market. Different types of pricing strategies are –

a. Mark up pricing

b. Target returns pricing

c. Perceived value pricing

d. Value pricing

e. Going rate pricing

f. Sealed Bid Pricing

g. Flexible pricing strategy

The existing products of apartment developer are luxurious apartment (Tk 6000 – 6500 and above per sft.), high rising luxurious apartment (Tk 5500 – 6000 per sft.), moderate apartment (Tk 3500 – 4000 per sft.) and high rising moderate apartment (Tk 4000 – 4500 per sft.), commercial building cum apartment, commercial building, super market etc. with this they include car parking & utility charge.

 How to Develop a New Project:

Following is the process of developing new project

Marketing Strategy

The process of planning and executing the pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, ideas, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. Simply, if it doesn’t facilitate a “sale” then it’s not marketing.

Two major aspects of marketing are the recruitment of new customers (acquisition) and the retention and expansion of relationships with existing customers (customer base management or customer relationship management). An emerging area of study and practice concerns internal marketing, or how employees are trained and managed to deliver the brand in a way that positively impacts the acquisition and retention of customers. Marketing is the process of trading in a market; buying or selling. The taking of merchandise to market. Market also a gathering where people buy and sell. To buy or sell in a market is marketable that which may be sold.

Marketing mix divided into four functional areas:

In marketing process they overcome in four Processes:

1)      Analyzing marketing opportunities

2)      Selecting Target Markets

3)      Developing The Marketing Mix

4)      Managing the Marketing effort

Marketing process and the forces influencing business marketing strategy. As a first step through market segmentation, targeting, and positioning, the company decides which customer it will serve and how. It identifies the total market, then divides it into smaller segments, selects the most promising segments, and focuses on serving and satisfying these segments. Next the organization design a marketing mix made up of factors under its control – product, price, place, and promotion. To find out the best marketing mix and put it into action, then the company engage in marketing analysis, planning, implementation and control. Through these activities, the company watches and adapts to the actors and forces in the marketing environment. Market positioning is so much essential for developing company cause arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive and desirable place relative to competing products in the mind of target client.

 Developing the marketing mix according to Real estate business:

Once the real estate has decided on its overall competitive strategy, it is ready to begin planning the details of the marketing mix. The marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its product.

Marketing Mix

  • Product
  • Price
  • Place
  • Promotion

Product:

Products mean the goods and services combination the offers to the target market. In fact, finding the right product concept is one of the four critical objectives of marketing. Real estate is successful strategic marketer they carefully and completely consider their product options. Marketing Strategies of Real Estate in Bangladesh business made actions and enjoyed a dominant position in the world market and domestic Market. By the 2006’s they had introduced many inventive variations of the Real Estate. However, they completely ignored the streams of independent invention that, together, created the quartz watch action.

 Price:

Price is the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the product. Real estate has set their pricing strategy to think the different target customer. Pricing mainly determined by location of the project in the country. It’s incredible how few people fail to appreciate this simple truth. A graduate professor in Financial Management taught us several different ways to precisely determine the cost of a product. Out came the calculators. At this real estate, that will cover the cost of taxes, goods sold, manufacturing, overhead, marketing, depreciation, and still provide a net income, which is better than the average in this particular market.

Place: 

Place includes company activities that makes the product available to target customer. Place determined by the company in geographic basis they set their project mainly in urban areas of different location. Real estate marketing their products concentrates on location basis they divide Dhaka city in different location.

 They place their product

  • Area on the world map, or country map, or city map.
  • Income group
  • A common interest
  • A common personality
  • A common lifestyle
  • Occupation
  • By intermediaries

Promotion:

Promotion means activities that communicate the merits of the product and persuade target customers to buy it.  The process of buying and selling in a market ultimately, has to promote the entire customer of the target market. Product Quality and characteristic of company their main promotional tools side by side they go for different advertisement, billboard, Fair etc to inform their product feature with prices. They promote their customer that loan facility available, discount in at a time payment, due time Handover swimming pool and other value added services.

 CHAPTER- 3

SCENARIO OF REAL ESTATE SECTOR

Overall Scenario of Real Estate Business in Bangladesh:

Dhaka City, born during the Moghul Empire and grown with the British rule, is expanding rapidly. From the beginning of the 20th Century its growth and latter development is marked with sheer lack of proper and far-reaching planning. The impact is now being felt at the end of the century. Dhaka City is undergoing terrific growth phase throughout the last two decades. While there are so many real estate developers in the market, there are also very few of them who have maintained the quality, safety and customer preference. It is customary in the country that the first day quality and impression is lost after a while when people start getting a bit of familiarity. This happens due mainly to lack of professionalism. Sometimes the consumers here are in a fix to choose a particular brand out of many. A good number of real estate companies are working under one umbrella association named ‘Real Estate and Housing Association of Bangladesh’ (REHAB). Almost 83 Companies are at present affiliated with this association, while more than 200 companies are working independently. BTI took a leading role in the formation of the industry association and is one of the founder members of the REHAB.

Objectives:
a)         To offer finest apartments in excellent locations to the clients;
b)         To provide sound construction with aesthetic design to the clients;
c)         To install best possible fittings and fixtures;
d)         To satisfy clients by expert-oriented service;
e)         To help solving the residential problem of Dhaka city;
f)         To perform social responsibility for a happy future Market:
Real estate business especially apartment projects has started in late 1970s in Dhaka City. But from early ’80s the business started to grow and flourish. At present, more than 250 companies are active in business but 95% business is still dominated by of top 10 Companies. Present market is growing at the rate 15%.

Reasons for development of the industry:
The main reasons why real estate business developed in Dhaka city are as follows:
a) Scarcity of open space in the important areas of the city
b) Hazards of purchasing land
c) Hazards of construction of building
d) Rapid increase in population of Dhaka
e) Decrease in the rate of bank interest
f) Price of land and apartments is increasing day by day
g) Rent of the apartments is comparatively higher than the rent of privately constructed flats
h) Open Market Economy. Remittance of foreign currency is very easy
i) Security
j) Service facilities such as garbage disposal, central satellite TV connection, apartments services saves time, roof top facilities, lift and so on.

 CHAPTER – 4

REAL ESTATE STATUS IN MARKET

 Types of market segmentation:
The market of real estate business sector is highly segmented. This segmentation is mainly based on the location, price of the land, and size of the apartments. The segmented areas are:
a) Segmentation – I :Baridhara, Gulshan, Banani, DOHS, Uttara
b) Segmentation – II :Dhanmondi
c) Segmentation – III :Segunbagicha, Shantinagar, Kakrail, Malibagh, Kalabagan
d) Segmentation – IV :Mirpur
e) Segmentation – V :Old Town of Dhaka City
f) Segmentation – VI :(For office building) Motijheel, Dilkusha, Fakirapool DIT h)Extension Road, RK Mission Road, Shahidbagh, Kawran Bazar, Pantha Path etc.

Places in Dhaka city where residential and commercial projects has been congregated:
Dhanmondi; Gulshan; Banani; Eskaton; Siddeshawari; Panthapath; Baridhara; Elephant Road; Mirpur Housing Estate, Mirpur; Dilkusha C/A; Kakrail Rd.; Malibagh; Lalmatia; Indira Road; Pallabi, Mirpur; Old Airport Road; Farmgate; Inner Circular Road; Mohakhali; Ashulia, Savar; Kalikair, Gazipur.

The development projects for apartments and residential purposes range from Duplex Home, Triplex Home, Penthouse, Luxury Home, Furnished Apartment, Unfurnished Apartment, to Condominium and Vacation-Resort Property. Commercial projects includes Industrial Shed, Agro Farm House, Warehouse / Godown, Commercial Space, Industrial space, Office Building, Office Suite, Furnished Office, Commercial Showroom, Exquisite Office, Industrial Park, Factory, Lofts, Shopping Center, etc.

 Real estate competitors in Bangladesh:

Price lists of different companies in different places:

Name of Companies

Gulshan

Banani

Mohammadpur

Mirpur

Dhanmondi

Uttara

Midtown

Rangs Properties

3500

2700

1950 P

1700

GEO Properties ltd

2800 P

1600

1500

2200

ENA Properties 

2200

1800

1900

1. Borak Real

2000

2. Nagar Homes

2200

3. AminMohammad

3200

1600

3000

2000

4. South Breege

3500+

2000

3000

5. Navana

3500

1850

1450

3250

1850

2200

6. Oriental

2750

1800

2150

1800

2000

7. Bashgreho

1500

1550

1750

8. Structural (SEL)

3250 P

2000

1650 P

3200

2000

2200

9. Assurance

2750

3000

Name of Companies

Gulshan

Banani

Mohammadpur

Mirpur

Dhanmondi

Uttara

Midtown

1.ANZ Properties

2850

1600

2.Bay

2875 P

3.ADDL

1650

4.Asset

3500

2900

5.Concord

2850-3200

2500

1750

6.Sheltech

3000

1450

1600

7.Mega Builders

1675 P

MAJOR ACTIVITIES

1. Application for allotment of apartments should be made on the prescribed application form duly signed by the applicant along with the earnest money. The company has the right to accept or reject any application without assigning any reason thereto.

2. On acceptance of an application, the company will issue allotment letter to the applicant on which the applicant/allotted shall start making payment as per the schedule of the project. Allotment of apartments is made on first come first serve basis.

3. Payments of earnest money, installments, car park costs, additional works and other charges shall be made by bank draft or pay order directly in the name of the respective company against which the receipts will be issued. Bangladeshis residing abroad may remit payments in foreign exchange by TT or DD in the name of the company.

4. Payments of installments and all other charges are to be made on due dates according to the schedule. The company may issue reminders to the allottee, but notwithstanding the issue of reminders, the allottee must adhere to the schedule to ensure timely completion of construction.

 5. The company may arrange HBFC/Bank loan (if available) for allottees according to the existing rules and regulations of the authority concerned.

 6. Delay in payments beyond the schedule date will make the allottee liable to pay delay charge (amount varies from company to company) for every 30 days on the amount of the payment delayed. If the payment is delayed beyond 60 days the company shall have the right to cancel the allotment. In such an event, the amount paid by the allottee will be refunded after deducting the earnest money and after allotment of the canceled apartment.

 7. Connection fees/charges security deposits and other incidental expenses relating to gas, water, sewerage and electric connections are included in the price of apartments. The company will make those payments directly to the authorities concerned on the allottee’s account.

 8. Limited changes in the specifications, design and/or layout of the apartments and other facilities may be made by the company in larger overall interest or due to unavoidable reasons.

 9. The company may cancel an allotment for non-payment of installments in disregard of reminders and after final intimation to the allottee by registered post at the address given in the application form. 10. The allottee shall be required to execute an agreement with the respective company for safeguarding the interests.

10. The possession of the apartment shall be duly handed over to the allottee on completion and full payment of installments and other charges and dues. Till then the possession will rest with the company. If the project is completed before the stipulated time, the allottee shall have to make full payment before taking possession.

 11. The allottees will become equally divisible undivided and undemarketed shareholders of total acres of the scheduled land of the project in respective apartment. After all the dues and installments are paid by the purchaser according to the requirements and schedule for payment and after the completion of the construction, the vendors shall execute a registered sale deed in favor of the purchaser transferring share of land of the project in the demised apartment.

 12. After taking over of apartment of the project, the allottee (s) must consult the company prior to undertaking any structural or layout changes within the apartment complex. Failure to do so will be at the sole risk of the allottee.

 14. Company shall not be liable if the completion period of the construction of the projects is affected by unavoidable circumstances beyond the control of the company, like natural calamities, political disturbances, strikes and changes in the fiscal policy of the state etc.

 15. For the purpose of effective management and maintenance of the building the purchaser of the apartment shall form and constitute a mutual benefit cooperative society under the Co-operative Society’s Act 1940. The society shall be entrusted with the management and maintenance of the building. The rules, regulations and by laws of the co-operative society relating to management and maintenance of the building shall be binding upon all the purchasers/owners of the apartments.

ADDITIONAL WORK AT THE PERIOD OF PROJECT:

The overall evaluation of a real estate Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats is called SWOT analysis. It involves monitoring the external and internal marketing environment. By reviewing the business strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, can respond to changing market conditions.

 A particular SWOT analysis discloses the following issues for an organization that an organization achieved over the time of its operation by analyzing its both internal and external environment:

   “S”- Strengths

  “W”-Weakness

  “O”-Opportunities

  “T”-Threats

SWOT ANALYSIS OF “Real estate business”:

Strengths:

  • Experienced Management.
  • Efficient and dedicated employees.
  • Good understanding between employees.
  • Good relationship with exiting clients.
  • Locations of the Projects are good enough.
  • High standard of construction quality.

Weaknesses:

  • Many prospective clients don’t have any idea about its construction quality.
  • Comparatively product’s prices are higher than many companies.
  • Lack of promotional activities or advertisements.
  • No specific policy following by the employees.

Opportunities:

  • The upcoming Projects are in demandable locations.
  • Huge number of projects under construction.

Motivation of the sales persons to encourage them for more effective in sell.

  • Offer the prospective clients to visit the existing projects to make positive impression.
  • In Dhaka, there is no availability of land at the good places so people have to buy flat and real estate can be a good option for the flat buyers

Threats:

  • Huge number of competitors & Lack of suitable land.
  • National catastrophes.
  • Non-availability of funds
  • Loss of experience stuff.

CHAPTER – 5

FINANCIAL STATUS

 Financing in Real Estate Company

Status of Real Estate Financing in Bangladesh

McKinney, Jr. (1952) has identified four sources of real estate financing (in order of contribution) during the housing boom in the United States, such as savings and loan associations followed by commercial banks, insurance companies, and mutual savings banks. Edwards, (1964) has also pointed out that savings and loan associations by continue to grow more rapidly than other mortgage lenders, is the dominant force

in the home mortgage markets. In spite of an increasing focus on urban housing and development, informal systems are still the dominant producers in many developing countries – an estimated 60 and 70 per cent of

 Financial limitation

1. If the housing problems are to be more effectively addressed, housing policies, specially financing issues must be taken in consideration. Stronger, more effective enabling strategies must be developed by the public sector to allow housing markets for the various tiers to leverage the activities of the private sector. The National Housing Policy, 1993 focuses on the basic objectives of providing housing to people at all strata, especially to the low and middle income groups and those having no access to housing.

2. The objectives of the subsidy scheme should be to assist those that do not qualify for a formal sector mortgage loan and thereby increasing the number of middle income households that can avail themselves of housing finance. However, we need to keep in mind that subsidized funding for state owned housing finance entities creates distortions in the market place and it should be stopped. Fortunately, for the last few years, BHBFC could not avail any subsidized funding through the government or government guaranteed debt.

3. Real estate loan recovery rate in the public sector is very low and well below that of the commercial banks. While in the past a rural house lending program, sponsored by the government through a 3 per cent refinancing window at the Bangladesh Bank was stopped because of alleged poor recovery rates. The outstanding balance of total loans and advances of the BHBFC on June 30, 2000 was BDT 27,236.97 million, of which classified loans accounted for BDT 8,343.07 million. However, the recovery rate of housing sector loans in the banking sector averages approximately 70 per cent. The poor recovery rate is due mostly to older loans and recovery exceeds 80 per cent on loans disbursed after 1990 (Hoek-Smit, 1998).

4. In order to develop a primary mortgage market, financial assistance to primary mortgage market players (e.g. banks extending housing loans, specialized housing finance originators) through equity participation, loans, credit lines and warehouse lines should be given. Development of standardized and prudent credit underwriting, mortgage origination and servicing standards, and advice on the use of technology to implement such standards.

5. National housing finance systems must prove themselves competitive by mobilizing and allocating capital efficiently. The BHBFC has only made very limited progress in becoming self-sustainable or in reaching lower income households. Since BHBFC does not have additional funding they are not in a position to go for new lending. The prices of mortgaged lands that BHBFC had against their lending 10 to 15 years ago have gone up significantly.

6. Insurance and Trust Acts have not been changed to facilitate lending by long-term investors in the housing sector. Sometimes developers are accused for not properly following the procedures for borrowing money from financial organizations. Three parties get involved in the process – the developer, the landowner from whom the land was leased and the one who buys the apartment.

 Types of loan

In Bangladesh there are 3 (three) Financing Organizations in Private Sector, which are ffering loan facilities for housing and commercial spaces.Classification of Mortgage Loan:

There are four types of mortgage loan which is related crucially to the real estate. They are

      Conventional Mortgage Loan

      Insured Conventional Mortgage Loan

      FHA Insured  Mortgage Loan

      VA Guaranteed Conventional Mortgage Loan

  1. Conventional Mortgages: are negotiated between a borrower and lender. From these negotiations, the loan-to-value ratio interest rate (or ARM terms) and the payment-to-income ratio are established.
  2. Insured Conventional Mortgage Loan: In many instances, borrower do not have the necessary wealth to make a down payment of 20% of value when purchasing property. However if the income earning ability of the borrower and the location of the property being acquired are satisfactory, lenders may be willing to grant a loan request in excess of 80% of value with a condition that the borrower purchase mortgage insurance against default risk.
  3. FHA Mortgage Loan: A Mortgage can be insured by the federal housing administration. Unlike Conventional Insurance which protects the lender against some portion of the potential loan loss.
  4. VA Guaranteed Conventional Mortgage Loan: VA stands for Veteran agreement conventional mortgage loan.

Types of Loan Source

Name of the Organization

 

Corporate Address 

Contact Numbers

 

Delta Brac Housing
Finance Corporation Ltd.
(DBH)

Interest Rate:
a) Privileged Clients – 12.50%
b) General Clients – 13.00% Website:

Gulshan Head Office
Landmark Building (9th Floor),
12-14 Gulshan North C/A
Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212.
Motijheel Branch
Room # 1101,
Sena Kalyan Bhaban (11th Floor)
195 Motijheel C/A, Dhaka-1000.Dhanmondi Branch
Pantha Plaza (1ST Floor),
63/A Lake Circus
Kalabagan, Dhaka-1205.
Chittagong Branch
Faruque Chamber (7th Floor),
1403 Seikh Muzib Road
Choumuhony, Chittagong.
Gulshan Head Office
Phone # 8822374, 9882112 | Fax # 880-2-9882110
E-mail: dbh@deltabrac.comMotijheel Branch
Phone # 7111774, 7111778, 9564907, 0171621062
Fax # 880-2-9551536 | E-mail: motijheel@deltabrac.com

Dhanmondi Branch
Phone # 8130906, 9134211, 9124112, 8117264, 018251216
Fax # 880-2-8117264 | E-mail: dhanmondi@deltabrac.com

Chittagong Branch
Phone # (031) 711782, 712298, 727885, 0171816672
Fax # 880-31-728202 | E-mail: chittagong@deltabrac.com

Industrial Development Leasing
Company of Bangladesh Limited
(IDLC)

Interest Rate:
a) Priority Clients – 12.50%
b) General Clients – 13.00% Website:www.idlc.com

Corporate Head Office
Hadi Mansion, 2, Dilkusha C/A,
GPO Box # 3160
Dhaka-1000.Chittagong Branch
Suriya Mansion, 30, Agrabad C/A
Chittagong.
Corporate Head Office
Phone # 880-2-9560111 | Fax # 880-2-9563620
E-mail: mailbox@idlc.com, housefin@idlc.com
Chittagong Branch
Phone # (031) 711034, 713742 | Fax # 88-031-715895
E-mail: idlcctg@spnctctg.com
National Housing Finance
And Investments Limited

Interest Rate:
a) Prime Loan/Clients – 12.50%
b) General Loan/Clients – 13.00% Website:http://www.nationalhousingfinance.com/

Corporate Head Office
National Plaza (7th Floor),
1/G Free School Street
Sonargaon Road, Dhaka.Motijheel Branch
Chamber Building (6th Floor),
122-124 Motijheel
Dhaka-1000.
Corporate Head Office
National Plaza (7th Floor),
1/G Free School Street
Sonargaon Road, Dhaka.
Corporate Head Office
Phone # 9669800, 9666281, 9670612-4 | Fax # 880-2-9671016
E-mail: housing@dbn-bd.com,housing@intechworld.net
Motijheel Branch
Chamber Building (6th Floor),
122-124 Motijheel
Dhaka-1000.

 TERMS & CONDITIONS

1. Application of and Acceptance of Terms and Conditions.

For purposes of this Agreement, a “User” is any person who accesses the Site for whatever purpose, regardless of whether such User has registered with us as a registered user or whether such User is a paying customer for a specific service provided by us. A User includes the person using this Site and any legal entity, which may be represented, by such person under actual or apparent authority.

 2. By accessing or using the Site, you hereby agree to accept the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement as a User. The terms and conditions of this Agreement with respect to your access or use of this Site and any further upgrade, modification, addition or change to this Site shall bind you. If you do not accept all of the terms and conditions of this Agreement, please do not use this Site.

3. This Agreement applies to each Paid/Free Service (as defined below) in addition to any terms and conditions that may be applicable to such specific Paid/Free Service.

 Registered Users:

1. Each User who has filled out an on-line registration form on the Site by giving its information (such as name, address, telephone and fax number, email address, details of its business, etc.)  Silicon link (bangladeshirealestate.com) will establish an account (“Account”) for each Registered User and each Registered User is assigned a user alias (“User ID”) and password (“Password”) for log-in access to its own Account.

  2.Registered Users shall not access or enjoy the benefits of any Paid Services without payment for such services; provided, however, that we may permit such free access or enjoyment of Paid Services by a Registered User on a case-by-case basis; provided, further, that we reserve the right at any time to deny access to any Paid Service (including but not limited to termination of the Account of such Registered User) if the Registered User has not paid us the relevant charges and fees under the terms of such Paid Service.

3. We may suspend or terminate a Registered User’s Account at any time by giving no less than 24-hour notice to the Registered User; provided, however, that notice is not required for such termination if, in our determination, there is any breach of the provisions of this Agreement by the Registered User.

5. Notwithstanding Section 4.1 above, we may refuse registration and deny the issuance of an Account and associated User ID and Password to any User for whatever reason.

5.Users Who Post Information on www.bangladeshirealestate.com
You must be a Registered User in order to post information on the Site using the self-help submit and edit tools provided through the Site. Your status as a Registered User is governed by the provisions of Section 4 above. No sales agency relationship is created between any User and us, our affiliates, directors, officers or employees by virtue of our display of any of the User’s information on the Site.

purpose:
(c) relate to sale of products or services that infringe or otherwise abet or encourage the infringement or violation of any third party’s copyright, patent, trademarks, trade secret or other proprietary right or rights;

 (d) Violate any applicable law, statute, ordinance or regulation (including without limitation those governing export control, consumer protection, unfair competition, anti-discrimination or false advertising);

  (e) Be defamatory, libelous, unlawfully threatening or unlawfully harassing;

 (f) be obscene or contain or infer any pornography or sex-related merchandising or any other content or otherwise promotes sexually explicit materials or is otherwise harmful to minors;

  (g) Promote discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality, disability, or age;

  (h) contain any material that constitutes unauthorized advertising or harassment (including but not limited to spamming), invades anyone’s privacy or encourages conduct that would constitute a criminal offence, give rise to civil liability, or otherwise violate any law or regulation;

 Limitations of Liability

The features and services on this site are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis, and we hereby expressly disclaim any and all warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to any warranties of condition, quality, durability, performance, accuracy, reliability, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. All such warranties, representations, conditions, undertakings and terms are hereby excluded.

We make no representations or warranties about the validity, accuracy, correctness, reliability, quality, stability, completeness or current ness of any information provided on or through the site. Any material downloaded or otherwise obtained through the Site is done at each User’s sole discretion and risk and each User is solely responsible for any damage to its computer system or loss of data that may result from the download of any such material. No advice or information, whether oral or written, obtained by any User from the Site shall create any warranty not expressly stated herein.

Under no circumstances shall we be held liable for an delay or failure or disruption of the content or services delivered through the Site resulting directly or indirectly from acts of nature, forces or causes beyond its reasonable control, including without limitation, Internet failures, computer, telecommunications or any other equipment failures, electrical power failures, strikes, labor disputes, riots, insurrections, civil disturbances, shortages of labor or materials, fires, flood, storms, explosions, Acts of God, war, governmental actions, orders of domestic or foreign courts or tribunals or non-performance of third parties. Each User hereby agrees to indemnify and save us, its affiliates, directors, officers and employees harmless, from any and all losses, claims, liabilities (including legal costs on a full indemnity basis) which may arise from such User’s use of the Site (including but not limited to the display of such User’s information on the Site) or from its breach of any of the terms and conditions of this Agreement. Each User further agrees that we are not responsible and shall have no liability to it, for any material posted by others; including defamatory, offensive or illicit material and that the risk of damages from such material rests entirely with each User. We shall not be liable for any special, direct, indirect, punitive, incidental or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever (including but not limited to damages for loss of profits or savings, business interruption, loss of information), whether in contract, negligence, tort or otherwise or any other damages resulting from any of the following:

 The use or the inability to use the Site;

(b) Any defect in goods, samples, data, information or services purchased or obtained from a User or a third-party service provider through the Site;

 (c) Unauthorized access by third parties to data or private information of any User;

(d) Statements or conduct of any User of the Site; or

(e) Any matters relating to Paid Services however arising, including negligence.

Intellectual Property Rights We are the sole owner or lawful licensee of all the rights to the Site and the Content. The Site and Content embody trade secrets and intellectual property rights protected under worldwide copyright and other laws. All title, ownership and intellectual property rights in the Site and Content shall remain with silicon Link. its affiliates or licensors of the Bangladesh Real estate Content, as the case may be. All rights not otherwise claimed under this Agreement or by silicon Link are hereby reserved. “Silicon link.” “Bangladeshi real estate.com” and related icons and logos are registered trademarks or trademarks or service marks silicon link various jurisdictions and are protected under applicable copyright, trademark and other proprietary rights laws. The unauthorized copying, modification, use or publication of these marks is strictly prohibited.
All notices or demands to or upon Silicon link (bangladeshrealestate.com) be effective if in writing and shall be duly made when sent to us in the following manner to: Silicon Link BTMC Bhaban (ground Floor) 7- 9 Kawran Bazar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. All notices or demands to or upon a User shall be effective if either delivered personally, sent by courier, certified mail, by facsimile or email to the last-known correspondence, fax or email address provided by the User to silicon link.. Notice to a User shall be deemed to be received by such User if and when

(a) Silicon link. is able to demonstrate that communication, whether in physical or electronic form, has been sent to such User, or

(b) Immediately upon Silicon link’s posting such notice on an area of the Site that is publicly accessible without charge. General Subject to any additional agreements relating to Paid Services, this Agreement and the Privacy Policy constitute the entire agreement between the User and Silicon link (Bangladesh realestate.com) with respect to access to and use of the Site, superseding any prior written or oral agreements in relation.

CHAPTER – 6

PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF REAL ESTATE IN BANGLADESH

 Problems & prospects of real estate sector in Bangladesh

The Real Estate and Construction Industry plays an important role for sustainable development of a country. In Bangladesh many construction projects are undertaken under development programs. The construction industry is an important sector for physical and economic development of the country. It provides physical expansion and economic development. This sector is well linked with human settlements, employment and environment. In case of Bangladesh it is not actively patronized by the policies of the government. As a result, this sector could not grow under a systematic environment. This paper makes a case study of construction industry of Bangladesh with special emphasis on Real Estate & Housing sector. The paper discusses the pros and cons of the project activities and its various implementation stages. It narrates the experiences and recommends more appropriate realistic strategies, which are both applicable in local and national levels of Bangladesh.

Introduction:
Being one of the most densely populated countries of the world with a huge population, Bangladesh has already surrendered nearly 25% of its land to human settlements and related uses. With the current 30 million urban populations, the share of urban land is about 2 percent of all lands and nearly 10 percent of land under settlements.

Urbanization helps saving land for settlements. This is because of the possibility of higher density. As of today 30 million urban population are squeezed on about 3370 square kilometers (1300 square miles) of land in the country giving a gross density of 8870 persons per square kilometer (23000 persons per square mile) as opposed to about 700 persons per square kilometer (1800 persons per square mile) in rural areas. Thus the urban density is more than 12 times that of the rural density. But urban population will be more than double in the next 20 years and the trend would continue. By the year 2040 Bangladesh would possibly have half of its population (of 200 million or so) in urban areas that would amount to 100 million people in urban areas.

Due to various factors, including absence of an urbanization policy or a human settlement policy, urban growth and urban development in Bangladesh is basically Dhaka oriented. Already 30% of the urban populations of the country are concentrated in Dhaka Mega city region. The trend is continuing or becoming more entrenched. As Dhaka is the Nucleus City of Bangladesh and the focal point of all social, political and economic activities, the current housing situation of Dhaka City is mainly outlined in this paper. The problems and prospects of housing are also discussed in the light of the experiences of some other major cities of the world. The present and future trend of housing development is also discussed with special reference to high land value in Dhaka City. In future there would obviously be a need for higher density of population in both rural and urban areas, more so in urban areas. Density can be increased both horizontally (by more compact arrangement) or vertically through multi-storied development. There is no magical solution to the present or future housing problem of Dhaka City. Different sets of policies need to be implemented both at the national as well as the local levels. Nevertheless in the light of the prevailing high growth rate in population as well as increasing value of land in Dhaka city, it can be easily argued that apartment development should be encouraged in the coming years. Both walk-up as well as high rise developments should be encouraged. Hence the future residents of Dhaka should adapt themselves to apartment living by being more accommodative and tolerant. All of us would prefer to live in a private home with a front lawn and /or a back garden, but since urban land is scarce and expensive, solutions with high rise development need to be considered in a rapid developing city like Dhaka.

Interaction of Urbanization with Population Growth

High population growth and rural-urban migration intensify the problems of urbanization in Bangladesh, as in all developing countries. For Bangladesh the problem is further aggravated by limited land supply in urban areas, lower land utilization and lack of proper policy and planning of land-use. The ever growing urban population is creating an increasing demand for space. This rapid influx of population to the (capital) city results in sky rocketing land prices and provides some stimulus to construction of tall buildings. During the last four decades, metropolitan Dhaka has recorded a phenomenal growth in terms of population and area. Dhaka at present is one of the fastest growing metropolises in the world. After the war of independence of 1971, Dhaka’s provincial capital status was raised to national capital overnight and its population increased manifold in the subsequent decades. The land area and population of Dhaka is usually expressed in terms of two boundaries. One is Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) boundary and the other one is the larger boundary of Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkhya (RAJUK). Within DCC limits (with about 520 square kilometer i.e. 200 square mile), there are already over 7 million people and growing possibly at 5.5 percent annually. Gross density is 11,570-13,500 persons per square kilometer (30,000-35,000 persons per square mile). In some parts density of over 38,580 persons per square kilometer (100,000 persons per square mile) exist, with an average of 3 stories for pucca development or one story for kutcha development. But at such high densities, we do not get enough road space or open space or other non-residential space either. Outside DCC, but within RAJUK limits, there are 1008 square kilometers (about 390 square miles), wherein live another 2 to 3 million people. Densities in such areas vary from very high to very low. In fact much of the RAJUK areas, beyond DCC, are not ready for proper urban development yet. There are low lands, liable to annual floods, and to deep flooding during abnormal floods. But urban expansion takes place even in such marginal lands through gradual earth filling.At present the Dhaka metropolitan area consists of the inner city which is almost built up and surrounding areas which are semi-built up. During the period from 1981 to 2000, the greater Dhaka population grew at an average rate of 5.5% from about 3.44 million to 10.0 million. During the same period the built up area increased from 104 sq. km (39% of the city area) to 150 sq. km. (55%). By the year 2015 the expected population of the city is forecasted to be as high as 15.7 million. It is expected that Dhaka will become one of the ten largest cities of the world by the year 2020 with a population as high as 20 million and to make provision for accommodation and comfortable living of this large population, creation of new satellite towns adjacent to the city and also new towns around the cosmopolitan city will be necessary. For this purpose, the area of Gazipur, Kaliakoir, Savar, Tongi, Narayanganj and Keraniganj across the river Buriganga and Purbachal i.e. Yusufgonj under Rupgonj thana of Narayongonj district in between the rivers Balu and Shitalakhya will be taken into consideration.The additional population in the coming decade will add new dimensions to the urban fabric of metropolitan Dhaka. The main reasons for the huge anticipated increase of Dhaka population in the coming decade is due to unbalanced urbanization and presence of primacy in the city size distribution pattern. Compared to other developed and developing countries.

Housing in Dhaka City

Housing conditions of Dhaka City vary greatly between high and low-income groups as well as by area. The gap is obvious between luxurious high income apartments/houses which exist in high-income areas such as Gulshan, Baridhara, Dhanmandi, Uttara areas and poorly constructed temporary housing (Jhupri) with extremely small floor space, very densely located on the lands prone to flood disasters. About 30% of the slum dwellers live in Jhupri, 24% in Chhai, 13% in Tong, 30% in Tin-shed, 2.5% in Semi-pucca and 0.5% in Pucca type of structure. Housing requirements in Dhaka is 218,000 units including dissolution of backlog until 2001 and replacement, wherein the requirements of urban poor is 140,000 units, which share almost two-thirds of the total requirements. In terms of tenure, 54% of the households are on private rental basis while 31% are owned. Only 1.2% is on social housing.It can be pointed out that people from all socio-economic backgrounds in Dhaka are facing housing problem of one type or another. While the urban destitute need rehabilitation, the slum dwellers need slum upgrading. The low-income families are in need of low cost flats or plots and the middle and upper income families are complaining that the cost of a decent plot or a decent flat is going beyond their means. The solution to the problems of these different groups is also different and mainly lies in the hand of the policy makers and the government.

In recent years there has been a new trend of housing development mainly in the private sector. A new type of residential development has come on the scene, which can be broadly termed as apartment development. In most of the cases an individual or a company constructs one or more buildings comprising of several apartments, which are later sold to individual purchasers. This has prompted many individual entrepreneurs to develop apartment buildings resulting in an increased number of real estate companies in the city.

 Housing Access and Affordability

The rapid growth of city population has led to a phenomenal increase in housing demand in the city. The housing market of the city consists of five tenure groups – owner occupied, private rental, rent free, squatters and slums. Physically, housing has extended from makeshift arrangement and permanent houses. Dhaka City has a very high proportion of poor population (65%) and as such affordability of housing is significantly affected by the income distribution. The access of poor to housing is constrained by high land and material prices. In one study (DMDP, 1995), it has been observed that the first quintile of city household has zero affordability to housing; the second quintile can afford Tk. 140 to Tk. 300 per month; the third quintile can afford Tk. 300-400 per month; the fourth quintile of household can afford Tk. 480 to Tk. 600 per month and the fifth quintile of household can afford Tk. 1000-2500 per month. Only 3.85% of household can afford above Tk. 2500. The affordability indices of Dhaka City imply that the govt. has to play the role of both provider and facilitator/enabler for different income groups.

Apartment/Real Estate Development in Dhaka City

Three decades back the city dwellers were reluctant to live in flats while ten years back some one would have thought twice before buying an apartment/flat. But in the last couple of years people have shown an increased interest in owning apartments. As mentioned earlier the main reason is economic due to increased land cost as well as construction cost. There are also other reasons such as reluctance of individuals to spend time and energy in house construction, increased awareness of apartment living, and western influence. As a result apartment-owning is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover the absentee i.e. the wage earners in Middle East and other countries are also a major contributing factor towards the increasing demand for apartments. As a result of increased demand, many apartment builders have appeared in the market in recent years. Twenty years ago there were fewer than five companies in Bangladesh engaged in developing apartments while today there are more than 200 developers. It may be mentioned here that in 1988 there were less than 20 such developers in Dhaka. At present there are 80 such developers working in Dhaka City who are members of REHB. But there are many other companies/individuals engaged in such development in smaller scale and selling apartments to friends and relatives only.

Construction and Development Process

The contribution of construction industry in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is significant. Over the last 15 year the Real Estate Development sector has made significant contributions to many sectors of our economy. Since 1985 this sector has created homes for over 12000 families in the metropolitan city. Additionally, thousands of acres of land have been developed into housing estates where lower middle and middle-income families can construct their own dwellings. The fact that many cement manufacturing industries have now been set up in Bangladesh is a reflection of the impetus the Real Estate Development sector has given to our economy. In the last decade many steel mills would have shut down had it not been due to the support of the Real Estate Development sector. Several new mechanized construction material manufacturing industries have recently come up due to the existence of this sector. Today about 200 architects and consulting engineers are directly supported by this sector; over 500 graduate engineers are holding management positions in this sector and almost 2500 diploma engineers are engaged by this sector. The construction sector is directly linked with employment. There are both formal and informal building firms, who undertake works. In the period 1985-90, this sector contributed more than 5.55% in GDP. It is estimated that about 1.77 million man/ year in 1994/95 (according to Fourth Five year plan) were engaged in this sector. A large number of companies/firms in Dhaka are engaged in construction activities Contribution of construction industry may be summarized as:

. Construction industry generates huge formal and informal sector employment. This fact needs to be remembered more generally while policy making.

· Income redistribution through employment generation, skill upgrading, favorable financing for low-income housing, capital spending for large-scale civil engineering works, all contribute to redistribution of national products downwards (social justice component).

· On-the-job skill acquisition frequently leads to further specialization, both in the construction sector and in serving other industrial sectors. Skill generation is thus possible by construction industry.

· The low-income population, after the provision of shelter and civil infrastructure, feel morally upgraded (direct contribution to labor productivity). It has also been observed that improved dwellings are frequently transformed into some sort of informal economic production units. Improved road systems make commodity outputs of small units more easily accessible. Construction industry thus contributes to higher productivity.

The construction sector directly relates to employment, power and transport sectors. The construction industry is a very labor intensive, providing many jobs for skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers both in the formal and informal sectors. The informal sector also employs many people in construction industry. For the migrants from the rural areas the construction industry is a stepping stone to urban life.

It is a recognized fact that the health of the Real Estate Development sector is the barometer of the national economy. Housing is indeed one of the most important priorities of any government. It is very unfortunate that today the Real Estate Development sector of Bangladesh is in the doldrums. Many construction projects are left incomplete; many people who have invested their money face uncertain future; and many related industries will face the consequence of this depression in the immediate future.It is our view that a part of the reason behind this pathetic scenario is the misunderstanding of this sector by the successive governments. Instead of receiving encouragement and nurturing, this sector has been progressively quashed by regressive government policies. A few examples are listed hereunder: In 1989 the Ministry of Industries declared construction of residential complexes on commercial basis as an industry. However, to-date this notification from the Ministry of Industries is not recognized by the National Board of Revenue. Therefore, this sector is not entitled to any benefit of an industry. Transfer fees stamp duty and registration charges for property in Bangladesh are amongst the highest in the world. In the metropolitan city, a purchaser has to pay approximately 25% of the total value of the property to the government exchequer under different heads for registering the apartment. House Building Finance Corporation is the only government institution dedicated to the financing of homes. Over the last 15 years this institution has been constantly cash starved and has made negligible contribution to the financing of this sector. In Bangladesh there is virtually no financing facility for this sector and almost all procurements are made with 100% equity. Recently some private institutions have entered the housing financing business but the cost of borrowing from these institutions is prohibitive.

Development of High-rise Building

High-rise buildings probably were first constructed in response to the corporate need for increased direct communication and expansion of business operation. Businessmen understood the need for proximity and personal communications and quickly recognized the value of “going vertically up” within a compact business core in the central city. This philosophy has remained, all over the world, despite the extraordinary technical advances made over the last 50 years in both transportation and telecommunications. The corporate world is not the only beneficiary of high-rise development; often other enterprises that serve corporate business or its employees also locate themselves in high-rise structures. Offices for lawyers, accountants and other business related professionals are established in close proximity to the corporations, often being located in the same building. Medical and dental practices open where they can capture and serve office workers as well as the general urban population from a central location. Even where the structure bears a corporate name and was built specifically for a corporate tenant finally ends up catering to various professional and business clients. Today’s high-rise building usually contains a variety of tenants. The city itself benefits from the concentration of business space and business activity that high-rise development generates. Land values are greater in the down town areas of cities and at other prime locations that are highly attractive. In most cities, high-rises have evolved in concentrations, and those concentrations generate the highest tax returns to local government. For example in Chicago, approximately one-third of the city’s real estate tax return comes from the greater downtown area covering less than 7% of the total area of the city. Depending on overall factors, during the last three decades, Dhaka City attempted to expand vertically to meet the problems of urban population explosion, scarcity of land and spiraling land price. High-rise structure also has a positive influence on city form and organization. The tallest building in Dhaka (30 stories) has been constructed at Motijheel for office purpose. High-rise buildings for residential purposes are being seriously considered to provide an answer to urban housing problems. How far this is tenable in context of conditions prevailing in developing countries must be studied in greater depth so that planned growth in high-rise housing construction can be promoted. Because of the great size and height the development of tall buildings usually involves active interaction of public and private decision-makers. Successful public private collaboration usually revitalizes the urban environment. Thus tall building development in the form of office towers, hotels and residential apartment buildings can become a critical part of revitalization in major cities of the world, including Dhaka. In terms of Dhaka it can be seen from the map (Figure 4) that the location of the majority of the high-rise structures are clustered in the business districts and central city areas where land value is highest. The reasons of this development are as follows:

· Easy access
· proximately of supporting facilities of offices.
· Higher rate of return on investment.
· Besides the land value there are other reasons for the construction of high-rise structures to accommodate office staff where land is limited.
We can safely say that high-rise structures in other locations is not suitable or attractive because of· Lack of access, Absence of supporting services, Lower rate of return

Current State of Tall Building in Bangladesh

The history of tall building in Bangladesh is only four decades old. Broadly speaking two types of high-rise buildings are constructed in terms of use type: Institutional buildings including government & commercial office buildings, hotels etc. Residential buildings particularly for middle and high income groups.  The trend that started in 1963 with the construction of 11-storied WAPDA building at Motijheel, the Central Business District (CBD) of the capital city Dhaka has currently gained a tremendous momentum. Although tall buildings are being constructed in few numbers in other cities of the country, almost all the existing and under-construction tall buildings of the country are located in the capital city. In Dhaka, there are about 120 such notable buildings clustered mainly at the Motijheel commercial area and in places like Eskaton, Mohakhali and Banani. If one compares the number of tall buildings in the capital city with the size of the greater Dhaka with a present population of about 10 million, the insignificant proportion of the tall buildings with respect to the overall scenario becomes evident. The growth of tall building in Dhaka City with time has been shown graphically in Figure 5.It is evident from the figure that a steady increase in the number of tall structures has taken place in the recent years. Whereas in the sixties and seventies, on n verge five high rise buildings were constructed in Dhaka City, in the eighties about twenty tall buildings were constructed. Construction of tall structures attained its peak in the nineties, and, in the last five years about 50% of the total present number of all tall buildings of the capital city has been constructed. The trend of going high is still there.

Prospects and Problems of Tall Buildings

It is almost inevitable that high rise construction will increase in future in Bangladesh. In fact, in a fast growing metropolis like Dhaka where, land is scarce and land value is high, there is no other obvious option but to go for tall structures. In a country where expatriate consultants and contractors are being inducted in almost every field of technological activity, it is interesting to note that all the tall buildings in Bangladesh have been planned, designed and constructed by local architects and engineers. But high rise buildings, both commercial and residential; of Bangladesh have already revealed their merits and demerits in the very short time that they have been serving the community. Some of the advantages of tall buildings are given below:

· It increases land-use density leading to proper utilization of inner city land.
· If properly designed and constructed it can increase the user efficiency for both commercial and residential use. It can bring positive effect on city form.
· High-rise buildings and the users that occupy them usually return more revenue (benefits) to local governments than they require in services (costs) from them. This positive cost-benefit ratio is often used as a measure of the attractiveness of a development..  High-rise buildings have established an efficient setting for corporate business enterprise, a significant source of revenue for local government, and a business focus for the entire metropolitan area.

· Residential uses in high-rise have resulted in both success and failure. Tall apartment buildings have successfully fulfilled the needs of upper income and middle income families in different developing countries.

However, in the absence of proper urban planning and design, high rise buildings of Bangladesh are responsible, in many instances, for several problems leading to disadvantages for Dhaka and other city dwellers of Bangladesh. Some of the disadvantages that the existing tall buildings have demonstrated due to ill planning are listed below:

  • Ø Unplanned tall structure destroys the harmony in skyline
  • Ø It put pressures on utility services like water supply, gas and electricity.
  • Ø It increases traffic congestion and parking problem.
  • Ø It creates problems of light and ventilation for adjacent small structure.
  • Ø Fire fighting problem in the building.
  • Ø Problem related to inadequate number of lifts.
  • Ø Problems due to inadequate parking space.
  • Lack of community space.
  • Ø Lack of children’s playground.
  • Ø Socio-psychological problem.Besides, Bangladesh is recognized as an earthquake prone country by Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC, 1993). Seven major earthquakes, magnitude equal to or more than 7.0 on the Richter Scale, had affected today’s Bangladesh during the last 150 years. But housings in Bangladesh seem to be constructed to meet the social demand, not as an earthquake resistant frame building. Mainly the following three unusual structural factors make the new housings in the country very seriously vulnerable to earthquake:
    · Ground and/or first story is appeared to be soft story (car parking story)
    · Frames are unfilled by masonry works supported only by sand-cement mortar
    · In some cases it is observed that beams are appeared to be stronger than columns
    The ground floor of typical six-story buildings and the ground and/or first floor(s) of high rise condominium are appeared to be soft story because these stories are not supplied with proper element such as shear walls and bracing etc. A lesson has repeatedly been learned from many earthquakes that the soft story is one of the most common causes of building failure.
    However, it is understood that in future high-rise building will continue to be a strong urban influence. It is obvious that Dhaka City is going to have a large number of buildings around 15-20 story high, both for office as well as residential purpose. However, building regulations must be maintained to reflect the special needs of these buildings particularly taking into account the traffic problems, fire safety, vulnerability to earthquake and setback rules.

In addition, stricter enforcement of the rules and better quality control during construction need to be introduced. Some of the opportunities of planned growth of Dhaka City, using the experience of other cities, have already been missed during the last three decades. But the high-rise expansion can still be planned to create a better urban habitat, but this will require the concerted action of planners, architects and engineers.

Land Use, Land Use Economy and Land Value

The trend towards construction of tall buildings in Dhaka is very much connected with the very high price of land in the main commercial and business districts. Since land value is very high in inner city areas, population density should be increased by adoption of multi-storied construction. In less developed areas, where commercial value is less, tall buildings are virtually non-existent. The overall picture of the land-use type in Dhaka has been shown in Figure 6. It is evident from the figure that only 39% of the total lands of the capital are in urban use, while 61% has rural or semi-rural use. High-rise buildings are constructed to ensure economical use of land in areas where land is scarce and its cost is high. Individual plot holders can save a lot of land by going in for multi-story buildings. However, the savings in a given sector of land depend on the gross densities in number of dwellings per acre including the land required for common amenities like parks, playground, schools, shops, road etc.

Dhaka has experienced an unprecedented increase in land value since the early seventies. In the past decade Dhaka has mainly developed along the two main axes towards the north of Dhaka. Due to huge increase in the population of Dhaka, the pressure on land for residential use has been very high. Since the sixties until today RAJUK has provided less than ten thousand plots at subsidized rate mainly for the middle and upper income groups. The value of land in Dhaka City, mainly in the central area, has increased at a rate much higher than the increase in cost of living in Dhaka. The price of high-class residential land has increased 100 times (approx.) during the period 1975-2000. In the absence of any proper land value records it is very difficult to compare the land value over the past decades. But Table 1 will provide some idea regarding the increase in land value between 1975 and 2000.

It has been stated that the big real estate companies are mainly responsible for the high price of land in the central area because they pay a much higher price for a good piece of land. It is argued that due to this reason middle and upper middle class families are being unable to buy land in Dhaka.

Area

Amount Tk. / Katha Tk. / Sq. Meter Tk. / Katha Tk. / Sq. Meter 1975, 2000

Baridhara

25,000
373
25,00,000
37,361

Gulshan

25,000
375
22,00,000
32,877

Banani

25,000
375
20,00,000
29,888

Mohakhali R/A

25,000
375
18,00,000
26,900

Dhanmondi

25,000
375
22,00,000
32,877

Azimpur

17,500
261
16,00,000
23,911

Mohammadpur

25,000
375
12,00,000
17,933

Shantinagar

20,000
300
15,00,000
22,417

D. O. H. S.

20,000
300
16,00,000
23,911

Shamoli

17,500
265
10,00,000
14,944

Cantonment Thana

20,000
300
10,00,000
14,944

Kamlapur

17,500
265
8,00,000
11,956

Saidabad

17,500
265
8,00,000
11,956

Gandaria

10,000
150
7,00,000
10,461

Bashaboo

2,000
30
8,00,000
11,956

Kalyanpur

17,500
265
8,00,000
11,956

Mirpur

10,000
150
7,00,000
10,416

 We are of the opinion; however, that Real Estate companies are just one among several reasons for the rise in price as the value of urban land is actually determined and fixed through competition in a complex economic process. Besides, there are other factors, which influence urban land value. These are social values, customs and others. On carefully analyzing the land value trend of Dhaka City and the suburbs for the last thirty years, a number of causes of high land value have been identified as follows:

a) Lack of investment opportunity in other sectors of economy.
b) Rapid urbanization and consequent scarcity of urban land.
c) Uncontrolled land market.
d) Lack of comprehensive land policy.
e) Inappropriate taxation policy.
f) Political instability.
g) High rate of inflation.
h) Land speculation and the role-played by brokers.
i) Land ownership being regarded as a symbol of social prestige.
j) Inflow of foreign remittances earned by Bangladeshis abroad, especially from the Middle East.
k) Land purchase by real estate developers.
Since land value is very high in inner city areas, increasing multi-storied construction will increase the density. Many parcels of inner city land are under utilized or vacant, which should be put to proper use for balanced growth. To achieve these objectives and to minimize the negative effects of high-rise constructions the following recommendations are suggested:

a) Proper rules and regulations for high-rise construction should be formulated and implemented.
b) In case of apartment, exclusive apartment law (condominium law) should be enacted and implemented by RAJUK and other concerned agencies.
c) Zoning law for Dhaka City in terms of use class and height class should be formulated and strictly enforced as per DMDP structure plan and related plans.
d) Particularly in the high cost areas of inner city vacant land tax and punitive tax for very low-rise construction should be enacted.
e) Building rules related to lift, parking and fire fighting should be strictly monitored and enforced by concerned agencies, as per Bangladesh National Building Code 1993.
f) In commercial areas low-rise structures should be totally discouraged by appropriate measures.
g) In high-rise/high density zones, co-ordination between utility agencies should be increased to plan in advance for high capacity utility mains.
However, in the context of Dhaka it is envisaged that in the future years high-rise construction will increase both for commercial buildings and residential development.
Construction Industry and Environment

Once undesirable environmental consequences of the use of a natural resource have been identified, there are two types of control, which can be exercised: control of the supply and control of the demand. Control of supply could be exercised by means of introducing land-use regulations, pricing of the resource and other measures, eliminating indiscriminate exploitation or reducing it to acceptable levels. Demand side controls aimed to restrict or change the nature of the activity. The goal is to reduce or eliminate the demand.

In the case of construction activity, which is acknowledged to be essential for virtually every type of development, an increase rather than a decrease is desirable in all developing countries. There are many ways in which the nature of current construction activity can be changed to make it less environmentally damaging, without reducing the total amount of construction in terms of the built space created or other functions it performs. These include:

– Improving land-use and pollution emission legislation and control
– Pre-construction environmental impact appraisals
– Greater use of demolition and mineral & agricultural wastes in construction.
– Extending the life of and reuse of existing buildings

 Potentialities in Construction Sector

The construction sector has great potentials. The traditionally used building materials are locally produced. Cheap labor, appropriate technologies and easy transportation system have also been a positive catalyst for the advancement of the construction industry.

(a) Building Materials: Locally available traditional raw materials can be used as effective construction materials. The government should publicize information regarding locally available building materials, its high productivity, the locations and accessibility. Local small-scale industries should be encouraged to produce quality-building materials. The Housing and Building Research Institute (HBRI) is encouraged to develop new building materials and techniques with the objectives of reducing costs and imports. On one hand, there is research into alternative and low-cost materials and techniques while on the other land; alternative building materials of indigenous sources like clay tiles get little interest.

(b) Labor Force: Construction industries can create employment opportunities. Institutional training should be facilitated for the unskilled laborers. Special vocational training should be introduced and training made essential for creating highly skilled specialized labor force.

(c) Appropriate and Simple Technology; Building technologies will differ from place to place. Use of appropriate and simple technology is essential to improve construction productivity. In Bangladesh the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) has developed Low Cost. Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) piles, which have cost similar to timber plies. These low cost piles address the deficiencies of the timber piles and also possess additional advantages compared to cast-in-situ and pre-stressed piles. These piles can be used as compaction piles as well as load bearing piles. For small structures, the possibility of application of this pile is immense e.g., in buildings, bridges, culverts etc. The newly evolved RCC pile can be locally produced with relatively simple technology. These piles would provide a much better alternative to the timber piles, which are, at present, being widely used. The Low cost RCC piles will contribute towards better conservation of forest resources and thereby minimize degradation of the environment.

Apartment Development: Problems and Prospects

Apartment development in Dhaka City, as mentioned earlier, has become increasingly popular in recent days and is likely to continue for sometime. It has a number of plus points regarding solving housing problems of the city. But at the same time it has certain demerits. We propose to review critically both the prospects and problems. It may be worthwhile to describe here the types of apartments, which are now being built in Dhaka. Broadly speaking two types of apartment development can be noticed. Firstly, up to G+ 5 story walk up apartments, which are usually RCC frame structure with average fittings and fixtures (e.g. in-situ mosaic, concealed wiring with local fittings, best quality BISF sanitary ware etc.). These flats within the central areas are sold around Tk. 1000 per sq. ft. excluding the cost of parking space. An apartment of this type with an area of 1400 sq. ft. (3 bed rooms, 2 + 1 toilets) and a secured parking space will cost around Tk. 20-25 Lacs. The cost may be slightly higher if the apartment is located in a major road. The second types of development are those apartments in high-rise buildings of more than six stories. But the present trend in Dhaka City is 12-20 stories. The price of such apartments is presently more that Tk. 1300-2000 per sq. ft. plus the cost of parking space ranging from Tk. 1.5 Lac to Tk. 2.0 Lac per parking space in a good location.

Here it has been attempted to identify the major criticisms of apartment development as cited in the media. They are:

i. Economic: Mainly middle and upper income families are purchasing both walks up and high rise apartments. Lower middle and lower income groups can not buy such expensive flats.

ii. Services: In many apartment complex certain services (mainly recreational and community space, open area) are lacking. Problems associated with water supply, fire fighting and fire escape (mainly in high rise apartments), and inadequacy of lift are notable.

iii. Social: It is sometimes argued that high rise building prevents social contact with other neighbors, which can lead to socio-psychological problem.

The above mentioned criticisms can be contradicted on the following grounds:
i. Economic: The private apartment developers are catering for the middle or upper income group and thereby solving the problem partially for that group. This has noting to do with the housing problems of lower income groups. Only government and autonomous agencies can be helpful by subsidizing and/ or extending loans to their employees in apartment construction and/or purchasing. Private sector can only be effective when soft term credit area extended to private developers for constructing apartments at lower cost catering for lower income families.

ii. Services: Services provided are related to the cost of the apartment. In the private sector higher facilities will lead to higher cost which can be prohibitive even for upper middle income families. Lack of open space is entirely due to very high land cost in the good localities. Many associated problems regarding service and design problem can be very effectively tackled with proper institutional and design control. Sometimes these problems only arise in the cases of developers lacking in professional and financial expertise.

iii. Social: This can be minimized by more careful planning and design of high rise apartments. Rather than constructing matchbox type structure more intimate and personal design elements can be incorporated in high rise blocks.

Besides these broad criticisms, many small problems have been identified from the responses by apartment users in different apartment blocks in the city. These are cited below under the following headings:

 a) Planning Problems
i. Inadequate distance from one building to another.
ii. Some parts of the building are always shaded.
iii. Lock of green space.
iv. No relationship between surrounding built forms.
v. No fire escape or fire fighting provisions.
vi. Absence of community space or any playing area for the children.
vii. Exposed gas lines inconveniently situated at the main entry, which may be dangerously hazardous.

viii. Height variation between different closely associated buildings creating privacy problem.

ix. Absence of lifts or inadequate number of lifts.

x. Absence of mail box.

b) Planning and Designing Problems

i. Parking area is paved and totally open and unsecured in many cases.]

ii. Outer view is disturbed by unplanned telephone lines.

iii. Absence of garbage chute or garbage disposal arrangements.

iv. People drying wet clothes inconveniently from verandah or in ground space and spoiling the beauty of the building.

c) Design Problems
i. Ladders are used to approach the roof, which are inconvenient. In some apartments roofs can not be used at all.

ii. Secondary entry is more utilized than the main entry as it exposes the kitchen, or toilets of master bed etc.

iii. Entry to the building is through a dark place, which is not easy to locate.
iv. Entry to the apartment with long corridor which is an improper utilization of space.

v. Lack of proper outlet makes the stagnant air hot and unhealthy.

vi. Dining space is the circulation space with inadequate opening and designed without considering furniture layout.

vii. Privacy problem created between exposed living and dining space.

viii. Staggering stair cases with narrow stairs.

ix. Lack of proper ventilation or light in different rooms of an apartment due to improper planning of rooms.

x. Built-in closet is not functional in terms of sizes, shape and height.

xi. Absence of lightning arrester.

xii. No provision for installation of air-conditions units at later stage.
d) Construction Problems
i. Fitting and finish of toilet fixtures in certain cases are unsatisfactory.
ii. Constructional defect leading to cracks in the floors and walls.
iii. Dampness in external walls and in certain cases in internal walls.
iv. Excessive heats in the top floor due to lack of lime terracing.
For solving the housing problem in Dhaka city the following steps should be considered, some of these stapes are directly related to housing, while others are concerned with different issues having impact upon housing:
a) The growth of Dhaka City needs to be checked. This can be attained by developing small and medium towns through adoption policy of balanced urbanization and decentralization. By generation employment opportunities in these intermediate cities, the migration towards Dhaka can be trapped in those towers.

b) A metropolitan housing policy should be devised in conjunction with overall metropolitan transport and land policies.
c) Provisions of areas for high-rise, low-rise, permanent and semi-permanent structures should be made in the Master plan of Dhaka City. Expensive central city areas should be reserved for high rise developments. In this way the concerned authorities can provide higher capacity infrastructure at an optimum cost.

d) Housing development both in public and private sectors should conform with the development of physical and social infra-structures like roads, electricity, water-supply, sewerage, gas, telephone and the like.

e) Sprawl development of Dhaka City in any direction should be discouraged. Underutilized land within the city limit should be developed and properly utilized.

f) Special schemes for housing the urban poor and destitute by constructing low cost core housing with provision for upgrading on self-help basis should be adopted.

g) The private sector should be encouraged to cater for the upper middle and upper income groups.

h) Walk-up row housing and tenement blocks should be developed both in the private and public sectors to house the lower income groups.

i) Credit facilities for housing development for individuals and institutions should be modified to increase the housing stock.

j) National and municipal policies for high rise development should be formulated.

k) To check the mushroom growth of real estate companies there should be arrangements for scrutinizing the technical, financial and institutional capabilities of prospective companies.

Developing housing sector comprises not only building of houses but also the development of socio-economic infrastructure. In fact, a separate directorate of Real Estate could be established, which will inter link all the concerned agencies, related to house construction such as RAJUK, Dhaka Municipal Corporation, WASA, PDB, Titas and House Building Finance Corporation (HBFC). This will minimize the procedures and formalities associated with house construction.

All future activities of concerned agencies involving land, finance and utilities should be forward-planned under a common framework to increase the efficiency and minimize overlapping of responsibilities. The neglect of the private sector is a fundamental defect in our housing policy. A comprehensive and pragmatic housing policy should be adopted by the government, which will expedite housing developments. The economy of land use should be given top priority in any future housing policy.

A private housing-bank could be set up for financing housing development as in the absence of such a bank; land developers and promoters are very much handicapped. Such a specialized bank to tide over the housing crises deserves serious consideration.

Chapter- 7

CONCLUSION

Residence is one of the basic needs of human beings. The right to live in one’s own is a fundamental right of people and it is internationally recognized. The demand of housing in urban areas in developing countries like Bangladesh is dramatically increasing due to natural increase and its fast growth rate. Rural people are migrating not only to find jobs but many wealthy people are moving to urban areas like Dhaka city for the fulfillment of their expectations of better of their future generation, and for enjoying the modern facilities of the city life. This has resulted into a serious crisis all over the country especially in the major cities of Bangladesh. In recent time, the private real estate firms have taken initiatives by ensuring maximum uses of land in a planned way. In this system it is possible to accommodate more people in a comparatively small place. The Organization has an experienced and educated managing Director. The other directors of the Organization are also young and educated. Their innovative idea will help to create new opportunities for the organization but their creative ideas could not be implemented if the attitude of the employees is not changed. The executives, officers and staffs must be trained to change their negative attitude towards new concept of organization.

During the 12 weeks Dissertation program at almost all the desk have been observed more or less. Gaining knowledge of practical Real Estate business and to compare this practical knowledge with theoretical knowledge. Though all departments and sections are covered in the Dissertation program, it is not possible to go to the depth or each activities of division because of time limitation. So, objectives of this Dissertation program have not been fulfilled with complete satisfaction. However, highest effort has been given to achieve the objectives the Thesis program.

Recommendations

The construction in Dhaka has multi-faceted roles for sustainable development. It provides the direct means for physical development, expansion, improvement and preservation through maintenance. It is the key sector in city’s development. It provides the direct means for physical expansion, development and improvement. The planning and design component of construction is very vital and it contributes to high productivity. Appropriate planning and design for construction, use of modern equipment, efficient use of building materials, participation of construction actors and effective management are considered important factors for construction industry’s development.

It is understood from the experiences that the construction industry has multidimensional aspects, which include actors’ participation, building materials and equipment, building code and standards, regulations etc. It is also observed that the construction activities are frequently disrupted by the inherent problems. Considering all issues, following broad general recommendations both in the public and private sector should be taken into consideration:

a) Appropriate planning and programming for the construction project would be framed based on the nature of works.

 b) A major concern in the construction industry is the apparent backwardness in the adoption of new construction technologies for the adoption of new construction technologies and practices, which can reduce cost and increase quality.

 c) The authority with help of professionals should formulate general guidelines of building designs. Special attention would be given to prepare appropriate planning rules, building codes etc. based on the character of the area. It will also cover building regulations and related detailing of the building and also cover selection of materials.

d) It has been observed that the construction material and equipment differ from place to place, considering this fact, specialized standards and code should be made.

e) Simple and innovative technologies should be introduced in the construction sector for high productivity. The attention should be given on its acceptability to the construction actors. Affordability to the government as well public enterprises should be taken into consideration.

f) Research and innovation for development should be encouraged. Proper research support and financial support should be provided both in public and private sectors. Even groups of entrepreneurs and individuals should be encouraged by the policies.

g) Research outputs, available materials, energy consumption cost, environmental impacts and other information should be made available to the public through institutions and mass media.

h) Selection of building materials, the consultants are required in conjunction with experienced contractors.

i) Local based building materials as well as cheaper alternative/substitutes should be encouraged.

j) Special financial policies for consultants/contractors financing should be introduced. It would be included: i) reduction of bureaucracy, ii) generous advance payments, iii) risk guaranties etc.

k) Overall management effectiveness is essential for the construction sector. It should be managed on an institutional basis, and the construction actors have contractors, laborers, managers and other related actors as active participants.

l) Adequate legislative support is needed to recognize the construction sector as an important for national development. An extensive and multifold regulation is needed. It should includes civil engineering works, durability of construction outputs, all safety measures including loads, imposed deformations, environmental issues, fire and natural disasters etc.

 m) The establishment of regulations and control procedures is the traditional function of the government. It is needed to recognize the construction industry as an important sector for national development. The regulations and control can contribute a strong positive impact to reduce construction cost, environment hazards, promote greater energy efficiency in building and limit energy consumption and pollution etc.

n) Special attention would be given to protect the physical environment of the project’s site. Existing “Legal action” procedures would be updated in which legal action can be taken against the faulty actors.

The planning and design approach is very important components in the construction sector specially to ensure sustainability. The technology and innovation in the construction industry may reduce construction cost and time, as well as increase safety. New technological innovations, often in conjunction with materials and equipment, should be introduced into several of the disciplines within the construction industry. Such technology also ensures higher productivity, which can bring socio-economic prosperity to the country. The Government sets regulations on construction industry (building code, land use, tendering constructor’s negotiation and environmental regulation) in national and local level. Changes are also sought to improve quality, management efficiency, material flow, and maintain schedules by better organization and controlling of design and production process.

Bibliography

1.     Reference book(marketing related) 27.10.11
2.     News paper & magazine  6.11.11
3.     www.google.com  8.11.11
4.     www.wikipedia.com  9.11.11
5.     www.encyclopedia.com  11.11.11
6.     www.blog.spot.bangladeshi real estate.com 14.11.11
7.     www.rehab.com  16.11.11

Real Estate Sector in Bangladesh

Categories
EEE Organizational Behavior

Drive Test and RF Parameters of GrameenPhone

Abstract

UCE Int. Pvt. Ltd. had been my chosen workplace for Internship Program. I had been working in the organization from 8thOctober to 8th December, 2011. I was assigned as a trainee in the RF Survey to setup the network of GrameenPhone. I was under a Senior RF Engineer and had the full scope and independence to work on the project our project name was “GrameenPhone Drive Test Project”. While working on the project I had the scope to come cross many new thing of the Telecommunication system. This report contains all the information about my work experience with UCE Int. Pvt. Ltd. which starts its operation in Bangladesh from 2006.With in this period UCE work with All Telecom Operators and as also with Vendors. In UCE I have spent a superior time in learning and was content for my efforts, learning and performing. I had the experience of corporate and reporting working environment which affects an employee performance and approach to work, had good time in learning and performing. I had the opportunity to work in practical field. So sometimes I had to deal with harsh situations which RF Engineers experience. For better understanding of the program, we sometimes assigned by my project supervisor to do some study.

Company profile:

UCE was incorporated in 1998 in Malaysia. Today, they have four operational offices in Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Surabaya and Bangalore with headquartered office in Kuala Lumpur to support our on-going projects in different countries. Their core expertise is providing Cellular Network Engineering, Consultancy and Project Management Services for Cellular Network Operators, Equipment Vendors and System Integrators in the wireless telecommunications industry.

As in Bangladesh UCE has started its operation in Bangladesh from 2006.UCE technical team is comprised of fully qualified professionals with extensive knowledge, hands-on experience and expertise in the field of cellular engineering. With the experienced management team and a highly competent technical team, UCE will be able to provide optimum solutions to meet the customer demands in this dynamic industry environment

Our Mission:

UCE offers four main categories of services to wireless telecommunications industry – Network Design & Optimization, Network Deployment, Network Auditing & Consultancy and Network Benchmarking. Our end-to-end services are all supplemented with complete program and project management expertise to ensure every service will result in good quality deliverables. Our expertise covers most Technologies in the world now, ranging from different voice switched networks to packet switched networks, namely GSM, GPRS, EDGE, CDMA and UMTS networks.

Network Design and Optimization

In this service, UCE will provision and allocate engineering resources within your company’s network design and optimization organization. With strong experience in Network Design and Optimization, our expertise will not only help spend up your network deployment but also, will provide on-job training and know-how knowledge transfer to the local engineers.

Network Deployment

This is a turnkey solution. UCE will take full responsibility in network design, optimization, acceptance and project management. With our strong technical expertise and different operation in different countries, we are able to leverage different expertise and ramp up or down project engineering resources easily to meet project requirement. You can be sure to have a good quality network launch

Network Auditing and Consultancy

A mature network with the aggressive growing traffics requires network detailed analysis, good expansion and long term strategy planning. In this service, we provide top consultants with at least 15 year experience in the technologies. Our consultants will audit the network from different aspects from technical to market analysis till long term network expansion strategy.

Network Benchmarking 

Network Benchmarking is an exercise to simulate the mobile users’ perception or to understand the network performance against other networks’ competitors. Different equipment vendors have different statistical formulas and measurement sensitivities. It is no other fair quality indicators except using network benchmark data to compare the network qualities. This exercise will deliver a report to pin-point the network strength, weaknesses and recommend the possible solution to resolve the network quality issues.

Technology:

  • GSM
  • GPRS
  • EDGE
  • TETRA
  • UMTS/WCDMA
  • CDMA

GSM:

Global Standard for Mobile Communication. GSM is a 2G technology after the pure analogue systems. This technology is a TDMA based system with eight time slots per frequency channel. A normal speech call uses one time slot; audio is typically transmitted on one time slot per frame. Each base station provides a base channel with basic information about the network and the base station in the first time slot of a carrier.The original GSM bands are designed at 900 and 1800 MHz but were complemented in the USA by a 1900 MHz band and the 850 MHz that was originally reserved f or analogue AMPS.
Frequency planning on the network side is critical to avoid interference and dropped calls. Interference with neighboring cells can be minimized through GSM features such as power control, DTX and frequency hopping.

GPRS:

General Packet Radio ServiceGPRS was designed to overcome the limitation of GSM technology on data traffic. It supplements today’s Circuit Switched Data and Short Message Service. Theoretically, it can support data speed up to 171.2kpps by combining all eight timeslots at the same time. This is about three times as fast as the data transmission speeds possible over today’s fixed telecommunications networks and ten times as fast as current Circuit Switched Data services on GSM networks. By allowing information to be transmitted more quickly, immediately and efficiently across the mobile network, GPRS may well be a relatively less costly mobile data service compared to SMS and Circuit Switched Data.
The physical layer now consists of four coding schemes (CS), which may be utilized for either the downlink (forward link) or the uplink (reverse link). 

EDGE:

Enhance Data Rates for Global EvolutionEDGE is an expansion of the GSM/GPRS protocol to support higher data rates. This is accomplished by utilizing 8-PSK (8-Phase Shift Keying) modulation technique and modulation coding schemes at the physical layer. This modulation provides an increase from 1 to 3 bits per symbol, thus improving the overall data throughput. The physical layer now consists of nine modulations coding schemes (MCS), which may be utilized for either the downlink (forward link) or the uplink (reverse link).

TETRA:

Terrestrial Trunked RadioTETRA is a TDMA standard, similar to the GSM standard. It uses four timeslots per carrier; the carrier bandwidth is 25 kHz. Similar to GSM, the first timeslot on the first Carrier transmits the BCCH, a logical channel that bears synchronization and control data.TETRA uses π/4 DQPSK (Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying). This modulation is highly efficient with spectrum resources, but requires high linearity of all RF components, especially the RF power amplifiers in the radios.The TETRA services are based on three major service classes with different air interfaces, all specified by ETSI:

  • Voice plus Data (V+D), circuit switched speech and data transmission, (ETS 300 392)
  • Packet Data Optimized (PDO), data traffic based on packet switching, (ETS 300 393)
  • Direct Mode (DMO), a simplex voice transmission between two mobiles without using a network. On a physical channel two simultaneous DMO calls can be established. (ETS 300 396)

UMTS/WCDMA:

Universal Mobile Telephone System/Wide Band Code Division Multiple AccessWCDMA is a 3G technology after GSM. This technology is designed based on the CDMA system. CDMA stands for code division multiple access. This means that the available frequency channel is broken down by different code sequences that are multiplied by the user signals of the individual subscribers. All subscribers transmit on the same frequency and at the same time.For WCDMA different base stations are distinguished by a different scrambling code, which makes cell planning a lot easier, since neighboring cells can re-use the same frequency! (However, the occupied “SNR” – or Signal to Noise Ratio is the limiting factor and characteristic for CDMA. 

CDMA:

Code Division Multiple AccessCDMA is a “spread spectrum” technology, allowing many users to occupy the same time and frequency allocations in a given band/space. As its name implies, CDMA assigns unique codes to each communication to differentiate it from others in the same spectrum. In a world of finite spectrum resources, CDMA enables many more people to share the airwaves at the same time than do alternative technologies

Introduction

GSM network consist of different cells and each cell transmit signals to and receive signals from the mobile station, for proper working of base station many parameters are defined before functioning the base station such as the coverage area of a cell depends on different factors including the transmitting power of the base station, obstructing buildings in cells, height of the base station and location of base station etc. The Drive Test (DT) perform in RF optimization GSM network to assure the availability, integrity, & reliability of the network. 

Drive test

Drive-testing plays an important role in creating and maintaining a  strong GSM network.  In mobile communication system drive testing should be used to collect real-time RF information from the field. Generally this is done using a vehicle, but it can also be carried out on foot where circumstances dictate (like inside a building for IBS Testing).In any case, keeping mobile phone network optimized is vital. Changes in the environment continually affect network performance. Operator can’t afford to have unhappy subscribers because there are holes in their coverage or because interference is causing dropped or blocked calls. To migrate to new technologies and applications operators need a drive-test system that will expand with their needs.

The Purpose of Drive Testing

Drive testing is principally applied in both the planning and optimization stage of network development. However, there are other purposes for which drive testing can be used:

  • To provide path loss data for initial site survey work
  • To verify the propagation prediction during the initial planning of the network.
  • To verify the network system parameters.
  • To provide the initial test parameters used in Benchmarking.
  • To verify the performance of the network after changes have been made e.g. when a new TRX   is added; the removal or addition of a new site; any power adjustments or changes  to the antenna; any changes in clutter or traffic habits.
  • To measure any interference problems such as coverage from neighboring countries.
  • To locate any RF issues relating to traffic problems such as dropped or blocked calls.
  • To locate any poor coverage areas.
  • To monitor the network against a slow degradation over time, as well as monitoring the network after sudden environmental conditions, such as windstorm or electrical storms.
  • To monitor the performance of a competitor’s network.

When to Drive Test 

Drive testing can take place during the day or at night and is dependent upon the Operator’s requirements and subscriber habits. Drive testing during the day will imitate the conditions as seen by subscribers, but may clog up the network if call analysis is being performed. Drive testing during the night will allow a greater area to be surveyed due to the reduction in vehicular traffic jam. It will also allow for certain test signals to be transmitted and tested, particularly when setting up a new site, without interrupting normal operation. However, night-time testing does not imitate the conditions experienced by subscribers. For planning purposes, drive testing is typically performed at night and for maintenance purposes, drive testing is performed during the day.

Where to Drive Test 

Some areas of a network will have greater performance problems than others. Drive testing should not be regular throughout the whole network, but should be weighted towards areas where there are significant RF problems. There may be other areas of the network that require temporary coverage during a certain time of the year e.g. an exhibition centre or a sports stadium. These areas should be examined and planned in greater detail. Sometime operators can perform drive test for their customary check for a certain city or some specific clusters of a city.

Types of drive Test 

Drive test can be performed in very many ways. Different types of drive test fulfill different types of requirement from the customer.

  • Single site Drive Test
  • Cluster Drive Test
  • Acceptance Drive Test
  • Site Swapping Drive Test
  • Benchmarking Drive Test
  • Functionality Test
  • Walk Test for IBS

Tools (Drive Test Kit)

Drive testing needs some distinctive type of tools, like some special mobile phones and software. The followings are list of tools generally required for drive test:Hardware:1.  Drive test vehicleFour wheeler vehicles are perfect for drive test to access important but tough access roads or muddy roads.2.  Power InverterThis device inverts DC power to AC power. We can use it to invert vehicle’s DC power to AC power to ensure uninterrupted power supply to the laptop and other electronic devices during DT.3.  Laptop computerDT laptop should be with good condition and configuration, like high speed processor and especially RAM volume should be more for smooth drive testing.4.  Mobile phones and phone chargerSpecial mobile phones designed with field measurement features.  How many mobile phone should we use during DT depends on the types of DT. Some testing requires one phone and some other requires two or more.  Chargers are also compulsory  to keep the phone always charged.5.  Data cablesData cable depends upon the model of the mobile phone. Every mobile phone has its own data cable to transfer measured data to the software installed in the laptop.6.  External antennasEvery mobile phone should be connected with external antenna during DT. Generally when we use mobile phones inside the car during DT, there is an enormous possibility to get poor field data. External antenna can minimize this problem. Usually it is attached on top of the vehicle using a magnetic base.7.  Car GPSGPS generally used for positioning purpose. In DT, positioning is very important both for visualization (current position during DT) and analytical point of view. Car GPS also attached on top of the vehicle like external antenna and connected with laptop through cable.8.  Dongle (Key for DT software)One of the most important hardware for drive test is Dongle. Every drive test software needs this key to run during DT. Except this key all the drive testing features of DT software will be disabled, until the key is not attached with the laptop. Physically it looks very similar as pen drive.9.  USB HubSometime when we need to work with two or more mobile phones then we need more USB ports, but our laptop ports are limited. So we have to use USB hub or PCMC USB card, which will provide us more USB ports to connect more equipment.

DT Route:Data collection Software

This is the software through which field data will be collected. With this software we can analyze the field data also. This software should be licensed from the vendor company for proper authorization. Every software has a key to work properly. The most popular software for data collection is “TEMS Investigation” from ERICSSON.

Digital Map:

During drive test digital map is necessary for finding the way to reach the selected site/cluster and do DT according to some predefined routes. We can load the digital map of the whole region or we can load the map of some specific roads that need drive test. This map comprises all the accessible DT route.

Cellfile:

We must load the cellfile into the data collection software. A cellfile contains all the necessary information related to the site, like ID of that site, assigned frequencies of that site, direction of the antennas of that site etc. Whenever we load the cellfile we can see the position of that site in the digital map. Then we can easily find out our required sites form the map and also the roads to be covered for that site.

TEMS PARAMETERS

On completion of the module one should be clear about the parameters required during drive test what does it mean and how much it is important.Parameters regarding in windows like :a) Current Channelb) Radio parametersc) Serving + Neighbors

Current Channel : 

  • Time: It is system time of computer.
  • Cell name: It displays the name of the sector which is serving according to the cell file that is loaded in TEMS.
  • CGI: It stands for the Cell Global Identity which is unique for every sector of the site. It consists of MCC,MNC,LAC,CI.MCC: Mobile Country Code 0 – 999 (e.g. 404), MNC: Mobile Network Code 0 – 99 (e.g. 98) LAC : Location Area Code 0 -65535 (e.g. 5101) CI: Cell Identity 0 – 65535 (e.g. 11001)
  • Cell GPRS Support:  Tells sector is having GPRS or not. Values are Yes or No.
  • Band: It tells in which Freq. Band mobile is operating e.g. GSM 900/ 1800.
  • BCCH ARFCN: It tells by which BCCH is the mobile station getting served.
  • TCH ARFCN: On which Traffic Freq. call is going on.
  • BSIC (Base Station Identity Code): It is combination of Network Color Code (NCC) (0 – 7) & Base Station Color Code (BCC) (0 – 7). e.g. 62. It is decoded by mobile on every Synchronize Channel Message.
  • Mode: It is shows in which state is mobile operating, Idle, Dedicated & Packet.
  • Time slot: On which time slot of current TCH call is going on. Viz. time slot no. of TRX.
  • Channel Type: Type of channel mobile is getting now.  Like BCCH / SDCCH/8 + SACCH/C8 or CBCH / TCH/F +FACCH/F +SACCH/F.
  • Channel Mode: Shows mode of coding like Speech Full Rate of Half Rate.
  • Speech Codec: It shows FR for Full Rate, HR for Half Rate & EFR for Enhanced Full Rate.
  • Ciphering Algorithm: It shows ciphering algorithm used by the system to protect data for privacy. E.g. Cipher by A5/2.
  • Sub Channel Number: It is displayed at  a time when mobile is on dedicated mode at time of call setup when it is getting SDCCH at that time it shows which SDCCH it is getting out of 8 available. E.g. 2.
  • Hopping Channel:  It shows that current sector is having hopping feature or not. Values are Yes or No.
  • Hopping Frequencies: It displays no. of freq. on which mobile is allowed to hop. viz. MA List for hopping of that sector.
  • Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): It is the number which tells from which freq. from given MA list for sector hopping has to be started. E.g. 0 means sector will start from first freq. to hop.
  • Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Indicates sequence in which frequencies are allowed to hop from the MA List. 0- 63. 0 for Cyclic Hopping, 1 – 63 random hopping sequences.

Radio Parameters :

  • RxLev: Receiving level in terms of dBm that mobile is receiving from the site. Range of -30 dBm to -110dBm.
  • RxQual: Quality of voice which is measured on basis of BER. Range of RxQual 0 -7.
  • FER: Frame Erasure Rate it represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of non-corrected bit errors in the frame. It is indication of voice quality in network.
  • BER Actual: Ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits transmitted in a given time interval. BER is a measure for the voice quality in network.. Depending on BER RxQual is measured. E,g, BER 0 to 0.2 %   corresponds to RxQual 0. Max. BER countable and useful is up to 12.8 % which corresponds to RxQual of max. 7.
  • SQI : SQI is a more sophisticated measure which is dedicated to reflecting the quality of the speech (as opposed to radio environment conditions). This means that when optimizing the speech quality in your network, SQI is the best criterion to use. SQI is updated at 0.5 s intervals. It is computed on basis of  BER and FER. For EFR 30, FR – 21 & HR – 17 are respectively ideal values.
  • C/I : The carrier-over-interference ratio is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and the signal strength of undesired (interfering) signal components. It should be atleast > 9 .
  • MS Power Control Level: Displays range of power control from 0 to 8 depending upon network design. E.g. 0 means no power control and 1 means level that is defined by operator viz. 2 dBm less acc. To airtel.
  • DTX: Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a mechanism allowing the radio transmitter to be switched off during speech pauses. This feature reduces the power consumption of the transmitter, which is important for MSs, and decreases the overall interference level on the radio channels affecting the capacity of the network.
  • TA: Value that the base station calculates from access bursts and sends to the mobile station (MS) enabling the MS to advance the timing of its transmissions to the BS so as to compensate for propagation delay. Value of 0 means MS in radius of 550mt. From BS.
  • RL Timeout Counter (Cur): This parameter defines the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks. Range of 4 – 64 in step size of 4. it shows current value of RLT. Decrease by 1 but increase by 2. When it reaches zero it results in normal DROP Call.
  • RL Timeout Counter (MAX): This parameter defines the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks. Range of 4 – 64 in step size of 4. it shows current value of RLT. Normally 16, 20, 24.
  • MS Behavior Modified: This window shows current settings for the mobile station, for instance whether handover is disabled or multiband reporting enabled.

Serving + Neighbor (Figure):

  • Cell Name : Name that describes the neighboring cell as per the cellfile.
  • ARFCN : Channel number mobile receives as neighbor.
  • BSIC : BSIC of the neighboring cell.
  • RxLev : Receiving Level in dBm of neighboring cell.
  • C1 & C2 : These are the cell path loss criterion and cell reselection criteria. Valid during idle mode of mobile station.
  • C31 & C32 : GPRS signal strength threshold criterion C31 and GPRS cell ranking criterion C32. Valid both in packet idle and packet dedicated mode.

GrameenPhone  RF  ParametersCluster test result before and after swap Rx Level Sub dBm before and after SwapRxLev statistic before swapBar chart 1a: RxLev statistic before swap                                Bar chart 1b: RxLev statistic after swapRxQual Sub before and after swap:bar chartBar chart 2a: RxQual Sub before swap                        Bar chart 2b: RxQual Sub After swap

Events and statistic before and after Swap:     Preliminary Checklist before Functionality Test

  • Collect Cellfile ; If not available create cell file
  • Collect CDD file or Engineering Information Table
  • Collect Neighbor information table
  • Collect map of the target area with Drive Test route
  • Collect Cluster Boundary Map
  • Collect vector map and street information
  • Contact list with the responsible RF engineers and the OMC/BSS engineers on BSC/NOC
  • Ensure all DT tools and inverters are working properly
  • Ensure there are enough fuels in the car
  • Ensure that there is enough balance in SIM card before leaving
  • Ensure that Car is in good condition
  • Ensure that there are no alarm in the site
  • Calibrate the tools properly & measure if it is same RxLevel for all MS
  • Ensure all the drivers of laptop, mobiles & GPS are installed properly
  • Ensure you have backup software of Win XP, Laptop drivers, GPS drivers, TEMS
  • Ensure  phone battery is fully charged
  • Ensure Laptop is fully charged
  • Ensure you have connected +ve & -ve terminal of the inverter properly with car battery; mark the cables if necessary
  • Fill up the DT daily log sheet
  • Start a test log file to ensure that measurement is working fine
  • Check that you have saved the log files after finishing the measuring tour
  • Keep all the tools & accessories into the tool bag organized. No sharp bandings of cables or cable ties/tapes are not allowed in the bag.
  • Check that you have switched off all the MS at the end of work

Single Site Functionality Test The SSFT is performed with BTSs, Transcoders, BSCs and MSCs installed. The results of each measurement shall be confirmed by pass/fail or registered in the data sheet..The test comprises the following steps in order to perform the SSFT

  •  Execution of Mobile to/from MSC test number on each sector
  •  Execution of Mobile to Mobile calls.
  •  Execution of Originating and terminating SMS from each sector
  •  Verification of correct antenna orientation and correct BCCH on each sector
  •  Verification of BCCH footprints plots with adequate mobile Receive and C/I levels.
  •  Verification of frequency hopping, AMR FR, AMR HR
  •  Verification of Receive and Transmit powers
  •  Verification of Handover and Signal Quality – RxQual (Full & Sub values)
  •  Verification of the Packet data calls (Upload and Download) with GPRS/EDGE if applicable
  •  Verification of working of the inter vendor Handover with the neighboring sites, where ever applicable

Common Problems One of the most common faults with a new site build is swapped feeders. This occurs when the feeder(s) for one sector is connected to a different sector.DT engineer will ensure that there is no problem over the site regarding to sectors swap and bad quality. If DT engineer will find any issues or not sure about that, then he must inform the UCE DT coordinator or BSS engineer of Huawei.Common problems expected are—–1. Swapped feeders.2. Wrong tilts or wrong azimuths.3. Damaged hardware on the sites or other RBSs.4. Parameter errors, sites going down during the drive, or5. Wrong antenna types installed.Feeder Swap /Cross Feeder Test:Procedure 

  • Drive along the main beamwidth of the antenna (around 50 to 250 m)

a)      First preference DT in locked channel per cellb)      Second preference DT in idle mode per cell

  • While driving along sector A, if cell reselected along  B or C or call camped in opposite sector then there is a feeder swap between that two sectors. Similar cases for sector B or C.
  • Also during drive along sector A, if cell A have poor RxLevel (-80 to –95 dBm within 50 m) while other sector (B or C) have good RxLevel (-47 to -60 dBm) then there is a possibility of cross feeder.

Feeder Swap /Cross Feeder Test The first step to identify swapped feeders is to display the strongest BCCH (by signalStrength) along the drive route as shown in figure s.Figure-1 : It is clearly evident that the feeders for Sector1 (BCCH 48) and Sector 3 (BCCH64) are swapped. Alternatively, it could be that the frequency allocations are wrong for those two sectors.Figure-2 : Suppose we run a drive test through the area served by the  cell whose feeders are crossed display the ServBCCH attribute on the Map while the cell sectors are colored by BCCH. This is what we might see:Crossed Feeder SituationWhat is Crossed Feeder Issue?

  • There are server types of crossed feeder:
    • Crossed transmit feeders
    • Crossed receive  feeders
    • Crossed transmit and receive feeders

Crossed transmit feeders:Crossed transmit feeders will result in the swap of 2 or more sectors BCCH frequency and TCH’s. As the sectors are pointing in the incorrect direction, performance will suffer as the frequency plan has been changed and a greater degree of interference will be present.In DT, we will find that the handset receives the single which shouldn’t have been received in the current cell.

Crossed receive feeders:It is not easy to detect this fault by DT, because the BCCH frequencies will appear exactly as  they were designed.   However, the statistics for the cell would   help us to detect the fault:

  •    Uplink signal strength would be very poor
  •    Link balance would be larger than expected
  •    Handover success rate would be very low

Crossed transmit and receive feeder:The symptom is similar with the fault “crossed transmit feeder”, and we can detect  the fault      by DT easily .

The problems raised by crossed feeder issue:Crossed feeder will raise many problems, such as:

  •  A greater degree of interference
  •  A poor uplink signal strength
  • A  poor performance of handover

The problems raised by crossed feeder issue:Normal Situation                                     Normal Situation Crossed Feeder Situation                               Crossed Feeder Situation.Log Issues

  • Call
  • SMS
  • GPRS
  • Handover
  • Co-channel handover

Call:We take call sample for minimum one minute. it is very important in drive test because through call sample RNO engineer call analyses the present situation of their network quality. By this log the can understand if there is any drop call or silent call and any noise behind the call. They can take necessary steps if the need to improve their service.

SMS:Just we take the record because to see that the sms service is running successfully.

GPRS: Just we take the record because to see that the PDP context activated.

Handover:Handover is an important issue in Drive test or in the swap test. Basically after initialization of the new BTS it is important to observe the proper handover quality in that serving BTS for every cell. There are two types of handover performed during DT of a BTS. These are the Co channel Handover and the Neighbor channel Handover. The purpose of the handover is to see the quality of handover between the co and neighbor channel handover that how frequently the handover is made.Before ho takes place, system needs to decide the best candidate. First it repeats consecutive measurements to rank the cells according to HO algorithm. Please note that HO algorithm in different vendors systems or even in operators using the same equipment could be different. Some systems might rank the cells looking to their signal strength or some can rank them looking to their Path Loss or some can use both.

The purpose of handover analysis in DT is:

  • Understand the wireless handover performance of network.
  • Find out whether the handovers are healthy in this network.
  • What is typical handover failure in this network?
  • Find out whether neighbor audit work is needed in this network.

Co- channel handover:Co-channel handover is the way to handoff the call in other cell of the BTS from the one cell of the same BTS. It is perform to watch the frequent handover capacity of the same BTS.Say this is our BTS and the serving cell is A,B,C. for the co-channel handover we have to hand off the call in an a sequence. Like from A to B then B to C and C to A like the clockwise way. After that we have to maintain the sequence in a alternative way that means the anticlockwise way which means that from A to C, C to B, and then B to A. After this stapes the handover mechanism is performed. During DT in TEMS 8.0.4 we normally perform this operation by targeting the BCCH of the serving cell to handoff the call. Normally co- channel handover perform from the close position of the serving BTS.

Problem in co-channel Handover:

  • If the position of MS is far away from the serving BTS then it is impossible to perform the handover. It is because of the cell direction. Near to the BTS it is quite easy to take handover frequently of the serving BTS.
  • If there is feeder cable swap then it is very difficult to take reading of the co-handover mechanism
  • Some theme the BTS have overlaid and the under laid sub cell. On that case the handover may happen but there is an extra massage “Handover Intracell” which is not good always.

Neighbor handover:Neighbor handover is another basic objective of the DT. It ensures the network quality and the Call drop situation in a network. It also dedicates the coverage gap and the situation of the network coverage.In DT one has to perform the neighbor handover for the every serving cell of the BTS. Normally the handover perform between the neighbor cells of the serving cell which power is greater than any other serving BTS. Normally the handover is performWithout locking the frequency when the MS is in traffic mode and watch out the frequent handover between the neighbor cell. But some time we have to lock the frequency and perform handover by targeting the neighbor frequency.

Problems with the neighbor handover:

  • Handover problem due to vendor separation:  It is some time observes that there is a handover failure because of the vendor mismatch. GrameenPhone just change their BTS from Ericsson to Huawei. As a result it is quite difficult to make handover operation between these two vendors. Because of some parameter related to their technologies. In this situation it is observe that the new BTS keep the call and do not perform the handover operation to any old BTS even when the power level (Rx level) is too poor.
  • Neighbor Cell Missing: Some time it is observed that the handover operation perform  between two neighbor cell which are far away, even there is another cell close to the serving BTS. This situation basically occurs during targeting one frequency from another and the poor signal level due to the building or other things. In this situation during the handover operation suddenly the cell is appear after the handover perform. On that time the “neighbor cell missing “massage just appears.
  • Co- handover Problem: If the whole process start from very close to the BTS then there might be chance of Co handover in the same BTS.
  • Handover Intra cell: The cell from which we handoff the call to the other cell of other BTS, if serve OL and UL sub cell then the handover intra cell situation might come. It also occurs when we go far from the BTS, mostly from the high traffic area to the low traffic area and the TCH conversion from full rate to the half rate traffic.

Conclusion 

In conclusion I have to attest my supervisor Asif Mohammad Badruddoza of UCE Telecom Solution Pvt Ltd. I really appreciate the way I have been guided through this internship program with UCE, beginning from the opportunity to take the time I needed to refresh and expand my knowledge in several issues concerning Drive Test and RF Parameters, over a somehow protected period where I could discover and learn to value my new working environment, and finally earned the confidence to deal with assignments myself. It is through them that I did enjoy my work every day. Having a rare opportunity to use the knowledge and skills that I had acquired, I learned how to handle critical network faults and got the new ideas.Career-wise, the internship program undoubtedly will enrich my curriculum vitae (CV). Also, having gotten a chance to interact with most staff, I have had an insight on how to shape my career towards a humanitarian job in the near future.The internship program gave me a chance not only to work with UCE but also a chance to learn from the good experts. This would reflect much onto my experience. Working with different business organizations was a rare chance for me.

grameenphone

Categories
EEE

Design and Implementation of a Frequency

 Introduction:

In a broad sense, the term communications refers to the sending, receiving and processing of information by electronic means. Communication started with wire telegraphy in the eighteen forties, developing with telephony some decades later and radio at the beginning of the century. Radio communication, made possible by the invention of the triode tube, was greatly improved by the work done during world war 2.It subsequently became even more widely used and refined through the invention use of  the transistor, integrated circuits and other semiconductor devices. More recently the, use of satellite and fiber optics has made communications even more widespread, with an increasing emphasis on computer and other data communications.

 A modern communications system is first concerned with the sorting, processing and sometimes storing of information before its transmission. The actuals transmission then follows, with further processing and the filtering of noise. Finally we have reception, which may include processing step such as decoding, storage and interpretation.

 In order to become familiar with these systems, it is necessary first to know about amplifiers and oscillators, the building blocks of all electronics processes and equipment. With these as a background, the everyday communications concepts of noise, modulation and information theory, as well as the various systems themselves, may be approached. Any logical order may be used, but the one adopted here is, basic system, communication processes and circuits, and complex systems, is considered most suitable. It is also important to consider the human factors influencing a particular system, since thy must always affect in design, planning and use.

 The project – “Design and implementation of a Frequency Shift Keying transmitter and receiver” is designed for undergraduate student. In this project student’s will get a solid overview of communication system, types, technique, transmitter, receiver, FSK modulation, demodulation, and modulator and demodulator circuit.

About this Project

In this project transmission of message signal is a simplexformofwireless                                                                                                                                                                                                                      communication. Here a FSK transmitter is interfaced with a microcontroller to generate the message signal. In the receiver section another microcontroller is used to display the message signal.

Objectives

1. To gather theoretical and practical knowledge about communication system and circuit

2. Identify available methods and technique for FSK modulation, demodulation and

   corresponding circuits.

3. Establish a suitable process for implementing this project.

4. Produce a system to occur transmission and reception of digital signal.

5. Use design patterns, standards and best practices where appropriate.

6. And finally test this entire system.    

 Why this Project?       

 Communication engineering means transmission of message signal from one place to another place. As a student of electronics and communication engineering our main goal is to design a system that is very much related to the main theme of the communication engineering.

 This system is a simplex form of communication. It works like one way broadcasting system.so we can called it a one kind of pager. Our country is progressing technologically day by day. Our system can be applied as an alternative of pager into a small building.

 For above reasons we choose this project.

 Literature review

 History of Communication

Early telecommunications

In the middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as “the enemy has been sighted” had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London signaling the arrival of Spanish ship.

In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system (or semaphore line) between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometers (six to nineteen miles). As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880.

 Telegraph and telephone

The first commercial electrical telegraph was constructed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke and opened on 9 April 1839. Both Wheatstone and Cooke viewed their device as “an improvement to the [existing] electromagnetic telegraph” not as a new device.

Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837. His code was an important advance over Wheatstone’s signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time.

The conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849. However Meucci’s device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to “hear” what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London.

 Radio and television

In 1832, James Lindsay gave a classroom demonstration of wireless telegraphy to his students. By 1854, he was able to demonstrate a transmission across the Firth of Tay from Dundee, Scotland to Woodhaven, a distance of two miles (3 km), using water as the transmission medium. In December 1901, Guglielmo Marconi established wireless communication between St. John’s, Newfoundland (Canada) and Poldhu, Cornwall (England), earning him the 1909 Nobel Prize in physics (which he shared with Karl Braun).[11] However small-scale radio communication had already been demonstrated in 1893 by Nikola Tesla in a presentation to the National Electric Light Association.

On 25 March 1925, John Logie Baird was able to demonstrate the transmission of moving pictures at the London department store Selfridges.

Baird’s device relied upon the Nipkow diskand thus became known as the mechanical television. It formed the basis of experimental broadcasts done by the British Broadcasting Corporation beginning 30 September 1929. However, for most of the twentieth century televisions depended upon the cathode ray tube invented by Karl Braun. The first version of such a television to show promise was produced by Philo Farnsworth and demonstrated to his family on 7 September 1927.

Computer networks and the Internet

On 11 September 1940, George Stibitz was able to transmit problems using teletype to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and receive the computed results back at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. This configuration of a centralized computer or mainframe with remote dumb terminals remained popular throughout the 1950s. However, it was not until the 1960s that researchers started to investigate packet switching — a technology that would allow chunks of data to be sent to different computers without first passing through a centralized mainframe. A four-node network emerged on 5 December 1969; this network would become ARPANET, which by 1981 would consist of 213 nodes.

ARPANET’s development centered on the Request for Comment process and on 7 April 1969, RFC 1 was published. This process is important because ARPANET would eventually merge with other networks to form the Internet and many of the protocols the Internet relies upon today were specified through the Request for Comment process. In September 1981, RFC 791 introduced the Internet Protocol v4 (IPv4) and RFC 793 introduced the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) — thus creating the TCP/IP protocol that much of the Internet relies upon today.

However, not all important developments were made through the Request for Comment process. Two popular link protocols for local area networks (LANs) also appeared in the 1970s. A patent for the token ring protocol was filed by Olof Soderblom on 29 October 1974 and a paper on the Ethernet protocol was published by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs in the July 1976 issue of Communications of the ACM.

Communication System

In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in unison.

Basic elements

A basic telecommunication system consists of three elements:

  • A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal.
  • A transmission medium that carries the signal.
  • A receiver that receives the signal and converts it back into usable information.

For example, in a radio broadcast the broadcast tower is the transmitter, free space is the transmission medium and the radio is the receiver. Often telecommunication systems are two-way with a single device acting as both a transmitter and receiver or transceiver. For example, a mobile phone is a transceiver.

Analogue or digital

Signals can be either analogue or digital. In an analogue signal, the signal is varied continuously with respect to the information. In a digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete values (for example ones and zeros). During transmission the information contained in analogue signals will be degraded by noise. Conversely, unless the noise exceeds a certain threshold, the information contained in digital signals will remain intact. Noise resistance represents a key advantage of digital signals over analogue signals.

 Networks

A network is a collection of transmitters, receivers and transceivers that communicate with each other. Digital networks consist of one or more routers that work together to transmit information to the correct user. An analogue network consists of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. For both types of network, repeaters may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances. This is to combat attenuation that can render the signal indistinguishable from noise.

 Channels

A channel is a division in a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple streams of information. For example, a radio station may broadcast at 96.1 MHz while another radio station may broadcast at 94.5 MHz. In this case, the medium has been divided by frequency and each channel has received a separate frequency to broadcast on. Alternatively, one could allocate each channel a recurring segment of time over which to broadcast—this is known as time-division multiplexing and is used in optic fiber communication.

Modulation

The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation. Modulation can be used to represent a digital message as an analogue waveform. This is known as keying and several keying techniques exist (these include phase-shift keying, frequency-shift keying and amplitude-shift keying). Bluetooth, for example, uses phase-shift keying to exchange information between devices.

Modulation can also be used to transmit the information of analogue signals at higher frequencies. This is helpful because low-frequency analogue signals cannot be effectively transmitted over free space. Hence the information from a low-frequency analogue signal must be superimposed on a higher-frequency signal (known as the carrier wave) before transmission. There are several different modulation schemes available to achieve this (two of the most basic being amplitude modulation and frequency modulation). An example of this process is a DJ’s voice being superimposed on a 96 MHz carrier wave using frequency modulation (the voice would then be received on a radio as the channel “96 FM”)

Basic block diagram of a communication system

The System is composed of the following functional Blocks:

The Transmitter

Transmitter includes encoding, compression and error correcting operations, modulation process if some type of carrier to be used.

  The Channel

Where this refers to the available media like transmission lines, fiber cables, the radio frequency spectrum over which the information coming from a transmitter actually propagates or travels to a particular receiver.

The Receiver

Where the receiver performs the processes: decoding, decompressing, comparing error correction codes, demodulating the radio signal to separate it from any carrier that was used.

The Noise

The noise is generally normal in communication process. We cannot prevent it but we can minimize it. When you say noise this is unwanted form of a signal that disturbs, interferes and affects the wanted signal in the communication process.

Transmitter

A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications.

Types

Generally in communication and information processing, a transmitter is any object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). In radio electronics and broadcasting, a transmitter usually has a power supply, an oscillator, a modulator, and amplifiers for audio frequency (AF) and radio frequency (RF). Sometimes a device (for example, a cell phone) contains both a transmitter and a radio receiver, with the combined unit referred to as a transceiver.

In consumer electronics, a common device is a Personal FM transmitter, a very low power transmitter generally designed to take a simple audio source like an iPod, CD player, etc. and transmit it a few feet to a standard FM radio receiver.

In industrial process control, a “transmitter” is any device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, conditions it, to be received, usually sent via wires, by some display or control device located a distance away. Typically in process control applications the “transmitter” will output an analog 4-20 mA current loop or digital protocol to represent a measured variable within a range.

Block diagram of a simple transmitter

                                1 = Audio stage

                                   2= modulator

                                   3= Oscillator

                                   4= RF power amplifier

Description

Item Name Description
1 Audio Stage ·        Amplifies (increases) the weak signal coming from the microphone.
2 Modulator ·        The audio (or data) signal is modulated onto the radio frequency carrier in this modulator stage.

·        Modulation can be by varying the amplitude (or height) of the carrier known as amplitude modulation (am) or by slightly changing its frequency waveform known as Frequency Modulation (FM).

3 Frequency Generator or Oscillator ·        The Frequency generation stages (often known as the oscillator) define the frequency on which the transmitter will operate.

·        Incorrect setting of these stages can easily result in operation outside of the amateur band, and hence interference to other (non-amateur) radio users.

·        The Foundation License only permits the use of commercially available equipment or commercial kits built strictly in accordance with the instructions.

·        The Foundation License does NOT permit you to design and build your own transmitters.

4 RF Power Amplifier ·        The power amplification of the radio signal is carried out in the final stage of the block diagram.  It makes the signal stronger so that it can be transmitted into the aerial.

·        The RF power amplifier output must be connected to a correctly matched antenna (the “Load”) to work properly.  Use of the wrong antenna, or no antenna, can result in damage to the transmitter.

 A practical FM transmitter

The circuit given below is a two transistor FM transmitter circuit.FM transmitter

Figure: Two transistor FM transmitter

Receiver

A receiver is an electronic circuit that receives its input from an antenna, uses electronic filters to separate a wanted radio signal from all other signals picked up by this antenna, amplifies it to a level suitable for further processing, and finally converts through demodulation and decoding the signal into a form usable for the consumer, such as sound, pictures, digital data, measurement values, navigational positions, etc.

 Types

Various types of radio receivers may include:

  • Consumer audio and high fidelity audio receivers and AV receivers used by home stereo listeners and audio and home theatre system enthusiasts.
  • Communications receivers, used as a component of a radio communication link, characterized by high stability and reliability of performance.
  • Simple crystal radio receivers (also known as a crystal set) which operate using the power received from radio waves.
  • Satellite television receivers, used to receive television programming from communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit.
  • Specialized-use receivers such as telemetry receivers that allow the remote measurement and reporting of information.
  • Measuring receivers (also: measurement receivers) are calibrated laboratory-grade devices that are used to measure the signal strength of broadcasting stations, the electromagnetic interference radiation emitted by electrical products, as well as to calibrate RF attenuators and signal generators.
  • Scanners are specialized receivers that can automatically scan two or more discrete frequencies, stopping when they find a signal on one of them and then continuing to scan other frequencies when the initial transmission ceases. They are mainly used for monitoring VHF and UHF radio systems.
    Internet radio device

Block diagram of a simple receiver

11                   1=  Tuning and RF amplifier

                       2=  Detection

                       3=  Audio amplifier

                       4=  Loud speaker

Description

Item Name Description
1 Tuning and RF amplifier ·          Tuning selects just the signal we want to hear from all the many different radio signals being transmitted on different radio frequencies.

·          Tuning uses tuned circuits consisting of inductors (coils of wire) and capacitors.

·          The RF amplifier increases the signal received from the air by the antenna.

·          Antenna is connected to receivers by special wires known as feeders.

2 Detection ·          Detection is the process of recovering the original modulating signal.

·          The process is sometimes known as de-modulation (reverse of modulation in the transmitter).

3 Audio Amplifier ·          The audio amplifier increases the detected audio signal to level that can be used with a loudspeaker.
4 Loudspeaker ·          Sometimes headphones are used in place of the loudspeaker.

 A practical FM receiver

TDA7000 FM receiver

Figurefigure:  TDA7000 FM receiver

 Modulation

 The process of superposing low frequency audio signals on waves with high frequency is called modulation. Here, the low frequency signal is called the modulating signal and the high frequency wave, since it carries the information, is called a carrier wave. The resultant wave due to their superposition is called a modulated wave.

 Generally, the carrier wave is a sine wave, which is mathematically represented as:

                                        C (t) = Ac cos(2πfct)

 Where,

Ac= amplitude of the carrier wave

fc = carrier frequency

Necessity of modulation

(1) For effective transmission of high frequency waves, antenna length is small and hence such an antenna can be easily constructed.

 (2) The study of electromagnetic radiation indicates that the transmitted power by an antenna of a given length is inversely proportional to the wavelength X. This point shows that an antenna can transmit short wavelength radiation with more efficiency. Hence for this purpose also, the use of high frequency (short wavelength) waves is inevitable.

 (3) If there is more than one transmitter in a region and if these transmit their respective information simply using frequency of audio signals, then all such signals get mixed. Normally, it is not possible to separate information of one transmitter from the information of other transmitters. Such a situation can be avoided if every transmitter is assigned different high frequencies for information transmission.

 The conclusion of the present discussion is that if the transmission is done using high frequency instead of low frequency, then difficulties do not arise. Hence, the modulation process becomes necessary.

Types of modulation

There are mainly two types modulation.

1.Analoge modulation

2.Digital modulation

Types of analoge modulation

1. Amplitude modulation(AM)

2. Frequency modulation(FM)

3. Phase modulation(PM)

Types of digital modulation

1. Amplitude shift keying(ASK)

2. Frequency shift keying(FSK)

3. Phase shift keying(PSK)

4. Pulse code modulation(PCM)

Amplitude Modulation

In Amplitude Modulation the instantaneous value of the carrier amplitude changes in accordance with the amplitude and frequency variations of the modulating signal.

For example, changes in the signal strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker, or to specify the light intensity of television pixels. It was also the original method used for audio radio transmissions, and remains in use today by many forms of communication—”AM” is often used to refer to the medium wave broadcast band .

         Amplitude Modulation

Figure:  Amplitude Modulation

Frequency Modulation

In FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant, while the carrier frequency is changed by the modulated signal. As the amplitude of the information signal varies, the carrier frequency shift in proportion. As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the carrier frequency increases. If the amplitude of the modulating signal decreases the carrier frequency decreases. Frequency Modulation Figure: 2.7 Frequency Modulation

 Amplitude shift keying

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.

 The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream (modulating signal), keeping frequency and phase constant. The level of amplitude can be used to represent binary logic 0s and 1s. We can think of a carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch. In the modulated signal, logic 0 is represented by the absence of a carrier, thus giving OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given.Amplitude shift keying

 Figure: Amplitude shift keying

Frequency shift keying

Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. The simplest FSK is binary FSK (BFSK). BFSK literally implies using a pair of discrete frequencies to transmit binary (0s and 1s) information. With this scheme, the “1” is called the mark frequency and the “0” is called the space frequency. The time domain of an FSK modulated carrier is illustrated in the figures to the right.

Frequency-shift keying  Figure: Frequency-shift keying (FSK)

 PIC16F84A Microcontroller

 Microcontroller Introduction

A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.

Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems.

A micro-controller is a single integrated circuit, commonly with the following features:

  • central processing unit – ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32- or 64-bit processors
  • discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin
  • serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs)
  • other serial communications interfaces like I²C, Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect
  • peripherals such as timers, event counters, PWM generators, and watchdog
  • volatile memory (RAM) for data storage
  • ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage
  • clock generator – often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit
  • many include analog-to-digital converters
  • in-circuit programming and debugging support

PIC16F84A

This powerful (200 nanosecond instruction execution) yet easy-to-program (only 35 single word instructions) CMOS Flash/EEPROM-based 8-bit microcontroller packs Microchip’s powerful PIC® architecture into an 18-pin package. Easily adapted for automotive, industrial,

appliances low power remote sensors, electronic locks and security applications.

 

Some features of PIC16f84a are given below.

 

 Parameter Name  Value

 

 Program Memory Type  Flash
 Program Memory (KB)  1.75
 CPU Speed (MIPS)  5
 RAM Bytes  68
 Data EEPROM (bytes)  64
 Timers  1 x 8-bit
 Temperature Range (C)  -40 to 85
 Operating Voltage Range (V)  2 to 6
 Pin Count  18

 Pin configuration

pin configaration

Theoretical Representation:

In this project our main objective is to investigate different kind of modulation, demodulation, transmitter and receiver. Here we choose FSK transmitter and receiver, because it can operate with binary bits. FSK is a digital version of Frequency modulation so the basic concepts of FSK remain same as FM.

Frequency Modulation

In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. In analog applications, the difference between the instantaneous and the base frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal.

Suppose the baseband data signal (the message) to be transmitted is

1

Whilst it is an over-simplification, modulating signals are usually represented as a sinusoidal Continuous Wave signal with a frequency fm. The integral of such a signal is

2

Thus, in this specific case, equation (1) above simplifies to:

Where the amplitude of the modulating sinusoid, is represented by the peak deviation .

The harmonic distribution of a sine wave carrier modulated by such a sinusoidal signal can be represented with Bessel functions – this provides a basis for a mathematical understanding of frequency modulation in the frequency domain.

3 Figure:  Frequency modulation

Modulation index

As with other modulation indices, this quantity indicates by how much the modulated variable varies around its demodulated level. It relates to the variations in the frequency of the carrier signal:

45

Where is the highest frequency component present in the modulating signal xm(t), and is the Peak frequency-deviation, i.e. the maximum deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the carrier frequency. If, the modulation is called narrowband FM, and its bandwidth is approximately. If, the modulation is called wideband FM and its bandwidth is approximately. While wideband FM uses more bandwidth, it can improve signal-to-noise ratio significantly.

With a tone-modulated FM wave, if the modulation frequency is held constant and the modulation index is increased, the (non-negligible) bandwidth of the FM signal increases, but the spacing between spectra stays the same; some spectral components decrease in strength as others increase. If the frequency deviation is held constant and the modulation frequency increased, the spacing between spectra increases.

Carson’s rule

A rule of thumb, Carson’s rule states that nearly all (~98%) of the power of a frequency-modulated signal lies within a bandwidth of

 Where, as defined above, is the peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center carrier frequency?

Implementation

FM signals can be generated using either direct or indirect frequency modulation.

  • Direct FM modulation can be achieved by directly feeding the message into the input of a VCO.
  • For indirect FM modulation, the message signal is integrated to generate a phase modulated signal. This is used to modulate a crystal controlled oscillator, and the result is passed through a frequency multiplier to give an FM signal

A common method for recovering the information signal is through a Foster-Seeley discriminator.

Applications

Broadcasting

FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech (see FM broadcasting). Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A narrow band form is used for voice communications in commercial and amateur radio settings. The type of FM used in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM. In two-way radio, narrowband narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into space.

As the name implies, wideband FM (W-FM) requires a wider signal bandwidth than amplitude modulation by an equivalent modulating signal, but this also makes the signal more robust against noise and interference. Frequency modulation is also more robust against simple signal amplitude fading phenomena. As a result, FM was chosen as the modulation standard for high frequency, high fidelity radio transmission: hence the term “FM radio” (although for many years the BBC called it “VHF radio”, because commercial FM broadcasting uses a well-known part of the VHF band; in certain countries, expressions referencing the more familiar wavelength notion are still used in place of the more abstract modulation technique name).

FM receivers employ a special detector for FM signals and exhibit a phenomenon called capture effect, where the tuner is able to clearly receive the stronger of two stations being broadcast on the same frequency.

A high-efficiency radio-frequency switching amplifier can be used to transmit FM signals (and other constant-amplitude signals). For a given signal strength (measured at the receiver antenna), switching amplifiers use less battery power and typically cost less than a linear amplifier. This gives FM another advantage over other modulation schemes that require linear amplifiers, such as AM and QAM

Frequency shift keying

In digital transmission repeaters can regenerate digital signals and improve the ability against noise interference, and the use of encoding techniques can provide debugging and correction functions. But digital signals often occur distortions due to high frequency components are easily attenuated for a long distance transmission. To improve the disadvantage, a particular processing (modulation) is need for this purpose. Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a type of FM in which the modulating signal shifts the output between two predetermined frequencies – usually termed the mark and space frequencies.

FSK technique is widely used for the transmission of Teletype information. FSK standards have involved for the years. For radio Teletype, the frequency of 2124Hz represents mark or 1, and 2975 Hz represents space or 0.

 For data transmission over telephone and landlines, the commonly used frequencies are:

Space = 1270Hz

Mark = 1070Hz

And

Space = 2225Hz

Mark = 2025Hz

The frequency difference of FSK signals 200Hz.

 Frequency shift keying

 Figure No:  Frequency shift keying (FSK)

FSK Modulator:

FSK ModulatorFigure: FSK modulator circuit

The FSK modulator is used to convert the digital signals (square wave) into the analog signal having two different frequencies corresponding to the input levels. In this experiment, we use the frequencies of 1070Hz 1270Hz represent space and, respectively. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) can easily generate these two frequencies. A practical FSK modulator using the LM566 VCO is shown in Fig.3.2.In such cases, the oscillating frequency of LM566 can be found by

                                                      fo =2 (Vcc-Vin) / R7 C6 Vcc

Where Vcc is the power voltage applied to LM566 pin 8, and Vin is the VCO control voltage applied to pin 5.

If Vcc is constant, proper value of R7, C6 and Vin are determined to generate the LM566 output frequencies f0 of 1072Hz and 1272Hz. In practice, the limitations of using Lm566 VCO are as follows;

2kΩ≤ R7≤20kΩ

0.75≤Vin ≤Vcc

 f0≤500kHz

10V≤Vcc≤24V

To generate the frequencies of 1070Hz and 1270Hz exactly, the digitals input levels, such as TTL levels 0V and 5V must be converted to proper voltage levels before applying to the input of VCO. The levels shifter (Q1 and Q2) provides this purpose. The Q1 acts as a NOT gate. In other words, when Q1 input is high (5V), then Q1 conducts and the output goes to low (about 0.5V) causing the Q2 to cutoff. If Q1 input is low (0V), the Q1 is off and its output rises to high (5V), and thus the Q2 conducts. When the Q2 is OFF, the input voltage of VCO is given by:

                                            V1 = R8 Vcc / (R8 + R6)

And the output frequency of VCO is f1, when Q2 conducts, the input voltage of VCO is

                                          V2 =  (R10 // R8) Vcc /(R10 // R8) + R9

And the output frequency is f2. Therefore the output frequencies f1 ₌ 1270Hz and f2 =1070Hz can be obtained by carefully adjusting the R10 and R7 values, both U1 and U3 are the second order low pass filters. The four order low pass filter formed by cascading these filter is used to filter the frequency harmonics components on the output of LM566 and therefore the FSK modulated signals obtained.

If the FSK modulated signals mentioned above is desired to transmit by an antenna, a mixer is required to modulate signal to the frequency range in RF band.

FSK Transmitter:FSK Transmitter

 Figure: 3.4 FSk Transmitter

The above figure shows a Frequency Shift Keying transmitter. Here we use a Microchip manufactured Pic16f84a microcontroller to generate the message signal. Basically we program the microcontroller such a way so that it can generate the ASCCI value of character ‘a’. Then we input this into the modulator.

 After the FSK modulation, the modulated signal is inputted into a RF amplifier module. The RF amplifier module contains a tuning circuit and an antenna.

The output signal of the tuning circuit is in our desired frequency. Then the signal is transmitted through the antenna.

FSK demodulator

 Phase locked loop (PLL)

The digital signal is converted into the FSK signal by the FSK modulator for long distance communications. At receiver section, an FSK modulator is necessary to recover the original digital signal from the received FSK signal. A phase locked loop (PLL) is a good choice for this purpose. In short, the phase locked loop is the control system that tracks the frequency and phase of the input signal. Recently, the PLL is widely used as a demodulator in many types of analog communication systems. Such as the AM demodulator, FM demodulator, frequency selector and Chroma subcarrier acquisition in color TV receiver. Similarly, many digital PLL have been developed to track a carrier or bit synchronizing signal in digital communication systems.

Basically, a PLL includes three major sections:

                     Phase detector (PD)

                     Loop filter (LF)

                     Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)

Consider the PLL block diagram shown in figure 3.4. If Vin change frequency, an instantaneous change will result in a phase change between A and B and hence a dc level change at the output. This level shift will change the frequency of the VCO to maintain lock. If the PLL is used as an FSK demodulator and the FSK signal is applied to the input the output V1 and V2 will correspond to the input frequencies f1 and f2, respectively. Thus an input frequency change has converted into an output dc level change. When the PLL output is connected to the input of voltage comparator having a reference between V1and V2, the output signal of the comparator is the digital signal, or the FSK demodulated signal.

Block diagram of PLLBlock diagram of PLL Figure:  Phase lock loop

FSK demodulator circuit

FSK demodulator circuit

Figure:  FSK demodulator circuit

In the demodulator we use LM565 PLL to perform an FSK demodulator shown in figure 3.5. The LM565 PLL including the phase detector, VCO and amplifier operates below the frequency of 500 kHz. The phase detector operates as a double balanced modulator and the VCO is an integrator-Schmitt circuit. Power supplies +5V and -5V are applied to Vcc (pin 10) and Vee (pin 1), respectively. The FSK signal is applied to the input of the phase detector. Since a frequency multiplier is needless in our project, pin 4 and pin 5 are directly tied together. The reference output (pin6) provides the reference voltage of the comparator U2. The combination of internal resistor Rx and external capacitor C3 operates as the loop filter. The timing components R1 and C5 determine the free running frequency of the VCO. In designing with the LM565, the important parameters of interest are as follows:

Free running frequency

In the absence of the input signal, the output frequency of the VCO is called the free running frequency f0. In the circuit of figure 3.5, the free running frequency of LM565 is determined by the timing components C5 and R1, and can be found by

                                                         f0 ~ 1.2 /4R1 C5

Lock range

Initially the PLL is in already locked state and the VCO is running at some frequency. If the input frequency fi is always from the VCO frequency fo, locking may still occur. When the input frequency reaches a specific frequency where the PLL loses lock, the frequency difference of fi and fo is called the lock range of the loop. The lock range of LM565 can be found by

                                     fL = 8f0 / Vc

Capture range

Initially, the loop is unlocked and the VCO is running at some frequency. If the input frequency fi is close to the VCO frequency fo, unlocking may maintain. When the input frequency reaches a specific frequency where the PLL locks, the frequency difference of fi and fo is called the capture range of the loop. The capture range of LM565 can be found by In the circuit of figure 3.6, components R5, R4, R3, C3, C2 and C1 perform the low pass filter to reduce the output ripple. The digital levels of FSK demodulated signal are compatible TTL levels.

 FSK Receiver

FSK Receiver

Figure:  FSK Receiver

The above figure shows a Frequency Shift Keying receiver. At first the signal is input into the RF amplifier module. The RF amplifier contains an antenna, a filter and an amplifier.

After filtering and amplification the signal goes to the FSK demodulator. The demodulator recovers the original message signal Then the demodulated signal arrives into the microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed such a way so that it can read the demodulated signal and convert it into the ASCII value of ‘a’. Then microcontroller will send this value into the output for display.

Design and Implementation

 Tools and components

Modulator

 VCO             IC   LM566

Transistor    C 945

Op amp        IC 741

Microcontroller      PIC 16F84A

Resistors

Capacitors

Breadboard

Oscilloscope

Demodulator

PLL                LM565

Op amp       741

Microcontroller      PIC 16F84A

Resistors

Capacitors

Breadboard

Oscilloscope

Design and Implementation

 Modulator

1 .Arrange all of component needed for the modulated circuit.

2. Connect the circuit properly showed in the figure 3.3.

3. Connect 5V dc to digital signal input using the oscilloscope, observe the LM566 output frequency (pin 3) and adjust R8 variable resistor to obtain the frequency of 1070Hz.

4.  Connect digital signal input to ground (0V) using the oscilloscope, observe VLM566 output frequency (pin 3) and adjust R10 variable resister to obtained the frequency of 1270Hz.

5. Save the output signal generator to TTL level and the frequency of 200Hz and then connect it into the digital signal input.

6. Use the oscilloscope to observe FSK output signal.

Demodulator

1. Arrange all of component needed for the modulated circuit.

2. Connect the circuit properly showed in the figure 3.6

3. Observe the free – running frequency of LM565 and adjust R1 to obtain a frequency of 1170Hz.

4. Connect a 1070Hz, 2VP-P sine wave to the input terminal save oscilloscope vertical input to dc range and observe the output wave form.

5. Change the input frequency to 270Hz and repeat step 4.

6. Apply a 200Hz TTL squire wave to input of FSK modulator.

7. Connect the output of FSK modulator to the input of FSK demodulator.

8. Use the oscilloscope to observe the demodulated output wave form.

After testing the modulator and the demodulator we concentrate at the transmitter and the receiver.

Transmitter

1. Write the program of the microcontroller to generate the serial data correspond to the ASCII value of ‘a’.

2. Then we programmed the microcontroller by the programmer.

3. Connect the microcontroller with the modulator circuit.

4. Design a RF radio frequency amplifier to amply the FSK modulated signal and connect the output of the FSK modulator with the input of RF amplifier.

5. Design a tuning circuit to get our desired frequency and connect its input with the output of the RF amplifier.

6. Connect an antenna with the tuning circuit for the transmission.

7. Finally test the transmission.

Receiver

The FSK modulated signal is received by the receiver antenna.

1. Input the received signal into a RF amplifier.

2. Then connect the RF amplifier output into the FSK demodulator. The demodulator will recover the original message signal.

3. Then write a program for the microcontroller to take input from the demodulator and convert it into the ASCII value.

4. Connect the microcontroller with the demodulator.

5. Finally check the microcontroller output is it the ASCII value of ‘a’.

 Conclusion:

Discussion:

In this project our main goal is to gather knowledge about communication system, different kind of modulation and made a FSK transmitter and receiver. Here we use two microcontrollers with the transmitter and receiver for generate and display the message signal which is the ASCII value of character ‘a’.

The reason of choosing FSK transmitter and receiver is because, its use for long distance digital communication. It is also used in modems. Another application of FSK is at low and very low frequencies (below 300 kilohertz). At these frequencies, keying speeds are limited by the “flywheel” effect of the extremely large capacitance and inductance of the antenna circuits. These circuits tend to oscillate at their resonant frequencies. Frequency-shifting the transmitter and changing the antenna resonance by the same keying impulses will result in much greater keying speeds. As a result, the use of these expensive channels is much more efficient.

 And the main advantage of FSK over CW modulation is it rejects unwanted signal (noise) that are weaker than the desired signal.

 Finally we can say that, we complete this project successfully.

Future Work

Our system is one kind of pager. Our future plan is to interface the transmitter with a PC (personal computer) and make our system possible to transmit, receive and display any kind of short message.

 References:

Books

Communication electronics

       By   Louis E. Frenzel  

Electronics communication systems

      By     George Kennedy

                Bernard Davis

Principles of electronic circuits

      By     Dr. Rezaul Karim Mazumder

Websites:

www.google.com

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.tpub.com

www.microchip.com

www.tutornext.com

www.electronics-diy.com

www.zen.co.ukFrequency

Categories
EEE

Nokia Siemens Networks (Part2)

Indirect purchasing:

Indirect purchasing refers to all items that are not sold by Nokia Siemens Networks but are used by Nokia Siemens Networks employees. For example: laptops, phone, office supplies, facility services, software used by employees for daily office work etc.

 Internal purchasing:

Internal purchasing refers to all items that can be sold by Nokia Siemens Networks to its customers but are used inside the company for Research and Development (R&D) material, investment or demo purposes. For example: base stations, cables, OEM items, software used for NSN equipment (eg. labs and testbeds). As opposed to customer orders, internal purchasing do not require a previously defined contract and there is no sales mode specified.

The following types of orders are considered to be internal:

R&D:
Product deliveries for R&D own use, charged to R&D cost center. Experimental (delivery of pre-commercial products, not yet reaching E5 milestone, to customer site in order to test and develop the products with the customer) is one type of R&D delivery.
INVESTMENTS:
Local company investments: internal investments for local company own use (to be remained in local company and used for demonstration, training or testing purposes)
Investment via NSNAM Oy to NSN Oy’s cost center: items purchased if CSM/Split mode project need to order a product for its own use from Hub or NSN factory plant.

DEMO:
Delivery of products to demonstrate pre-commercial and commercial products in exhibitions, fairs, or at the customer premises.
PROTOTYPES:
Products still under development, not available for customer sale yet, used for R&D purposes.

Direct purchasing

Direct purchasing refers to all items that are sold by Nokia Siemens Networks to its customers, covering hardware, services and software.

Strategic procurement activities such as supplier selection, management and development, including contractual arrangements, are done by Global Procurement within Operations.

General Process for indirect purchase:

Indirect Procurement: Indirect Procurement is responsible for selecting, managing and developing the supply base for the indirect goods and services consisting of Travel & Fleet, Manufacturing & Test Equipment, Facility Services, External workforce, and Professional Services (Marketing Services, Corporate Services, Consulting & Training, Auxiliary Supplies).

Indirect purchasing are done in two ways

End to end
Order based purchase

 End to end purchase procedure:

The end to end procurement order process is split in six steps:

Step1: Demand – the requirement coming from the end users

Step2: Approval – for the costs related to the requirement

Step3: Supplier selection and negotiation

Step4: Operational Purchasing – purchase request and order creation

Step5: Goods/Service receiving – related costs booking

Step6: Invoice payment

Demand: The requester is responsible for specifying the demand (need) in a clear and detailed way.

Approval process: The approvers shall follow the Nokia Siemens Networks approval policy. All updated Approval Limits (AL) policies are available in the Global F&C intranet pages Global F&C Approval Limits. In case more stringent unit or country specific rules apply, they ought to be obeyed as well.

Supplier selection and negotiation: Procurement organization is responsible for:

Supplier selection and negotiation

Operative purchasing

Supplier selection is fully described in the SBM process (Supplier Base Management which is almost similar for Indirect and direct procurement and discussed in direct purchase process in details). The negotiation phase is one of the steps of that process.

Only to the purpose of this document, the negotiation step can have different results:

A single purchase order
A frame agreement with or without a price list

The negotiation can be executed in different time frames:

During the standard purchase order cycle, for each purchase request
During the normal sourcing activities, to the scope of signing a frame agreement with a price list included and before issuing any purchase order.

Operational purchasing

The operational purchasing can be classified to 3 main cases:

Order based (also called „standard purchase order‟ process)
Invoice based
Frame agreements with fixed price elements based

Order based process is the preferred one to be used in all cases.

Operational purchasing – Order based process

Order based process is the preferred process and it should be used for the majority of the categories. NSN employees use myOrders as the tool supporting this process. Exceptions are separately defined.
For standardized commodities, this process is also supported by the use of catalogues, which are released by the procurement category area in charge. The usage of these catalogues is mandatory and independent from the order value.

In case of non-catalogue purchase request (the so-called “free text” request), the negotiation is done at a single purchase request level.

This process is applicable to most indirect purchases, such as all software items, laptops, mobile phones, IT equipment, promotional goods, office supplies, (indirect) external temporary labor, etc.

Activities

Responsible person

Create the demand

End users

Approve the costs according to NSN AL (Approval Limits)

All NSN employees according To NSN Limit of Approval policy

Agree on T&C Prices Scope of work Attached relevant documents

GPR INP and GPR IT HW&SW Create the purchase order

Post the GR and enclosed all the relevant documents to

POC

Prove the services/goods are received

End user

Pay the invoice according to the “3 ways match”

SAS

Invoiced based process is used for two main cases, one where Category area has been specified not to benefit from the consolidation of purchases: examples are membership fees, conference fees, IPR (intellectual property rights), etc another is Category area uses frame agreements where consumption is approved per invoice by the internal stakeholder, such as utilities (eg. energy expenses etc.)

The main roles are mentioned below:

Requester – check the content of the invoice using IAT tool, and forward to the cost center approver
Business approver (AP) – approve the invoice according to the NSN Approval Limits (AL) policy using IAT tool and ensure the correct final approver is included in IAT flow. As a principle, no-one can approve own expenses
Invoice posting – SAS posts the invoice in SAP P20 for paying

 Goods/Services receiving

The requester is responsible for timely acknowledge the receiving of goods/services in myOrders tool. In the case of invoice based process, it is responsibility of the business approver to post approval in IAT and, by doing so, release the invoice for payment.

 Invoice payment

Global F&C is responsible for the payment process. For SAP P20 countries (NSN BD), Shared Accounting Services (SAS) is responsible to execute the payment process.

Tools supporting the Indirect Purchasing Process

The relevant tools are:

myOrders for all the requirement/approval/goods receipt process phases
SAP P20 for the PO creation
IAT/P20 for the invoice based process (Invoice Approval Tool)

 General process for Direct Purchasing

Direct Purchasing refers to all items that are sold by Nokia Siemens Networks to its customers, covering hardware, services and software.

The product and service that NSN purchase under direct purchasing are:

Products

Feeder System
R.A Accessories and Y Max Filters
Battery
Core power System
Generators
MDF/ DDF
Outdoor Raw Cable and Accessories
Shelter and containers Air conditioner
Renewable Energy system
Site material – Fixed Networks
Site material – Mobile networks
Standalone Power System
Tower

Services

Civil works
Network Operation and Field maintenance
Outside Plant Material and Services
Project Management services
Site Acquisition
Telecom Equipments

 Resources:

Direct external work force
Temporary Labor

Among these product, service and resource list NSN BD Ltd. do not purchase all of these product service and equipment. Most of them are procured globally. The job of Off shore equipment procurement and purchase the jobs generally done by NSN Finland procurement team y and On shore or local service which mostly includes installation of equipment is done by NSN BD Ltd or via third party (sub Contractors)The Procurement team of NSN BD Ltd generally deals with

MDF/ DDF
Outdoor Raw Cable and Accessories
Shelter and containers Air conditioner
Site material – Mobile networks
Direct external work force
Temporary Labor
Civil works
Network Operation and Field maintenance
Outside Plant Material and Services
Project Management services
Site Acquisition
Telecom Equipments

Strategic procurement activities such as supplier selection, management and development, including contractual arrangements, are done by Global Procurement within Operations. All operational procurement activities for direct materials such as purchase order management and inbound supply daily activities are done by the operational procurement teams in NSN.

The teams those are responsible for the jobs are related with direct purchasing are:

Materials Execution teams within Operations

MEX teams within operation is responsible for securing total cost efficient on-time material availability by operational category management, and inbound logistical model implementation for factory and HUB inbound materials through supplier integration activities. Materials Execution represents the MEX function in category strategy creation and other cross functional teams. Materials Execution contributes to total cost efficient on-time material availability by proactively managing and developing supply networks in order to fulfill customer expectations. This is done by providing global visibility of the whole supply Chain (HUBs, plants, suppliers) and assuring collaboration with suppliers with a solid NSN wide MEX approach.

 Regional Logistics

Regional Logistics is responsible for Order Placement to NSN vendors for Direct Purchasing of Materials and Services needed in Customer Orders related to Local Business. Regional Logistics is responsible for End to End Logistics management, which includes Order Management, Transportation, Inventory management, issuance of purchase orders, handling invoices and delivery from NSN Vendors for Direct Purchasing related Materials and Services for Customer Orders in Local Business. The order placement and delivery has to be in line with the contracts set up by Service Procurement in the region. The delivery can be to the customer warehouse or directly to the site depending on the contractual set up and/or material & service type.

 Purchasing teams within Hardware Services

They are responsible for securing on-time material availability in Hardware Services’ distribution centers. Purchasing contributes to total cost efficient on-time material availability by proactively managing and developing repair and spare supply networks in order to fulfill customer expectations.

Repair Services procurement activities such as supplier selection, management, contracting and development are done by Hardware Services within Services. Spare part procurement tasks are completed according to Hardware Services’ requirements by Global procurement. All procurement activities inside Hardware Services are accomplished according to the guideline of procurement processes defined by Global procurement.

 Supplier Selection

For supplier selection NSN BD Ltd follow the regulations of Supplier Based Management (SBM) process following picture shows the different criteria of supplier selection for different types of product. Three types of SBM is generally used basing on importance of the product. NSN chose which process they will follow to select the supplier from

Full SBM
Medium SBM
Light SBM

At Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) Global Procurement (GPR) is responsible for the selection of new Suppliers and the management of existing Supplier base for whole NSN. The main input for the SBM process is the relevant Category Strategy which is created in GPR Category team and facilitated by the Supplier Manager for the respective Category.

The Supplier Base Management process covers the following phases:

Supplier Pre-Selection
Supplier Selection
Supplier Management

Supplier Pre-Selection and Supplier Selection describe the onetime activities in order to select the best Supplier in standardized way into NSN Supplier base. Supplier Management describes the cycle based activities to manage and develop NSN Supplier base.

NSN Supplier Base Management process overview, which shows the supplier selection process of NSN.

 Supplier Pre-Selection

The purpose of this phase is to identify new Supplier candidates for NSN. Supplier Pre-Selection consists of the following steps:

Supplier scouting and screening
Early Supplier evaluation
Cost scenario modeling

Supplier scouting and screening

The purpose of Supplier scouting and screening is to gather information on potential sources for technologies, commodities, services and competences needed by NSN in the mid- to long-term. This may include follow- up of standardization initiatives, attending technical and/ or business conferences and exhibitions, performing web searches and visiting Suppliers to get updates on their technology, products, services and roadmaps. Input for Supplier scouting & screening are:

NSN overall strategy and other relevant strategies
Category Strategy
NSN SR
Technology/ service requirements
Technology architecture roadmaps

Early Supplier evaluation

The purpose of the early Supplier evaluation is to prescreen Suppliers based on NSN SR (supplier Requirement). It may cover the following aspects:

Verification of Supplier’s financial status as per NSN Supplier financial and business analysis sub-process
Preliminary validation of technology/ services the Supplier is offering
Validation of key business fundamentals such as logistic services offered, supply capacity
Preliminary validation of Supplier’s ability to meet NSN quality and reliability criteria.

Cost scenario modeling

The purpose of cost scenario modeling is to build up an understanding of the production and business elements that determine the cost of the technology, component, product or service. This provides a basis for cost benchmarking of different technology or service options. If cost scenario modeling is deemed necessary, the respective Supplier Manager is responsible for building the technology/ service cost scenario models in collaboration with Suppliers, cost management and technical experts in NSN. Required input:

Expected annual Spend with this Supplier
Production and business elements
Total cost drivers of that industry
Cost structure of the purchase item

The cost scenario models can help to provide an objective comparison basis for make/ buy decisions.

Minimum criteria for Potential status

After the aforementioned steps of Supplier Pre-Selection have been successfully completed (and minimum criteria have been met) to NSN’s satisfaction, the Supplier may received the status Potential. Minimum criteria for the status Potential:

Non Disclosure Agreement (NDA) signed and available in NSN NOSS
Supplier created in NSN NOSS, basic information about Supplier obtained, evaluated and stored into NSN NOSS
RFI basic information of the supplier received and uploaded into NSN NOSS
Preliminary validation of the Supplier‘s ability to meet NSN SR and technology/ service/ competence checked
Light financial check or public investment grade credit rating stored in NSN NOSS
Supplier Risk Assessment in Light mode stored in NSN NOSS
Business opportunity clearly identified and documented
“No pay” list checked

Supplier Selection

The purpose of this phase is to evaluate, verify and confirm whether Suppliers meet NSN Supplier Requirements. Supplier Selection consists of the following steps

Evaluation
Verification & assessment of the potential Suppliers, resulting in
Contracting for selected Suppliers

Evaluation

The evaluation phase covers an evaluation of potential Supplier candidates. The basic capabilities and compliance to NSN requirements are reviewed and documented in NSN NOSS. If the Supplier has been assessed in the Early Supplier Evaluation phase, only the additional criteria need to be concluded. Evaluation elements can include:

Business opportunity clearly identified and either initial risk & security analysis based on opportunity done or Supplier scanning done
Match with the (Category) strategy and technological requirements
Total cost of ownership (e.g. using material cost breakdown, open book costing)
Supplier Risk Assessment and risk mitigation plan
Dependency (i.e. sole source; difficult technology, IPR)
NSN’s share of the whole business volume
Political & geographical stability in areas where Supplier has operations
R&D support
After sales support
Logistical capability to support NSN globally

Supplier Risk Assessment shall be done for all new Suppliers and additionally in the Supplier Management phase whenever there are significant changes in the business environment (e.g. ownership, financial situation, business volumes, and manufacturing locations).

The relevant Category/ Sub-Category team will review the list of potential Suppliers and nominate the ones that will be taken to the Verification & Assessment phase. Depending on the Supplier financial analysis questionnaire a financial analysis shall be conducted. Required input:

Expected annual Spend with this Supplier
Production and business elements
“No pay” list

The status Potential is not a permission to start delivering products to NSN. As a rule, no business commitments shall be made with a Potential Supplier.

Verification and Assessment

The purpose of the verification and assessment phase is to ensure that the Potential Supplier is capable of performing according to NSN SR with manageable and identified risk.

The NSN Supplier Audit Framework defines guidelines to all Supplier audits, and assessments, applied within all phases of the SBM process.

In the initial Supplier Selection, the assessment is based on the comprehensive NSN SR.

A Lead Auditor is nominated for all assessments and audits. The Lead Auditor is responsible for planning (including resource planning), executing, reporting and following up the assessments/ audits.

Assessment and audit reports are stored in NSN NOSS for shared visibility and traceability.

Any nonconformity identified shall be recorded in the audit report (or Supplier self assessment) and a corrective action plan shall be agreed. The Supplier is solely responsible for the creation of the corrective action plan and its execution.

Contracting

The purpose of contracting is to create a legally binding contract between the parties in order to secure the NSN business interest and to mitigate risks.

The Category Cluster/ Category team will nominate a Head Negotiator who, by default, is the nominated Supplier Manager. The Supplier Manager is responsible for contracting and contract management. The relevant parties as defined in the NSN Supplier Contracting process shall be informed about the contract content.

The Supplier Manager is responsible for Requests for Quotation and budgetary pricing for the respective Supplier.

Findings from Verification and Assessment may influence the contract with the respective Supplier, so the assessment should be conducted before finalizing the contract.

At the end of Contracting the Vendor master data management sub process need to be done in order to manage the outcome of Contracting into the Purchasing system (P20 SAP system).

Minimum criteria for Approved status

When the Supplier Pre-Selection and Supplier Selection have been completed successfully the Supplier may be granted the status Approved, for Full SBM approach.

Minimum criteria for the Supplier status Approved are:

Potential status has been approved
Supplier Manager agreed
Supplier has completed the RFI and this is available in NSN NOSS
Risk assessment done with an appropriate tool, covering level of risk arising from e.g. environmental issues, ethical issues, business dependency, political or geographical risks
Supplier has passed NSN Supplier assessment, level of compliance with NSN SRhas been verified and Audit report is documented in NSN NOSS, if needed corrective action plan is agreed.
Risk mitigation plan done if applicable according to the relevant NSN risk management processes
Verification of Supplier’s financial status done
Supplier checked against “no pay list” and against “Red Flag” Location bank account details
NSN Frame Purchase Agreement or NSN Conditions of Purchase signed acc. Contracting sub process
Optional or specific requirements:
Alignment with the NSN Category Strategy verified for business and technology
Total cost of ownership analyzed
Validation of key business fundamentals such as logistic services offered and supply capacity completed to NSN’s satisfaction
R&D support and/ or After sales support verified

When the Supplier has been granted Approved status, business transactions are allowed to be started.

Supplier Risk Assessment shall be done for all new Suppliers and additionally in the Supplier Management phase whenever there are significant changes in the business environment (e.g. ownership, financial situation, business volumes and manufacturing locations).

Minimum criteria for restricted status

When the relevant process steps for Supplier Selection have been completed successfully the Supplier may be granted the status Restricted, for Medium SBM approach.

Minimum criteria for the Supplier status Restricted are:
Supplier Manager agreed
Supplier created in NSN NOSS, basic information about Supplier obtained, evaluated and stored into NSN NOSS

Supplier has completed the RFI and this is available in NSN NOSS

Risk assessment in Light mode done with an appropriate tool, covering level of risk arising from e.g. environmental issues, ethical issues, business dependency, political or geographical risks
Supplier has stated their compliance or otherwise acceptingly responded to the requested elements of NSN SR in a self assessment response or passed NSN Rapid assessment for SBM Medium approach successfully and potential corrective action areas identified and communicated for Supplier’s corrective actions.

Risk mitigation plan done if applicable according to the relevant NSN risk management processes

Verification of Supplier’s financial status done
Supplier checked against “no pay” list and against “Red Flag” Location bank account details Non Disclosure Agreement (NDA) signed and available in NSN NOSS
Signed conditions of purchase agreement or any other applicable contract type

Optional or specific requirements:

Purchase Agreement signed for direct material Category Clusters
If the Supplier is not originally selected by OPS GPR please attach evidence (as file to respective status template) e.g. the mail from the responsible Business Group Sponsor/ 2nd level GPR Approver

When the Supplier has been granted Restricted status, limited business transactions are allowed to be started.

Supplier Management

The purpose of Supplier Management is to maintain and develop NSN’s approved Supplier base and to further develop some strategic relationships to Preferred status. Supplier Management is done according to implementation matrix to ensure continuous performance improvements of Suppliers in alignment with NSN business requirements.

Supplier Management consists of the following steps:

Relationship Management
Performance Management
Strategic Development
Phase-out

Relationship Management

Good Relationship Management and hence good Supplier relationships are of key importance to NSN. Relationships are the result of all daily transactions with the Supplier by all parties involved. They are based on mutual respect, interests, understanding and prospects. GPR communication should be conducted based on External Communications rules. Both the Supplier and NSN have an equally important role in building up a good relationship – neither party can do it alone.

A good relationship with a good performance and technology/ product/ service match may lead to a strategic alliance or a close and mutually advantageous relationship.

A good relationship requires proactive collaboration from both parties, including regular meetings.

Supplier Manager acts as the escalation point in the relationship with the Supplier.

Key tasks in Relationship Management include such as, but are not limited to:

Communications,
Contract Management together with project contract creation,
To choose from existing Supplier base the best Supplier for certain project,
Supplier Business Plan creation and maintenance,
Status update,
Internal Supplier team

Minimum criteria for preferred status

Status Approved given
Strategic alignment
Good/ outstanding performance
Full SBM process followed/ documentation available in NSN NOSS, Supplier Business Plan maintained in NSN NOSS

Performance Management

Supplier Performance Management is an essential part of monitoring and developing existing Suppliers on continuous basis.

Supplier performance measurements are necessary activities to enable the operational buyers, GPR Category teams and other stakeholders, such as Project Managers, R&D personnel, to assess and develop Supplier performance based on factual data collected and analyzed on an ongoing basis. It also enables Supplier Manager to give absolute and relative feedback to the Supplier, and enabling the Supplier to consider their performance versus other comparable Suppliers used throughout NSN. The output is to be utilized when planning follow up Supplier assessments and specific development projects, creating a Category Strategy and selecting Suppliers for a NSN project.

Strategic Development

The potential of Supplier Base Management lies in the active development of Suppliers. Based on the Category Strategy, Supplier Performance Evaluation results and assessments a Development Plan can be created and development activities can be started. The purpose of these activities is to get the Supplier to meet NSN (short or long term) requirements in the selected area.

Should the Supplier performance and strategic alignment with NSN so justify, a Supplier may be granted the Preferred status.

A Supplier Development Plan can be created to drive Supplier performance improvements in purchasing, quality, delivery performance and technology/ service. The Supplier Manager is responsible for taking the initiative in the creation and implementation of such a plan and he/ she is supported by a cross-functional team.

Phase-out

Some Suppliers may be phased out as a result of the active Supplier Base Management. Phase-out leads to Disqualified status.

There might be several reasons to phase out the Supplier:

Category Strategy
Obsolete or noncompetitive technology
Poor performance (e.g. in delivery, quality or other areas)
Product end of life
Business conflict (IPR conflict, Supplier has become direct competitor, serious or continuing neglect of confidentiality, strategy conflict, ownership risk, etc.)
Brand risk or policy conflict (e.g. ethical or environmental behavior)
Product safety failure, missing capability or serious noncompliance with NSN SR.

 Specific Objective: 03

To analyze the process of ordering product using myOrder tools in indirect procurement process.

 Related hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: 90% employees think that using myOrder tolls is the best way for ordering and purchasing indirect products.

Alternative Hypothesis: less than 90% employees think that using myOrder tolls is the best way for ordering and purchasing indirect products.

Related question

MyOrder tool is the best way for purchasing good for indirect purchase.

 Responses:

(In the range of 1to 5 from strongly agree t strongly disagree here answer below 3 are counted as agree)

At 95% confidence level testing hypothesis

For testing this hypothesis 30 out of 30 agreed and strongly agreed that MyOrder tool is the best way of purchasing goods.

This hypothesis is tested using Z test

 Z Test: The case can be summarized symbolically

pHo =. 963(Hypothesized Mean)

qHo= (1- pHo) = 0.033

n =30 (sample size)

= 90%

σp ={ (pHo*qHo)/ n}^0.5

={( 0.963* .033)/ 30} ^0.5

= .05477

Zobserved = ( – pHo )/ σp

= {(.963-0.9)/ 0.5477}

=1.15

Zcrit =1.64 (at 90% confidence level)

Zobserved < Zcrit so there is no significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis

The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically.

Acceptance Region

Zcrit= 1.64

Zobs= 1.15

Figure 6: t Test

From the figure above it can be said that the value of Zobs falls within the acceptable range

Findings: from the hypothesis testing it is found that more than 90% employee think that myOrder tool is a good way for purchasing indirect goods.

Requester (RQ): the person who needs the goods, initiator of the purchase request
Business Approver (AP): the person with the correct approval authority and limits, who approves the costs
Category Manager in Global Procurement (SP): the person who negotiates for the best price and/or terms &conditions with the supplier
Purchase Order Center (POC): the team who processes the request and creates the related purchase order into SAP, and handles the operational purchase issues with the supplier, including potential invoice clarifications.

By using this tool the requester can initiate a purchase order specifying the goods and terms of purchasing with the approval of approver (line manager) purchase order is created. Supplier is selected as per NSN’s policy by and category manager in global procurement, which is locally done by indirect procurement team. They place the order to the supplier. The requester receives the goods and then the final process of payment is completed.

By using MyOrder tool requester can directly order his/ her required product and can specify what type of product he/she needs and payment is also done after receiving the goods by requester. So there is very less chance of complain in the case of specification from requester. By this soft ware and via net the total process can be general completed within comparatively lower time period than it was done manually. So the employees of NSN thinks it’s a good way of purchasing product.

Specific Objective: 04

To analyze the Invoice payment system for direct and indirect purchase

 Related hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: 75% employees think that their policy for payment serves the interest of both vendors and organization

Alternative Hypothesis: Less than 75% employees think that their policy for payment serves the interest of both vendors and organization

 Related Question:

These data shows that in most of the cases NSN BD Ltd. takes more than one month to pay the bill. As their invoice payment process is splinted in different countries of the world, In most of the cases it takes 45days. No payment is done in cash. All the payments are done by check. When the check is issued from the concern country’s office for any vendors a mail is sent to the concern vendor also to inform that a check is issued for payment of credit purchase as per contract of payment. This way of processing and informing the vendor reduces the chances of unusual delay of payment to vendors.

The journal entries for invoice payment of direct or indirect purchase in SAP (system) are given below:

GR Creation

Cost of goods sold/ Opex Dr.

Goods received Cr.

IR creation

Goods received Dr.

Vendor Cr.

Payment process

Vendor Dr.

Bank Cr.

By auto reconciliation the cost goes to cost of goods sold is paid by bank

 Findings

By testing this hypothesis and other related information is found that payment policy of NSN BD LTD serves the interest of both parties. As they take more than a month to pay most of the bills they prepare the contract keeping vendors interest in mind

Specific objective: 05

To find out whether NSN deals with its vendor as a strategic partner or not.

Related hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: 70% of employees say that NSN BD deals with its vendor as a strategic partner.

Alternative Hypothesis: Less than 70% of employees say that NSN BD deals with its vendor as a strategic partner

 Related question

Does NSN BD Ltd. deals with its vendor as strategic partner?

Responses

Zobserved< Zcrit so there is no significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically. Figure: 12: Showing Z test Acceptance Region Zcrit= 1.96 Zobs= 01.95 Figure12: z Test Source: Primary From the figure above it can be said that the value of Zobs falls within the acceptable range. The questionnaire surveys result shows that most of the employees said that that NSN BD LTD deals with its customer as strategic partner. From the survey result of the vendors, it was found that most of the vendors (70% of surveyed) also agree with the statement. 5.5.5 Response for the question from vendors: Does NSN BD deal with its vendors as strategic partners? Table 05: Showing frequency distribution of vendors survey Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid No 3 30.0 30.0 30.0 Yes 7 70.0 70.0 100.0 Total 10 100.0 100.0 Source: primary Figure 13: pie chart showing frequency distribution of vendors survey Source: primary NSN BD LTD deals with a wide range of vendors from large to small in term of business. It’s not possible to deal like a strategic partner with all. The bonding with the vendor generally depend on how long they are dealing with that particular vendor, importance and availability of the product or service provided by the vendors, yearly turn over with that vendor etc. But NSN BD LTD always tries to be in good relation with all of its vendors as they are the most important parties who help NSN BD Ltd to run their business smoothly. 5.6 Specific objective: 06 To find out whether there is any relationship between good vendor management and vendor development 5.6.1 Related hypothesis Null Hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between good vendor management practice and vendor development Alternative Hypothesis: There is significant relationship between good vendor management practice and vendor development 5.6.2 Related questions Does NSN BD Ltd work for vendor management? Current practice of vendor management is the best. 5.6.3 Responses Table 06: Showing the frequency distribution in cross table NSN BD LTD works for vendors development Total Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Current practice of vendor management of NSN BD Ltd is best strongly agree Count 6 1 1 0 8 Expected Count 2.9 1.3 3.2 .5 8.0 Agree Count 4 3 7 0 14 Expected Count 5.1 2.3 5.6 .9 14.0 Neutral Count 1 1 3 1 6 Expected Count 2.2 1.0 2.4 .4 6.0 Disagree Count 0 0 1 0 1 Expected Count .4 .2 .4 .1 1.0 strongly disagree Count 0 0 0 1 1 Expected Count .4 .2 .4 .1 1.0 Total Count 11 5 12 2 30 Expected Count 11.0 5.0 12.0 2.0 30.0 Source: primary 5.6.4 Chi-Square Tests Table 07: showing result of Chi square test using SPSS Value df Pearson Chi-Square 24.264(a) 12 N of Valid Cases 30 . 5.6.5 Symmetric Measures Table 08: Showing the result of contingency coefficient Value Approx. Sig. Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .669 .019 N of Valid Cases 30 Here tabulated value of Chi-Square is at 10% significant level, (df=12) is 18.548, Calculated value of Chi-Square > tabulated value of Chi-Square so null hypothesis is rejected.

Findings

There is significant positive relationship between good vendor management practice and working for vendor development. Contingency coefficient is 0.66 which is near to 1 shows strong relationship between good vendor management practice and vendor development.

NSN’s thoughts towards supplier development:

NSN BD Ltd believes that vendor development is important for good vendor management.

The chief responsibility of Supplier Development is to ensure that suppliers to Global Procurement meet the performance requirements of Nokia Siemens Networks. This is accomplished through continuous development of chosen suppliers within the supplier base of Global Procurement. The aim is to minimize and mitigate risks identified in supplier interface.

To achieve this goal, from Early Supplier Evaluation Phase onwards Supplier Development evaluates suppliers based on clearly defined NSN Supplier Requirements. A foundation for continuous supplier quality assurance, on the other hand, is set by having negotiated Quality Assurance Appendices in place with suppliers. Supplier performance improvement is also based on having well-defined Key Performance Indicators in place based on which Supplier Development can initiate joint improvement actions with chosen suppliers of Global Procurement. Through Supplier Development Programs Supplier Development assumes the leading role in developing the chosen key strategic suppliers as defined by Global Procurement. The projects conducted within the framework of Supplier Development Programs are called Supplier Quality and Supplier Productivity Excellence Projects.

The chief responsibility of Supplier Development is to ensure that approved suppliers to Global Procurement meet the performance requirements of Nokia Siemens Networks. This is accomplished through continuous development of chosen suppliers within the supplier base of Global Procurement.

The operational design of Supplier Development is founded upon effective minimization and mitigation of identified risks in supplier interface, and is driven by the following objectives:

Supplier evaluation and qualification based on clearly defined NSN Supplier Requirements (NSN SR)
Continuous Supplier Quality Assurance based on negotiated Quality Assurance Appendices
Continuous Supplier performance improvement based on defined Key Performance Indicators
Development of chosen key strategic suppliers with an industry-leading approach based on mutual trust, professional support and well defined process and methodologies

Specific objective: 07

To find out whether NSN as a green company, chose suppliers producing environment friendly goods and services or not.

 Related Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: 70% employees of believe that NSN give importance on Environment friendly goods suppliers

Alternative Hypothesis: Less than 70% employees of believe that NSN give importance on Environment friendly goods suppliers

Related Question

Being a green company does NSN BD Ltd. gives preference to environment friendly goods and services.

 Response

Using 5point likert scale, from1-always to 5never, taking the value below 3 are taken as positive response

This hypothesis is tested using Z test

 Z test: The case can be summarized symbolically

pHo = 0.70 (Hypothesized mean)

qHo= (1- pHo) = 0.30

n=30 (sample size)

= 0.83

σp = { (pHo*qHo)/ n}^0.5

= {( 0.70*0.30)/ 30} ^0.5

= 0.0836

Zobs = ( -pHo)/ σp

= {(0.833 – 0.70)/ 0.0836}

= 1.589

Zcrit =1.64 (at 90% confidence level tabulated value of Zcrit)

Zobs< Zcrit so there is no significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis

The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically.

Figure 15: Showing z test

Acceptance Region

Zcrit= 1.64

Zobs= 1.589 1.589 1111111111111111111.51479

Figure : z Test

Source: Primary

From the figure above it can be said that the value of Zobs falls within the acceptable range.

Findings

From the hypothesis test it is found that NSN gives preference to those suppliers who supply environment friendly goods.

 NSN as a Green Company

As a green company NSN require suppliers to have a documented environmental management system (EMS), except in categories where impacts are very low such as research and development, software providers and consultancies. In the case of contract manufacturers, other key suppliers and those identified as having higher environmental risks, this EMS must be certified to environmental management standard ISO 14001.

At the end of 2009, we asked our 150 key suppliers (by purchase expenditure) to confirm whether they have an EMS in place at corporate level and at each individual site which supplies Nokia Siemens Networks. Focusing on direct suppliers of materials only, over 400 sites were included in the survey. Based on supplier confirmations and a review of public data sources, 76 percent of these sites meet Nokia Siemens Networks requirements and work continues with those suppliers who did not yet comply.

It typically takes 12 to 18 months to develop an EMS for each site. As new suppliers are continually selected or existing suppliers supply Nokia Siemens Networks from new sites, this means EMS coverage is unlikely to reach 100 percent at any given time. In 2010, NSN also further improve their data collection process in this area. Cutting emissions related to energy use is a key part of NSN’s corporate responsibility strategy. This includes our commitment to improve energy efficiency in the supply chain.

In 2009, we invited 22 key suppliers to participate in a pilot energy efficiency program. Of these, 19 suppliers provided examples of how they are improving energy efficiency, which we shared together with best practices from our own operations. Suggestions ranged from improving the efficiency of buildings and equipment to streamlining specific manufacturing processes and encouraging employees to turn off equipment when not in use. NSN shared these examples of best practice with all participating suppliers.

NSN have asked suppliers to set targets to improve the energy efficiency of their operations and, where applicable, their products, beginning in 2010.

Targets fulfilled in 2010

Invited a further 30 suppliers (based on high energy intensity and business significance) to participate in our energy efficiency program
Drive implementation of good practices through meetings and target-setting on energy efficiency.

From the discussion it is clear that NSN as a green company always conscious about choosing environment friendly goods suppliers. They themselves also avoid unusual use of resources like paper, Energy, printing materials etc.

Specific objective: 08

To find out whether there is any change in cycle time for procurement of a product or not

Related Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: More than 75% employees think that Cycle time for procurement of product has decreased more than 7 days each

Alternative Hypothesis: Less than 75% employees think that Cycle time for procurement has decreased less than 7 days each year.

 Related Question

Cycle time for procurement of NSN BD Ltd is decreasing by 7days per year

Response

 Z test: The case can be summarized symbolically

pHo = 0.75 (Hypoyhetical mean)

qHo= ( 1- pHo)= 0.25

n=30 (sample size)

= 0.867

σp ={ (pHo*qHo)/ n}^0.5

= {( 0.75*0.25)/ 30} ^0.5

= 0.079

Zobs = ( -pHo)/ σp

= {(0.867-0.75)/ 0.079}

= 1.47

Zcrit =1.64 (at 90% confidence level tabulated value of Zcrit)

Zobs < Zcrit so there is no significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis

The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically.

Figure 17: Showing Z test

Acceptance Region

Zcrit= 1.64

Zobs= 1.479

Figure : z Test

Source: Primary data

 Secondary data From NSN BD Ltd.

Findings

It shows that in previous years cycle time for purchasing product has decreased by more than 7 days per year.

But from the data we found that the time period for invoice payment has not changed, only the time due in PO creation has changed and came to a minimum range of 2to 7 days by using my order tools. Now in upcoming days it will only be possible to minimize the cycle time by decreasing payment period. It will also help the organization to increase number of potential vendors who are now not interested to do business just because of longer credit period.

It will also increase the bargaining power and save cost.

 Specific Objective: 09

To find out the growth rate of purchase of NSN

 Related Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: More than 70% employees said that purchase rate of NSN is growing more than 15% per year

Alternative Hypothesis: More than 70% employees said that purchase rate of NSN is not growing more than 15% per year

 Related question

Purchase rate of NSN BD Ltd. (Direct and Indirect) increasing consistently more than 15% per year

Using 5point likert scale, from1-always- 5never, taking the value 3 and below are taken as positive response

This hypothesis is tested by using Z test

5.9.4 Z Test : The case can be summarized symbolically

pHo = 0.70 (hypothesized mean)

qHo= (1- pHo) = 0.30

n=30 (sample size)

= 0.80 (Observed mean )

σp ={ (pHo*qHo)/ n}^0.5

= {( 0.70*0.30)/ 30} ^0.5

= 0.0836

Zobs = ( -pHo)/ σp

= {(0.80-0.70)/ 0.0836}

= 1.19

Zcrit =1.64 (at 90% confidence level tabulated value of Zcrit)

Zobs< Zcrit so there is no significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis

The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically.

Acceptance Region

Zcrit= 1.64

Zobs= 1.19

Figure : z Test

Source: Primary

Secondary data related to the issue

Specific Objective: 10

To find out the implementation rate of purchasing contract

Related Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: More than 80% employees believe that all the contracts for procurement of NSN BD LTD. have been successfully implemented.

Alternative Hypothesis: Less than 80% employees believe that all the contracts for procurement of NSN BD Ltd. have been successfully implemented.

Related question

NSN BD Ltd implements 100% of its procurement contract.

 Response

 Z test:

The case can be summarized symbolically

pHo = 0.80 (Hypothetical mean)

qHo= (1- pHo) 0.20

n=30 (sample size)

= 0.933 (Observed mean)

σp ={ (pHo*qHo)/ n}^0.5

= {( 0.8*0.20)/ 30} ^0.5

= 0.073

Zobs = ( -pHo)/ σp

= {(0.933-0.80)/ 0.073}

= 1.82

Zcrit =1.96 (at 95% confidence level tabulated value of Zcrit)

Zobserved < Zcrit so there is no significant reason to reject the Null hypothesis the null hypothesis The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically. Figure 21: Showing Z test Acceptance Region Zcrit= 1.96 Zobs= 1.84 Figure: Z Test From the figure above it can be said that the value of Zobs falls within the acceptable range Table 16: Showing list of contracts in 2010: Name of the company are in contract with NSN BD LTD. Nature of Business & Contract Implementation Universal Technology and Engineering Ltd. TI Successful Alliance Computers Ltd. TI Successful Eminence Communication TI Successful GTL Int’l Bangladesh Pvt. TI Successful Crystal Engineers & Builders Ltd. TI Successful MAK Consortium TI Successful Fair & Appropriate Technology Ltd. TI Successful Crystal Future Venture Ltd. TI Successful NJ Wade TI Successful DNS Engineering TI Successful Friends Engineering & Construction TI Successful International Office Equipment (IOE) TI Successful Innovis Telecom Services Bangladesh TI Successful The Three Guys Network Bangladesh TI Successful Woojoo Telecom TI Successful Taurus International Ltd. TI Successful Power Trade Engineering Ltd TI Successful Asia Tel TI Successful GPI Asia Tel TI Successful Matrix TI Successful Siam Installation Materials Successful Chowdhury Installation Materials Successful Paradise Cables Successful BRB Cables Successful Emaco Alam System Successful CERES Installation Materials Successful Metrotelworks NPO Successful TechMahindra NPO Successful 3S Netwrok (BD) LTD NOP Successful R K Engineering & Construction MW Installation Successful Chowdhury Agencies Materials Successful M. Brothers & Communication Co. Ltd. OFC Maintenance Successful Unitedtel MW Installation Successful Crystal Engineers & Builders Limited BTS Installation Successful Zoom International BTS Installation Successful Wave Engineering & Technologies MW Installation Successful Radiocell Communication BTS Installation Successful Technology & Services OFC Maintenance Successful ELPIS Corporation BTS Installation Successful SEAM Telecom Materials Successful CERES Materials Successful Fair & Appropriate Technologies Ltd. MW Installation Successful Paradise Cables Cables Successful Singer Cables Cables Successful BRB Cables Cables Successful Techvally Networks Ltd. OEM Successful AAMRA Technologies OEM Successful Paradise Cables Cables Successful Singer Cables Cables Successful Total number of contract = 48 Response Number of contract Percentage Successfully implemented 48 100 Cancelled/ Not implemented 0 00 From the above data base we can say that the entire contracts are made with the vendors of direct procurement are implemented. So there is no specific reason to reject the null hypothesis. In case of execution an of contract 5.11 Specific Objective: 11 To find out vendors perception towards NSN BD Ltd. 5.11.1 Related hypothesis Null Hypothesis: More than 70% vendors think NSN is a good customer for their product (got less than 3 in the scale of 5) Alternative Hypothesis: Less than 70% vendors think NSN is a good customer for their product (got less than 3 in the scale of 5) 5.11.2 Related question NSN BD LTD is a good customer for its vendors 5.11.3 Response Table 17: Showing frequency distribution of related question Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly agree 3 30.0 30.0 30.0 Agree 5 50.0 50.0 80.0 Neutral 2 20.0 20.0 100.0 Total 10 100.0 100.0 Source: primary Figure 22: Pie chart showing frequency distribution Source: Primary Using 5point likert scale, from1-always- 5never, taking the value below 3 as positive response This hypothesis is tested using Z test 5.11.4 Z test: The case can be summarized symbolically pHo =. 70 (Hypothesized mean) qHo=(1- pHo) = 0.30 n=10 (sample size) x= 0.8 (observed mean) Sx ={ (pHo * qHo)/ n}^0.5 ={( 0.7* .30)/ 10} ^0.5 = 0.145 tobserved = (p- M)/ Sx = {(.8-0.7)/ 0.145} =0.69 tcrit =1.833 (at alpha= 0.1,df=9 tabulated value of tcrit) tcrit > tobs , so there is not significant reason to reject the Null hypothesis.

The figure below shows this hypothesis test graphically.

Acceptance Region

tcrit= 1.833

Zobs= 0.69

Source: Primary

Tobserved < tcrit so there is no significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis

Basing on only a single question test it’s not possible to conclude any strong findings for that reason some more points are required to be shown. From the data base of questionnaire survey of vendors it is found that

Table 18: Co-relation between years of business with NSN BD LTD and being strategic partners.

Does NSN BD deal with its vendors as strategic partners?

How long are you doing business with NSN BD

Does NSN BD deal with its vendors as strategic partners?

Pearson Correlation

Findings:

There is very insignificant but positive relationship between age of business with NSN BD Ltd and the relationship with its vendors. It means the higher the age of business with the vendors the stronger strategic partner relationship. But the value of Pearson correlation is very low. Means the relationship is very low.

Table 19: Co-relation between yearly turnover and being strategic partner

Yearly turnover with NSN BD Ltd.

Does NSN BD Ltd. deal with its vendors as strategic partners?

Yearly turnover with NSN BD Ltd

Pearson Correlation

 Findings

There is very insignificant but positive relationship between yearly turnover of vendors business with NSN BD Ltd and the strategic relationship with its vendors. Means the higher the turnover (yearly) of business with the vendors the stronger strategic partner relationship. The value of Pearson correlation is very low. Means the relationship is strong.

Related Question

In case of failure to delivery product on time, step that NSN BD takes

Does your organization meet the process with in the lead time

In case of failure to delivery product on time, step that NSN BD takes

Does your organization meet the process with in the lead time

Pearson Correlation

Findings:

The correlation between meeting the delivery process with in the lead time shows that the regularly the vendors complete the process with in pre-declared lead time the flexible initiative (penalty) NSN BD LTD. charges.

From the above findings we can say that Vendors have positive perception towards NSN BD LTD. as their customer.

Specific objective: 12

To show the impact of vendor management on its business

In this research impact of vendor management on its business is shown by limiting its scope. There can be several impact of vendor management system on its business like on time support, longer credit period, after sales service, cost saving etc on generating higher revenue and profit by running business smoothly with. In this research the impact of vendor management is measured in terms of cost saving on its profitability. The relationship between cost saving and

Profitability is ascertained by doing regression analysis below.

 Regression Analysis of cost saving and profitability:

From the data collected above the required values for regression analysis are ascertained. Taking the value of independent (cost saving) and dependent variable ( profitability)

Findings and Interpretation of regression analysis of yearly cost saving and profitability:

The calculated F value 1.065 is less than tabulated value 18.5 (at 2 Degree of freedom) which predicts that if sample size large there will be no impact of yearly cost saving on yearly profitability.
The value of B is positive means there is a positive linier relationship between profitability and cost saving, so there will be an upward trend in regression line.
The equation for regression line is Y = 182.194X – 311.26
The predicted residual values the gap between the regression line and the actual value

The figure below shows the regression line of cost saving and profitability

FINDINGS OF THE ANALYSIS, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

Findings:

In recent days vendor management has become an important part of running any type of business. It has reached to the position of managing an important partner of business from a merely a neglected supplier. Now a day there is a separate field of business where only job of vendor management is done. Many large companies are managing their vendors via vendor management firms. There are also some software and web based solution to manage for vendor management like “Talent20”
There are some well practice rules and steps are widely practiced for better vendor management including supplier selection, preparing contract, contract management and renewal and payment procedure
The vendor management system of NSN BD Ltd is regularly upgrading with the change of time and requirement of situation. Policies regarding procurement and payment are global and applied in all the countries.
Of the total procurement indirect procurement have a small proportion but adequate importance are give to that part as those are important for running the business by fulfilling the individual employee’s need promptly
For meeting the requirement of individual employees fast NSN BD LTD started using a software named MyOrder tool which most of the employees think one of the best tool. By using this tool the requester can place his/her demand for the product with the approval of manager(Approval) and purchase order can be placed within two to seven days which previously required almost a month.
The invoice payment system serves the interest of both parties. Though NSN BD LTD takes 45 days for any kind of payments to vendor except Govt. vendors, but they pay the bills on the preset contract date. Some exceptional cases of delay are there, but those have sound reason behind keeping the payments outstanding. Most of those situation occurs due to not getting the required product as per specification on time
In most of the cases NSN BD LTD deals with its vendor as valued partner. NSN takes special care of its vendors and work hard for vendor’s development by providing different training, setting KPI for their services. They believe the more effort is given of vendor development the better it is for vendor management.
NSN BD LTD claims that it is a Green Company, so they always try to avoid using those products which are harmful for the environment. They are also concern for energy saving. They are not only working for being green alone. They also encourage the vendors supplying environment friendly goods. They prefer those suppliers having ISO certification regarding environment friendly goods
The efficiency in vendor management has decreased the cycle time for procurement to payment for purchasing any product. The cycle time decreased in the part of creating purchase order. Previously they did it manually, but now the product is ordered directly by the requestor via MyOrder tools, which require less time.
The spending on purchase of direct and indirect products has an upward trend. But sometime there are fluctuation in the spending due to some specific reasons like change in technology, inflation etc
NSN BD LTD works very efficient and effective in preparing contract for purchasing goods and service. All most all the contract they made are successfully implemented, In case of service procurement they regularly monitor the quality and speed of work and project management team regularly supervise them for getting best output.
Vendor’s perception towards NSN BD LTD as a customer is good. Vendors are highly interested in doing business with them. Even though the payment system of NSN BD LTD require a bit longer than many other local and multinationals, still their numerous vendors are ready to supply product. Vendors are treated as their strategic partner and are provided support for development.
The larger the amount of business with the vendor the stronger the relationship.
The longer the age of business with vendors the stronger the relationship.
Impact of vendor management on its business is prominent. Their good relationship with vendor helps them to run their business smoothly by saving time and cost. This cost saving has a positive relationship with the profitability of NSN BD LTD.

 Conclusion:

In this research paper, an exhaustive effort was made to analyze the vendor management system of Nokia Siemens Networks focusing on Nokia Siemens Network Bangladesh Ltd. for analyzing the vendor management system few important aspects of vendor management like supplier base management, preparing contract, managing contract, payment process is analyzed.

Mission of vendor management is to provide world class product and services for Nokia Siemens Networks in a cost efficient manner. Vendor managers represent Nokia Siemens Networks in contract negotiations with vendors. Different vendor management group works closely with GPR, business unit representatives to achieve the goals. Vendor management’s key responsibility is to make sure NSN’s deals with suppliers are cost efficient and advantageous.

NSN already have a very updated rule, regulations, guide line and policies for efficient and effective vendor management which is used globally. And these rules are revised with the requirement of situation. These regulations are also prepared keeping vendors interest in mind. For this reason vendors are also interested in dealing with NSN as a valued customer. Though there are some points, which some time resist NSN to choose the best option, but the way the deal with their vendors, provide NSN good support in their business as strategic partner.

Recommendation:

For preparing the research paper on critical analysis of Vendor Management System, it was required to go through the policy and process of it. Observing the whole process and questionnaire survey of both employees and vendors, it is found that current vendor management practice is a good one. The concern persons dealing with this process are highly experienced and educated in relevant field. with due respect to them I would like to recommend few points which was found through the observation and suggestions from both employees and vendors of NSN BD LTD may help them to maintain good relationship, cost saving, timely delivery of the product and service.

NSN BD LTD should focus on reducing the payment period which widen the range of potential vendor and increase bargaining power
In case of indirect purchase by ordering via my Order tools, individual purchase as per requirement is done; if it is processed in the way to purchase in bulk it may reduce the cost of purchasing.
Provide short training on purchasing policies and rule of NSN
The impact of cost saving on profitability is positive. It is also very high because the largest portion of its revenue spend on the purchase of direct products, so little percentage change (increase) in cost saving will have multiplier effect on its profitability. So NSN must focus on cost saving on direct procurement.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Books:

Cooper. R Donald and Schindler, S Pamela, “Business Research Methods”, 7th Ed.,

Singapore, McGraw‑Hill Irwin, 2001

Lesikar. V. Raymond, Pettit. D. John, Jr. eds., “Lesikar’s Basic Business Communication”, 8th Ed., Singapore, McGraw‑Hill Irwin, 1996.

Levin. 1. Richard and Rubin. S. David, “Statistics for Management”, 7th Ed., New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India, 1999.

Chen and Liu (2004), “Positive brand extension trial and choice of parent brand” Journal of Product and Brand management, Vol. 13, pp.25-36.

Springen, K. and Miller, A. (1990), “Sequels for the shelf”, Newsweek, (July 9, 2008), pp. 3-42.

Company’s Internal Reports and Policies

Annual Report from 2007- 2010

Website:

Company’s internal website:

Nokiasiemense/GPR_in_brief.aspx.htm

Nokiasiemense/mission-and-vision.htm

Nokiasiemense/vendormanagement.aspx.htm

www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com

fixed-mobile-convergence.tmcnet.com

www.answers.com

www.absoluteastronomy.com

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vendor_Management_System

www.oakenterprises.com/documents/vms_bestpractices.pdf

www.tempworks.com/vendor-management-software-vms.php

www.utrs.com/utrs/vendor/vendors

vendorsoft.com

jcibmvms.net

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vendor_Relationship_Management

Nokia Siemens Networks

Some are parts:

Nokia Siemens Networks (Part 1)

Nokia Siemens Networks (Part 2)

Categories
EEE

Nokia Siemens Networks

INTRODUCTION OF THE REPORT

Introduction:

Vendor Management is not just a part of SCM but part of total business process. Vendor management covers the management process of both the vendors of direct and indirect product’s vendor . The vendor should be considered as a part for an organization. Vendors have to be trained and brought to the level at which the organization is working. The vendor must be fully aware of the production process and planning. He/she has to be connected to the full business process.

Vendor management does not mean frequent changing of vendors. Vendors should be fully integrated in to the system of the organization. Once this happens, then the Vendor can start contributing to the chain and the objective of the organization will be achieved.

Modern Vendor management requires looking into Inventory management, purchase process & management, production management and planning, distribution management last is human resource development. It is a comprehensive activity for an organization. Vendor secretion therefore is a very important function of the management.

As a part of the internship program of MBA this internship report on “Critical Analysis of Vendor Management System and its Impact on Business of Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh Ltd.” is submitted

Through this report an individual can expect to have a good knowledge of vendor management system of Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh Ltd. In last ten weeks of internship program I have tried my level best to know about the total vendor management process of Nokia Siemens Bangladesh Limited .All the secondary data used for the purpose of preparing report is approximate figure, not the accurate one.

 Report preview:

The report is arranged in six parts as under:

Part – I: This is the introductory part that covers the introduction of the report,

Part – II: This is the organizational part, which will give a general overview of Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh Ltd. This will also cover the background, history, Mission, vision, customers, product or services provided, corporate social responsibility of the company

Part – III: project part will cover the background of the study, research problem, problem statement, broad and specific objective, research question and hypothesis, limitation, literature review.

Part – IV: Research methodology part will cover methodology of study, source of data collection, sample size determination, statistical tool of data analysis, and measurement of scale

Part – V: Analyzing specific objective and testing hypothesis part will cover statistical analysis and hypothesis testing related with specific objective

Part – VI: This part will cover major findings conclusion and recommendations.

PART- II

COMPANY PROFILE

Nokia Siemens Networks at a Glance:

Every day a quarter of the world’s population connect using Nokia Siemens Networks infrastructure and solutions. This is a significant part of the resource that, by 2015, will connect five billion people and many more devices and applications. As a result, we really understand the challenges facing you today. We know you need something different to put you ahead of the curve – not just more of the same. Our team of more than 60,000 dedicated professionals in more than 150 countries stands ready to help you transform your network, operations and ultimately, your business, to deliver better, more unique experiences for your customers.

We constantly innovate to provide the smartest solutions, and we have the reach and depth to make those solutions a reality. We understand that changes in one place can have unforeseen consequences in another. So we develop solutions that take into account the bigger picture. And we’ve proven ourselves, time and again.

Basic information:

More than 265 managed services contracts with 380 million subscribers Top 3 player in key carrier markets: #2 wireless, #3 wire line, #2 services, NSN have
600+ Communications Service Provider (CSP) customers in 150 countries including 75 of the top 100 CSPs
Number 1 in mobile broadband with more than 170 customers, number 1 in NGN voice solutions and also number 1 in new generation subscriber data management
A leader in services with 28K+ professionals in more than 150 countries worldwide
Undisputed LTE leadership with the most commercial deals
Best smart device support in 3G – up to 50% less signaling traffic and 80%

 History of Nokia Siemens Networks:

Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is one of the largest telecommunicate ions equipment suppliers in the world. NSN was created as a result of joint venture between Siemens AG’s COM division (minus its enterprise business unit) and Nokia’s network business Group.

On June 19, 2006 Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies would merge their mobile and fixed line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the worlds’ largest network firms, Nokia Siemens Networks. Each company has a 50% stake in the infrastructure company. Nokia Siemens Networks was officially launched at 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007. Nokia Siemens Networks then began full operations on April1, 2007 and has its head quarters in Espoo, Greater Helsinki, Finland, while the west-south Europe head quarters and three of its five divisions are based in Munich, Germany. The service division is based in India.

Nokia Siemens Networks operates in approximately 200 countries worldwide and has about 60,000 employees. About 20,000 Nokia employees were transferred to this new company. Its major manufacturing sites are in China, Finland, Germany, Poland and India. About 1 billion people are connected through its networks. The customer base of Nokia Siemens Networks includes 1,400 customers in 150 countries (including more than 600 operator customers). It is foreseen that, at combined 2005 revenue of more than 1.5 billion Euro a year by 2010.

NSN customers required end to end solutions and the pace of their requirements will accelerate in future. NSN can help change the way they do business and capture value. The company believes to listen to the customers, innovate together and solve customers’ most pressing business challenges.

NSN bring the benefits of scale and global reach plus a deep understanding of operator business and industry-leading research and development organization, and wide range of services, products and situations to our customers. But, to success in rapidly evolving communications industry, scale is not enough. Therefore NSN are building an organization and culture that constantly evolves to address our customers’ key challenges and lead industry change.

The explosive growth of network and internet traffic, both in terms of bandwidth and subscribers, represents a great opportunity for operators and equipment providers. However the legacy o enabled through innovative, that the traditional telecoms business has resulted in complex and partly overlapping network layering and architecture. The complexity of network architecture enabled through innovative environmentally sustainable situations that enable rapid growth.

Nokia Siemens Networks start as an undisputed industry leader with the scale and ambition to become the number one enabler of communication services. Already holding a top three position in the telecommunications infrastructure industry, NSN are ideally positioned t utilize our strong end to end convergence capabilities for future growth.

Where from Nokia Siemens Networks Come from:

Nokia Siemens Networks are continuing the legacy of two companies that shaped the communications industry. Siemens has been a pioneer in the communications industry since in the mid 19th century while Nokia pioneered the development of mobile communications and become the world leader in this field.

NOKIA

SIEMENSE

Opportunity through deep consumer understanding
End to end development of communications solutions
Common go-to-go market and customer collaboration
Insights and learning’s of opportunities in different industries.
Strong global presence
Connection to general infrastructure projects

Combining the strength of Nokia and Siemens:

Siemens since 1847

Nokia Since 1865

1855- Russian long distance telephone network

1905- First automatic Telephone exchange

1921- completion of the Rhineland telephone cable

1935- Construction of Telefunken television set

1957- The beginning of data processing

1967- Nokia’s first generation of manual radio telephone systems. (Roots in paper, rubber and cables in just over 100 years Nokia became a powerful industrial conglomerate)

1980- The first telephone exchange using the digital electronic switching system EWSD goes into operation

1982- Europe’s first digital exchange the DX 200

1991- Worlds first GSM call made in Radiolinja’s network, supplied by Nokia

1999- Worlds first triple mode (GSM,EDGE, WCDMA) base station

2001- Build first UMTS network in Europe

2001- Worlds first Multimedia Messaging Service Centre

2004- Industry first commercial end to end 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem

2006- Industry first live demonstration of long term evaluation

2007-Pioneering innovators join forces(NSN)

Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh Ltd.

Nokia Siemens Networks is one of the largest telecommunications hardware, software and professional services companies in the world. It began operations in Bangladesh on May1, 2007.

The company’s workforce in t he country totals 131 people who are located in Dhaka, and are involved in operations, marketing, services and support.

Nokia Siemense networks is one of the top three network suppliers in Bangladesh and a vendor of choice for all major fixed and mobile Communication Service Providers. Its customers in the country include Banglalink ( Orascom Telecom Bangladesh Ltd ), Teletalk Bangladesh Ltd, Grameenphone Ltd (joint venture between Telenor and Grameen Telecom Corporation), Citycell (Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Ltd.) and Axiata Bangladesh Limited. It also caters nontraditional players such as the Directorate General of Defense Purchase (DGDP).

The company offers a wide range of its products and solutions for radio access, transmission (microwave and optical backbone), switching, Home Location Register (HLR) and Intelligent Network (IN) technology in Bangladesh. With more than 3,000 base station sites supplied, installed and commissioned; 1,100 PDH and SDH links deployed; and over 1,500 km of optical fiber backbone installed in the past three years, Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh enjoys a remarkable track record in providing a gamut of services, including implementation and support, to its customers.

As responsible corporate citizen Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh is focused on deriving improvements in various areas. It is involved in disaster relief, social welfare and environmental protection amongst other initiatives. For example, it organized help and donation drive for victims of cyclone Sidr.

 NSN’s Vision and Mission:

The road ahead

Until now, development in our industry has mainly been a matter of delivering connections – more, faster, cheaper, and more efficient. This is still important. The connectivity explosion continues, and by 2015 we know that 5 billion people and further billions of devices will be connected. So, we must continue applying our expertise in order to deliver on the reality of hundred-fold increases in traffic. The future of service is largely network-based. Internet applications hosted in the ‘cloud’ (email, social networking sites, corporate service and communication tools, etc.), already account for a large proportion of the services people access every day. Every day, therefore, quality of network experience has more and more to do with quality of life.

Towards an ecosystem of partners

Today, however, we are also focusing like never before on delivering quality – quality experience. We can see that a more open, collaborative and customer-centric way of working could bring so much more value to billions of individuals, and to millions of businesses. We at Nokia Siemens Networks must drive that change by leaving the closed and proprietary mindset behind, and leading the way in a new spirit of openness and collaboration.

 NSN’s customers’ challenges

Our customers, Communications Service Providers (CSPs), face challenges on all fronts: the need to increase efficiency keeps pressure on capital and operational costs; the dramatic rise in traffic due to the proliferation of internet applications demands new business models for monetization; and an ever fiercer competitive climate is challenging CSPs to prove they can retain the customers they have and win back any they might have lost. Nokia Siemens Networks will play a vital role in helping CSPs meet these challenges. This role is our mission – it’s about building value.

Mission

We help communications service Providers build more valuable customer relationships by improving efficiency and experience

We have built value by addressing efficiency, and we continue to do that. But we also need to address the customer’s need for a better experience, because it’s experience that builds relationships, and relationships that build value.

Vision

The individual communication experience

We believe that CSPs can ultimately enable and deliver a “segment of one” – where they can define and enhance the service experience for each and every individual. A customer whose communications experience fits and works for them don’t change operators. And operators who can devote themselves to enriching the customer’s experience build stronger, more lasting and profitable customer relationships.

The individual communications experience is the greatest value a communications service provider can deliver to their customer, and so it’s the greatest value we can support communications service providers in delivering.

The road ahead

Ultimately every service is delivered to an individual. And those individuals will benefit from the services being delivered in a way that fits their personal needs and desires. This experience cannot be the privilege of the few. It must be as true for customers in emerging countries with just a dollar to spend, as for businesses in developed countries with greater resources, and for the trillions of devices that make up the Internet of Things.

Our vision acknowledges that communications service providers need to manage this complexity wisely, ensuring the necessary security and authentication for users, while having the ability to profitably deliver a customized experience, based on a person’s locations, context, device, usage patterns and preferences.

Our vision guides our mission, and our mission is to build more valuable customer relationships. The individual communications experience builds more valuable customer relationships.

Values:

“Regardless of who we are we all shape our culture in our daily interactions. To enrich our NSN culture, we have agreed five values for NSN. We all are responsible to embed these principles to guide our actions and serve as our cultural cornerstones. Working groups across NSN have documented behaviors that link our values to our daily business. The value innovate is recently highlighted in many occasions. It is imperative to strengthen our competitiveness. You can find more about innovation on strategy and business development’s pages”

Business Units of NSN:

Starting January 1, 2010, Nokia Siemens Networks realigned its Business Units around the three key areas

Business Solutions (BSO)
Network Systems (NWS)
Global Services (GS)

With three dedicated sales units covering these areas.

Board of directors:

Chairman: Olli Pekka Kallasvuo
Vice Chairman: Rudi Lamprecht
Juha Äkräs
Joe Kaeser
Siegfried Russwurm
Niklas Savander
Rick Simonson

Executive Board

Chief Executive Officer: Rajeev Suri
Customer Operations(CO): Bosco Novák
Chief Financial Officer (CFO): Luca Maestri – Resign with immediate effect with no successor
Chief Technology Officer (CTO): Hossein Moiin
Head of Network Systems: Marc Rouanne
Head of Business Solutions: Jürgen Walter – Resign with immediate effect with no successor
Head of Marketing and Corporate Affairs: Barry French
General Counsel: Joyce Norcini
Head of Strategy and Business Development: Michael Matthews
Head of Operations: Herbert Merz
Head of Human Resources: Hans-Jürgen Bill
Head of Corporate Development Office: Pekka Soini
Head of Services: Armando Almeida
Head of North America Region: Susan Spradley

 Products

 Broadband Connectivity

Nokia Siemens Networks provides solutions for the following challenges under the name of “Broadband Connectivity”

The quad play of high-speed Internet, voice (VoIP), and video services (DVB/IPTV) in fixed networks, together with mobile connectivity – plus the steadily increasing demand for bandwidth that goes with it – are today’s challenges for fixed and mobile operators and ISPs, both on the access and the transport side.
Access switches

These switches fit well into a variety of deployment scenarios for city networks or Enterprise connectivity solutions.
Carrier switches

Nokia Siemens Networks’ carrier-grade cost-effective Carrier Ethernet switches provide scalable traffic-engineered Ethernet services delivery capabilities while emphasizing simple operation and network administration.
DSLAM

This family of ATM and IP DSLAMs brings up to 100Mbps to the end user on existing copper infrastructure – carrier-grade without compromises.
DWDM – economic bandwidth expansion

For many operators, boosting traffic volume by aggressively introducing new services is an important way to increase revenue. What’s needed is a scalable DWDM system that offers short implementation time and easy operation.

IP Connectivity

The IP networking business line within IP Transport also offers a comprehensive range of carrier-grade IP network solutions covering Core, Edge, BRAS and multi-service routers, and will continue to provide IP Connectivity solutions for telecommunications evolution with best-of-breed partner products.
Microwave Radio – decoupling cost from capacity

The MWR business line within IP Transport is also in a strong position to become number one in the global microwave radio market in all application segments of mobile, fixed and utilities – with both ETSI and ANSI standards and a proposed broad portfolio of PDH and SDH access, SDH trunk and point-to-multipoint products.
Narrowband / Multiservice solutions

These solutions are for both CSPs and dedicated network operators. They are designed to deliver true multi service capabilities and to support a very wide range of legacy voice and data interfaces.
Next Gen Metro

Under Next Generation Metro, IP Transport has a complete and scalable Next Generation SDH Multi-service provisioning platform (MSPP) and packet transport portfolio. Our worldwide footprint consists of more than 16,000 MSPP systems deployed and running and more than 100 customers in more than 70 countries.
2.8.2 Network Management & OSS
OSS connectivity management

OSS connectivity management integrates different access technologies under a single, intelligent management solution, freeing maintenance resources to be deployed elsewhere.

Share – Technical Support Portal

Introducing Nokia Siemens Networks Share – the new OSS/BSS support forum and community

Sometimes it’s nice to have a little help.

Maybe it’s an error message you’ve never seen before. Or you need a good starting point for troubleshooting. Or you want to make a suggestion that will make the product work better – and everyone’s job easier – in the future.

But the person helping you needs to speak your language. They need to know what you mean when you talk about a CNXDCNMX configuration, tracing an RNC link or copying a CCMA tree. Without deep technical knowledge, any help is bound to be incomplete and leave you frustrated.

These are just some of the reason to use Nokia Siemens Networks Share, the support forum and community for Nokia Siemens Networks OSS and BSS products.

The idea behind Share is simple: bring together everyday users and product experts in one online forum where you can ask questions and share your knowledge.
Serve at Once Traffica

Traffica provides real-time visibility of end-user activity across the whole network – right down to the cell level – by collecting detailed information directly from network elements.

Yet Traffica is far more than a data collection and service quality monitoring system. Innovative applications can be built on top of Traffica to support every area of the business.

 Converged Core:

Consumer and business VoIP Fixed Softswitching
IMS
Intelligent Packet core
Mobile softswitching
Mobile switching
One Voice Initiative
Rich Communication Suite
Subscriber management evolution
Subscriber data management

Solutions:

CSPs face a number of big challenges in meeting the needs of customers and staying ahead of the competition. Even in these difficult economic times, we can help you gain market-share and improve profitability by offering the most attractive services to your customers. Drawing on our field-proven ideas, innovations and solutions, we are committed to helping you improve the efficiency and profitability of your business.

Broadband & Transport
Core Networks
Service Management & Charging
Wireless Access
Network resource management

Public & Corporate Solutions

At Public and Corporate Solutions, we provide specialist communications solutions for customers beyond the telecommunications industry.
Government Solutions
Railway Solutions
More about Public and corporate solutions
Mobile Backhaul
Integrated Provisioning
Outsourcing
Unified charging & billing
Prepaid and top-up
WCDMA Frequency Reframing Solution
OSS Middleware

 Communications Service Providers
Broadband & Transport
Service Management & Charging
Wireless Access
Network resource management

 Network implementation

Effectively planning, deploying and executing networks globally

Network Implementation offers a wide range of deployment solutions for operators that want to build, expand or modernize a communications network. Proposed deployment solutions can include project management, network design, logistics, site acquisition, construction works and implementation services depending on the scope of deployment.

The main Network Implementation solutions – Managed Deployment, Network Build, Network Consolidation, Turnkey and Outside Plant – have all been tailored to meet the needs of operators in different markets, during different phases of the business lifecycle.

Managing the risk of network deployment through fully outsourced deployment activities for green field operators building presence in new areas (Turnkey and Outside Plant solutions)
Implementation services for established operators that wish to optimize spending and focus on core business while expanding their network or introducing new end-user services (Network Build solution)
Helping experienced operators make the most of their network investments through development and implementation of a network evolution path and modernization activities (Network Consolidation solution)
Partner with mature operators in their ambition to lower OPEX through the introduction of standardized and centralized deployment concepts or simply through the outsourcing of their network deployment organization (Managed Deployment and Turnkey solutions)

The objective of the Network Implementation solutions is to help operators speed up the time to commercial launches and to provide cost-effective implementation solutions that lower the lifetime cost of their network ownership in terms of both CAPEX and OPEX. With joint presence in 120+ countries, more than 4,000 combined professionals in-house and experience from more than 500 combined deployment projects worldwide, Network Implementation has the mindset, resources, expertise and experience to really make a difference.
  Security:

Comprehensive security solutions tailored to your business
Security threats in the mobile world

With the world becoming increasingly connected, protecting your data is a key issue – and one that now affects the mobile world.

New types of virus have been developed specifically to attack mobile systems, leading to data loss, access violations, malfunctions and downtime. These security attacks and fraud can cost you money and customers.
  The value of security

A secure network does not just protect you from threats – it also allows you to offer new services to your customers.

Mobile operators agree that customers, especially businesses, value secure services – and are willing to pay for them. Security services will soon be a key revenue generator for mobile operators.
  Our security experience

We have the knowledge to help you offer your customers these valuable secure services, while protecting yourself from security threats. We offer extensive experience from over 100 security projects and a combination of telecoms, IT and security know-how.

Understanding your specific problems and fixing them helps us to relieve the pain to deliver Real Business results.
Tailored protection – with Real Business Insights

We tailor our services to your needs, finding the best combination of technology and knowledge. Our security services work to find the most efficient and effective means of securing your network.

We use a range of tests and analyses to find the gaps in your security and identify the threats relevant to your network and business. We then help you design and implement security strategies, processes and policies.
  Real Security

We provide a whole range of turnkey solutions and packages of hardware, software and services designed to improve security. Comprehensive security solutions tailored to your business
Channel Partner Program

A global program – providing local excellence

The Channel Partner Program delivers high performance and service quality to customers. It combines Nokia Siemens Networks’ global technology leadership and support with the local expertise and market understanding of our channel partners.

The partners we choose to work with have proven capability, assessed according to our high quality and reliability standards, and are well positioned to develop and implement the solutions that customers really need. The results are carrier-grade communications networks enhancing operational efficiency and safety.

For partners, our co-operative framework offers a best-of-breed technology portfolio, support, training and exclusive use of the Nokia Siemens Networks brand.
Our customers

We work with partners in four major market areas: Utilities*, Transportation, Public Sector and Enterprises.

For customers in these markets telecommunications is not the core (revenue generating) business, but reliable communications are still essential to support mission-critical activities. Customers require their own, dedicated networks because public networks are either non-existent or unable to deliver the required bandwidth, network availability, service quality or security.

 Nokia Siemens Networks Care – Always connected

Operators are concerned to achieve the best possible quality and performance of their networks and to give their users maximum availability of services and applications

Nokia Siemens Networks’ Care process helps meet these ambitions by helping operators to maintain the availability and performance of their networks end-to-end. It does this by providing efficient after-sales services. These range from Classic Care services such as answering technical queries and providing emergency support and hardware repairs, to the innovative Connected Care offering based on the philosophy of “performance protection through avoidance”.

Using a solutions approach, the challenges facing an operator are analyzed and then matched to appropriate services, ensuring that operators get a customized maintenance solution that is a perfect match to their business needs.

Teaming up with Nokia Siemens Networks Care means that operators’ customers are always connected. It also means that operators can get everything they need, from a small set of classic maintenance services up to entirely Managed Care offerings where Nokia Siemens Networks takes care of entire functionalities.

In addition to the traditional maintenance services for software and hardware, Nokia Siemens Networks also provides competence development services. These identify competence development needs and create customized learning solutions to allow the operator’s staff to reach their full potential as technologies and markets change.

The Nokia Siemens Networks Care organization is worldwide distributed and has 6,000 world-class experts around the world, providing high technical and methodological expertise in new service launches and service management, for both Nokia Siemens Networks and third-party products.

Building long-lasting professional relationships with operators is a major pillar of our operations. This is reflected in Nokia Siemens Networks’ Extended Care offering, which continues to support products that have been discontinued and so extend their life span.

With its Care services, Nokia Siemens Networks proves itself a reliable partner with efficient processes, a flexible portfolio and innovative answers to the challenges of today and tomorrow.
  Accelerate towards higher profitability

To help Communication Service Provides (CSPs) make the most of market opportunities, we offer a unique way to transform, accelerate and drive their business forward.

“Fresh & new look at industry. Raised a lot of questions how to tackle the markets in future…This material made clear that we have missed some items in our planning.”

Feedback from a workshop focused on helping CSPs analyze their positioning and build a transformation roadmap.

With our collaborative methodology, we provide the expertise, experience and practical tools to help optimize their evolution while keeping the focus on customer experience and satisfaction.
Roadmap for business acceleration – collaborative way of working

The defining idea is to help CSPs identify the ideal position in the markets – and then uncover the best route to get there. Profitably and with a sustainable business case.
Analyze to identify the market reality

Working together, we examine how CSPs are positioned in the business ecosystem. Exploring the many strategic options available in today’s industry, we analyze which roles are most likely to let CSPs differentiate and achieve their business objectives.
Innovate for the top position

Time-to-market at the right time is the key.

There are always new opportunities in the market. Innovating together can be an eye-opening experience.

 Transform for a competitive advantage

Based on an understanding of likely future scenarios, CSPs can implement profitable business models and opportunities emerging in the changing markets. CSP transformation roadmaps are based on deep understanding.

Accelerate for business success

Working together, we create business acceleration roadmaps for our customers. Our approach is all about discovering the best route to the optimal market position to achieve business success.

Recent Customer successes:

At Nokia Siemens Networks, we help communications service providers build more valuable customer relationships. Below are some recent highlights of our customers’ successes.
2.16.1 Vodafone achieve OpEx reduction by streamlining MMS hosting center:

As sole supplier of Vodafone’s MMS Hosting Center in Milan, Nokia Siemens Networks has deployed an innovative platform using standard hardware and the industry’s leading MMS Center to upgrade the center’s capabilities, reduce operational costs and meet future demands. The upgrade was achieved with no disruption to MMS services for up to 100 million Vodafone subscribers worldwide.
2.16.2 Belgacom TV and Nokia Siemens Networks – a partnership of trust

Belgacom’s vision is to drive and grow the market with innovation, and a core attribute is Belgacom TV. A trusted partnership with Nokia Siemens Networks helped Belgacom realize their vision with IPTV, and the flexible, open platform has prepared them to become a multi-screen TV pioneer, offering an enriched customer TV experience.

DFCA spectral efficiency feature more than doubled the BTS site capacity to meet booming Indian demand:

With a subscriber base growing by more than 3 million per month and a restricted spectrum allocation, one GSM service provider in the Indian market needed a cost-effective way to maintain its quality of service and accommodate the growing subscriber base without resorting to a large-scale deployment of new sites.

 Corporate Responsibility:

In our corporate responsibility activities, we essentially seek to “do the right thing” by three key stakeholders: our employees, our customers, and the planet. We want to maintain an active and open dialogue with many more entities to improve our performance and find new and better ways to serve our key stakeholders.

We want our corporate responsibility actions and our motives for doing them to be honest and transparent. Our primary responsibility is to target growth and profitability; we need ensure the future of our operations. To succeed, we must intertwine corporate responsibility and our business – either to support our existing business objectives, or even to make new business with it. When we run a successful business, we can extend our sustainability thinking also outside of our company; to our customers, our industry and beyond.

This thinking is demonstrated in our three point corporate responsibility plan:

Mitigate corporate responsibility risks: the foundation of corporate responsibility is to respect all relevant laws and regulations and international standards, and create an organization where ethical business practice is a source of pride and push for high ethical standards in our supply chain.
Minimize our environmental impact: reduce our footprint and help our customers reduce theirs.

Maximize our positive impact: use our core competencies beyond our industry sector for environmental benefit, contribute positively in the communities where we are present and fight corruption to the benefit of all.

 Training & Learning:

Competencies are crucial building blocks to achieve business success. With Nokia Siemens Networks, you can ensure your network is being effectively managed by competent personnel which improves subscriber experience, decreases churn and leads to added revenue.

 Nokia Siemens Networks can help you:

gain a better understanding of training needs
make the most out of your network investment and lower your operating costs
optimize competence development in a multi-supplier environment
achieve better visibility into the return on your training investments
increase your ability to concentrate on core business activities

With optimized solutions, processes and people management you gain improved allocation of staff resources, operational efficiencies and job satisfaction. You can achieve a better match for your requirements and more focused learning with tailored, modular and task-oriented competence development packages.

You can realize the full potential of your personnel resources as technologies and markets change with Nokia Siemens Network’s learning.

PART: III

introduction of research project

 Background of the Study

Regardless of what the business is, vendors play a key role in the success of business. Good practices of vendor management will build a mutually strong relationship with vendors which will strengthen company’s overall performance in the marketplace. Ignoring these sound vendor management principles will result in a dysfunctional relationship that will have the potential to negatively impact business.

The time, money and energy used to nurture a positive vendor relationship cannot be measured directly against the company’s bottom line. However, a well managed vendor relationship will result in increased customer satisfaction, reduced costs, better quality, and better service from the vendor. When and if problems arise, rest assured that a well managed vendor will be quick to remedy the situation

Vendor management covers the whole cycle starting from vendor selection to the end, payment after receiving the goods. A servicer providing organization like Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh Limited needs to deal will lots of vendors for its purchase of direct and indirect goods and services. Nokia Siemens Networks Bangladesh Limited already have a very well instructed polices for vendor management

This research paper on “Critical Analysis of Vendor Management System” will explain the way the go through and also provide some recommendation for better management of vendors. Though Nokia Siemens Networks Limited in its four years of business life have not conducted research on vendor management system but the preliminary objective of doing this research is to fulfillment of MBA course requirement

This study will have both practical and academic value, as there is dearth of research in this area in Bangladesh, this study will add to the existing knowledge. On the other hand the finding of this study will help policy makers for taking appropriate measure.

Research Problem

For running the business every organization go for purchase of direct and indirect products. For this purpose organization have deal with different types of vendors.

Selecting, contracting, negotiating and managing those vendors cover an important part of business. Furthermore, good vendor management system helps to build good relationship with vendors along with saving of cost and time which affect the profitability of the organization. To know how the organization select and deal with its vendors? How is the perception of vendors towards the organization as a customer? What do both party thinks may improve the relationship? And what is its impact on business? This research will find out the key points for better management of vendors.

 Problem Statement

To critically analyze the vendor management system of Nokia Siemens Networks Limited and its impact on its business.

Origin of the Report

To develop the ability to transform the theoretical knowledge and understanding obtained from the course in practice and to experience the real life situation, the report wa assigned by my supervisor Major AHM Yeaseen Chowdhury. This report can be designated as practical demonstration of the Theories and Practices.

 Objectives of the Study

Broad Objective

The purpose of the study is to have an overall idea about NSN focusing on critical analysis of the total vendor management system and its impact on their business and also to find out way of improving the process.

 Specific Objective

i. To show the global practice of vendor management process

ii. To give a generalize idea of vendor management system for direct and indirect procurement of NSN BD Ltd.

iii. To analyze the process of ordering product using MyOrder tools in indirect procurement process.

iv. To analyze the Invoice payment system for direct and indirect purchase

v. To find out whether NSN deals with its vendor as a strategic partner

vi. To find out whether there is any relationship between the state of current practice and vendor development.

vii. To find out whether NSN as a green company chose those supplier who produces environment friendly goods and services or not.

viii. To find out whether there is any change in cycle time for procurement of a product or not

ix. To find out the growth rate of purchase of any particular product

x. To find out the rate of implementation of contract in the case of service contract with third party.

xi. To show the vendors perception towards NSN as a customer.

xii. To show the impact of vendor management system on business of NSN BD LTD.

Research Questions and Justifications

Research Question-1

How employees of NSN using MyOrder tools as the best way of ordering and purchasing a product in the case of indirect procurement?

Justification: Purchasing indirect product for office uses is crucial for an organization like NSN, where latest technological electronic product and software’s are purchased as per employees requisition along with other regular product. The question regarding the order and purchase process will help NSN to identify if there is any scope of improvement in this process.

Research Question-2

How NSN process their invoice payments for their vendors?

Justification: To get better output from vendor maintaining a good relationship is very important. For that payment system is one of the most important parts for vendor management. On time payment and shorter credit period is better for vendor, but longer period is better for NSN, this question will clarify how they balance the interest of both party.

Research Question-3

Does NSN BD Ltd. deals with its vendor as strategic partner? and works for vendor development?

Justification: In this widely competitive business world vendor/ Supplier development is one of the most important job for a service oriented organization like NSN. They depend largely on the contractor for installation service which is very important.

Research Question-4

Does NSN BD Ltd. deals works for vendor development?

Justification: This will help to find out their level of help in development.

Research Question- 5

Being a green Company, does NSN give importance on Environment friendly goods?

Justification: NSN claims that they are a green company, so choosing environment friendly products is an important issue in case of selecting suppliers.

Research Question-6

Is there any change in cycle time for procurement of a product in a year?

Justification: Decrease in cycle time in procurement of product shows the increase in efficiency in procurement, which saves time and cost.

Research Question-7

Is rate of purchase increasing?

Justification: Increase in purchase reflects that there is growth in business both in the case of direct and indirect procurement.

Research Question- 8

Does NSN BD successfully implement the entire contract in the case of service contract with third party?

Justification: the successful implementation of contracts shows that of contract their selection of supplier, preparation and management of contracts is efficient

Research Question- 9

What is the vendor’s perception towards NSN as a customer?

Justification: Vendors perception towards NSN as a customer reflects the relationship between vendor and NSN BD Ltd, this will also help to find out the way of even better relationship with vendor.

Developing Hypothesis

Hypothesis – 1

Null Hypothesis H0: 70% employees think that using my order tolls is the best way for ordering and purchasing indirect products.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 70% employees think that using my order tolls is the best way for ordering and purchasing indirect products.

Hypothesis – 2

Null Hypothesis H0: 70% employees think that their policy for payment serves the interest of both vendors and organization

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 70% employees think that their policy for payment serves the interest of both vendors and organization

Hypothesis – 3

Null Hypothesis H0: More than 60% of employees say that NSN BD Ltd deal with its vendor as strategic partner

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 60% of employees say that NSN BD Ltd deal with its vendor as strategic partner

Hypothesis – 4

Null Hypothesis H0: There is no significant relationship between good vendor management practice and vendor development

Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is significant relationship between good vendor management practice and vendor development

Hypothesis – 5

Null Hypothesis H0: More than 70% employees of believe that NSN give importance on Environment friendly goods suppliers

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 70% employees of believe that NSN give importance on Environment friendly goods suppliers

Hypothesis – 6

Null Hypothesis H0: More than 75% employees think that Cycle time for procurement of product has decreased more than 7 days each

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 75% employees think that Cycle time for procurement has decreased less than 7 days each year.

Hypothesis – 7

Null Hypothesis H0: More than 70% employees said that purchase rate of NSN is growing more than 15% per year

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 70% employees said that purchase rate of NSN is not growing more than 15% per year

Hypothesis – 8

Null Hypothesis H0: More than 80% employees believe that all the contracts for procurement of NSN BD LTD. have been successfully implemented.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 80% employees believe that all the contracts for procurement of NSN BD Ltd. have been successfully implemented.

Hypothesis – 9

Null Hypothesis H0: More than 90% vendors think NSN is a good customer for their product (got more than 3 in the scale of 5)

Alternative Hypothesis H1: Less than 90% vendors think NSN is a good customer for their product (got more than 3 in the scale of 5)

Limitations of the Study

We will face some usual constraints during the study. These constraints can be:

Relevant papers and documents were not available with sufficient data.
Enough information was not found because most of the information are confidential and not disclose able to any person except the employees of NSN.
Total business of NSN is system based and except employees no one have the authority to log in to the system so there was comparatively less scope of direct practical exposure
The system software NSN uses is used globally so the contribution of NSN Bangladesh is tough to separate and evaluate.
Their financial reports for NSN BD is prepared just for legal and tax purpose which is confidential.
In spite of my sincerity, some mistakes can be occurred. I admit my responsibility for those inadvertent mistakes, if there will any.

Literature Review:

A number of previous studies (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1991; Fearon and Bales, 1995) indicate that the role of the Purchasing Department is much smaller in the purchase of nontraditional (non-product related) goods and services than commonly believed. These nontraditional. (non-product related) areas, such as insurance, utilities, consultancy, travel and advertising, are likely to be purchased without the involvement of professional buying practice and skills.

For example, the Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies (CAPS) in a study in 1993 (Fearon and Bales, 1993) found that in a surprisingly large percentage of firms,

the Purchasing Department had no input to the purchase of nontraditional goods and services (e.g. in 39% of the firms, there was no involvement in the purchasing of services, in 55% of the firms there was no involvement in the purchasing of utilities).

Similarly, in another study made in 1995, Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies (CAPS) found that from the total of $ 140.3 billion purchased by the 116 organizations, only 41 percent was spent by the purchasing department, 59 percent was spent outside of the purchasing department. From these 59 percent: 41.55 percent was spent by some other nine departments (transportation, finance, administration, human relations, etc.) and for 17.45 percent the study couldn’t identify the buyers. The research highlights the purchase dollars spend of the total 116 organizations for the largest ten goods and services. The purchasing department apparently had very little input in the purchase of the majority of services and also had a smaller input in the purchase of non-product related goods.

In Michels. view (1996), a purchasing department can be involved in three different ways: (1) purchasing can be directly involved in NPR purchasing; (2) purchasing can act as an internal consultant/advisor for NPR purchase buyers; (3) purchasing can act as a cross functional team member dealing with nontraditional expenditures.

Results of a recent Purchasing Magazine survey of 1000 corporate buyers nationwide show

that purchasing departments take on many activities for service procurement that were once left to the using departments. From a total of 1000 respondents: 70 percent were involved in contract negotiations; 63 percent were involved in supplier selection; 58 percent were involved in contract management; and 5 percent were involved in setting specifications.

As the study shows, the purchasing department has become more involve in the tactical

procurement of NPR goods and services. Apparently, these purchasing departments have started to realize that there are numerous opportunities in the NPR procurement and that they have the skills and expertise to ensure that the company receives the best value. While benefits of involving purchasing department in the NPR purchasing process may be numerous there are also several major challenges of involving purchasing department in the NPR procurement

Summarizing, the literature suggests that:

Purchasings’ involvement in NPR is still very limited and problematic;
involvement could offer many advantages, including offering increased control to top management;
Purchasing involvement is subject to horizontal resistance and vertical ignorance.

In other words: top management does not seem to actively use the purchasing department as a means for keeping sufficient control on NPR purchasing. In order to get a better understanding of how purchasing’s involvement comes about, we attempt to transfer some basic insights from (inter-) organizational theory on the topic of organizing NPR purchasing. The strategic importance of vendor selection and subsequent assessment is well established in the literature of business purchasing, beginning with the seminal work on vendor selection criteria published in 1966 (Weber, 1996). Significant research continues to be done on this topic in part because of its particular relevance to manufacturers in a just-in-time environment where vendor price, quality, and delivery are key performance criteria. There are even numerous trade journals and scholarly journals devoted to vendor relations and performance evaluation. Among them are Supply Management, Materials Management and Distribution, Journal of Supply Chain Management, and Summit (a Canadian magazine about public sector purchasing).

Weber describes the three common and flawed current approaches to vendor evaluation (1996). First is the “categorical or key-factor rating method” in which potential vendors are assigned subjective, largely intuitive, ratings based on the evaluator’s judgment and experience. A second current method is the complex “cost-ratio method” which requires a comprehensive, precise cost-accounting system to determine the buyer’s internal operating costs associated with the vendor’s quality, delivery, and service. The third common approach, the “linear average or weighted-point method,” modifies the first method by providing numerical weights to the subjective evaluation criteria

Many other approaches have been described and proposed in the literature. Researchers have suggested using more objective quantitative approaches, including mathematical programming models, statistical approaches, and analytical hierarchical processing. Weber, for instance, demonstrated the use of a mathematical programming model employing data envelopment analysis to measure vendor performance on multiple criteria and to identify comparative benchmark values (1996, p.28; see also Talluri, Narasimhan, & Nair, 2006, p.212). Dogan and Sahin employed mathematical models to select vendors using activity-based costing and fuzzy present-worth techniques (2003, p.420). Babu and Sharma gave an example of analytical hierarchy processing (2005, p.101). Still other researchers proposed methods which combine both objective and subjective data. An example is Li, Fun, & Hung, who used two-dimensional analysis to propose a performance measure based on both quantitative and qualitative criteria (1997, p.753). Going the opposite direction are other research groups which proposed vendor performance measurements based on an evolutionary fuzzy system for evaluating attributes described linguistically (Ohdar & Ray, 2004, p.723; Jain, Tiwari, & Chan, 2004, p.735).

Given the vast array of approaches to vendor evaluation and the fact that no single evaluation method is completely satisfactory, there is now research relating to strategies for choosing an evaluation technique. Purdy and Safayeni discuss the advantages and limitations of a variety of methods for evaluating potential and current suppliers, and they classify the methods by whether the focus is on information from product- or process-based domains and whether the information acquisition mode is direct or indirect (2000, p.435). They posit that buyers normally must use indirect methods for evaluation of potential vendors and that buyers should use methods in all four categories once a vendor relationship has been established (p.441).

Vendor evaluation strategies exist within the context of an organization and its processes. Choosing an assessment approach is just one of the seven steps of a process of developing and deploying vendor assessment outlined by Gordon (2005, p.20). Although this article is found in a trade press, it includes a useful bibliography of books about supplier evaluation and managing relationships with suppliers. Another aspect to consider is that many of the assessment techniques require technological tools such as software packages. Examples of descriptions of such software implementations were provided by Choy, Lee, and Lo (2004, p.191), by Humphreys, Huang, and Cadden (2005, p.147), and by Lau et al. (2005, p.61).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methodology of the Study

The report will be based on both primary and secondary data that we will collect from various sources. The details of all the books and journals that will use in this report will be shown in the bibliography.

 Primary Source of Data Collections:

I will have practical participation in these job related areas like Procurement Department and Finance and control department. Interview with the employees of other and department related to the topic and survey of employees

Secondary Source of Data Collections:

Websites
Different publications and journals
Different repots

 Scope of the Study

The focus of this report will be based on the activities of procurement of product and service of NSN Bangladesh Ltd. It will cover both the direct and the indirect procurement process only for those products for which NSN BD directly takes its decisions of vendor assessment and selection, purchasing process and payment system of NSN Bangladesh. This report will not cover that part of procurement where decisions are made globally. In case showing impact of vendor management on its business, the impact of cost saving in direct and indirect procurement on the profitability of Nokia Siemens Networks Limited.

Research Design

Type of Study

A descriptive research will be designed and structured questionnaires were developed for conducting surveys. Questionnaire survey and face to face interview technique was used for employees of NSN BD Ltd. On the other hand, telephone survey and also personal interview technique is used for vendor’s survey. Some factors such as time, money, difficulty in survey of vendor will influence the research design.

Basic Research Method

Basically the research has done under survey method. An experimental method will very costly.

For doing this survey based report at first I have gone through previously published reports relevant to my topic to find out the key points for the research and then went for exploratory research buy talking to the employees working in this field. Doing this exploratory research I have generated the idea about the hypothetical means I have taken for the research.

Sampling plan

 Target Population

The target population for this research would be the all the employees on NSN BD focusing on the employees directly involved with the total vendor management system, and the vendors who supplies the product or service for NSN

 Sampling process

For the employees of NSN as the population is known, the employees of NSN BD Ltd. are divided into two strata’s. In one strata there are employees who are working in technical side and not related directly or indirectly with the system of vendor management (Service Unit) and the other one is the employees directly or indirectly related (CT unit, SSM, F&C, HR, IT, WME, OML) with the process simple random sampling is good and for the vendors as it is tough to get the of population as NSN BD Ltd. purchase a wide range of products inside and outside of the country. So it was not possible to know the number of vendor of NSN BD Ltd.

 Determination of sample size for NSN BD employees:

Using appropriate formula that means the proportion it can be found out as determined follows:

NpqZ2

n =

Nd2 + Z2pq

Where,

N= Population size

n = Sample size

p = estimated population proportion number (50%)

q = 1-p, or estimated proportion of failures

d =Precision level or magnitude of the error (10%), the maximum error between the true population and the sample proportion

Z = at 95% confidence level (1.96)

40 X .5 X .5 X 1.962

n =

40 X 0.052 + 1.962 X .5 X .5

=29.7

≡ 30

So here the sample taken size is 30 (round figure)

 Sample size for vendors:

Where population size is unknown

Confidence level = 80%

Level of precision = 10

40.96

41 (rounded)

The population size of NSN BD LTD is unknown, so from the above calculation the sample size found is 41, but it is really tough to conduct survey of vendors. Here non probabilistic convenient sampling is done, and for the vendor the convenience sample size is 10 as NSN BD permitted to contract.

Measurement and Scaling Process

In order to analyze data some measurement and scaling procedure is used. Two types of scales such as nominal and ordinal scale are used. Nominal scale is used to identify classify objects. Ordinal scale is used to indicate the relative position of the objects. Interval scale is used to differentiate the objects (Attitude and opinion of the customers).

Questionnaire Preparation

A planned questionnaire is very important to do the research. In this case a structured questionnaire was provided by Bata Shoe Company. Due to some statistical analysis difficulty the questionnaire was rephrased a little bit. The questionnaire is prepared by considering following criteria:

Pertinent for research.
Simple language is used.
Leading & loaded questions is avoided.
Easy to understand questions.

 Data Analysis and Interpretation

After collection of all essential data, those are analyzed following ways:

Statistical Analysis: Appropriate statistical tools are used to analyze the data. Number of tools is used for this reason. The primary data from the questionnaire will be placed in SPSS database. Chi Square test, Frequency distribution and arithmetic mean, correlation, regression, Z test and T test is used to analyze data. Cross tabulation is used to find out various relationships with various variables. All these analysis will be done through the use of SPSS for Windows software.

ANALYZING SPECIFIC OBJESTIVES AND TESTING HYPOTHESIS

 Specific Objective: 01

To show the global practice of vendor management system in current days.

To know about recent practice of vendor management system at first we have to know what is vendor management? Vendor management is the system of establishing service, quality, cost, and satisfaction goals and selecting and managing third party companies to consistently meet these goals.

Establishing Goals – Just as employees need clearly established goals, operations need clearly defined performance parameters. When selecting or managing vendors, vendor managers must optimize their opportunity to achieve these goals by using third parties companies.
Selecting Vendors – The fine art of vendor management is essential to optimizing operational results. Different vendors have different strengths and weaknesses, and it is the vendor manager’s responsibility to match the right company with the desired performance characteristics. Failure to consider this comprehensively could lead to complete failure.
Managing Vendors – On a daily basis, vendor managers must monitor performance, provide feedback, champion new projects, define or approve/disapprove change control processes, and develop vendors. There’s a tremendous amount of detail to this aspect of the discipline, and we’ve covered this in many posts here.
Consistently Meet Goals – Operations must perform within statistically acceptable upper and lower control bounds. Everything the vendor manager does should focus on meeting goals, from providing forecasts to defining requirements, from ensuring vendors have adequate staff to ensuring the staff have completed all required training.

Now a day’s vendors are not just treated only as the supplier, they are now a days working like the partners. Most of the organizations in recent days not only dealing with vendors as strategic partner, but also working for their development to ensure smooth flow of product or service. Smooth and on time supply of product also ensures the smooth running of any kind of business.

Furthermore, currently many well known organizations are practicing JIT in their business, which is never possible without a sound vendor management system.

Its importance has increased along with the increased scope in the field of vendor management. It has opened up new scope of business. Now there are some organizations that are doing business by dealing only with the vendors of different organizations. They deal with all types of vendors of those organizations and ensure them there required product and service on time. Those organizations deal with only one organization as their vendor (vendor management firms) which saves time and cost for the organization.

Use of web based vendor management and vendor management software base solutions are available having different features and benefits, these type of solution establish a lower-cost, higher-quality vendor management process through a centralized repository of third-party data, clear reporting of activities related to vendor risk, and a consistent and repeatable assessment process. These solutions facilitate

Management of Vendor Profiles

· Build Vendor Risk Questionnaires
· Complete Vendor Assessments
· Streamline the Management of Assessment Findings
· Report on Your Vendor Risk Profile
Also provides different sorts of benefits like:

Lower Risk, Greater Compliance
Automation
Savings in Time, Effort and Cost
Current, Holistic View
Quick Time to Value
Deployment Flexibility

Few strategies and steps that are now a day’s taken for better vendor management globally are discussed below:

Four Steps to Successful Vendor Management:

Four steps are necessary to appropriately outsource or contract for goods or services:

Step One: Risk Analysis

Fundamentally, proper vendor management is nothing more or less than risk management. This step requires the organizations to identify the importance of the function to the organization, the nature of the activities the vendor will perform, and the inherent riskiness of the activity. The more risky the activity, the more important the need is for diligence in selection, in contracting, and in supervision and monitoring. Of course, for regulatory purposes, the process of risk analysis must be carefully documented.

To properly assess the importance of the function to the organization, it must first analyze how the outsourced function meets the business needs and strategic objectives. What would be the effect on the institution if the function failed or was not adequately performed? Will outsourcing this function cause dependency on the third-party provider for an essential function? Are there other potential vendors that could quickly provide the same service if the current vendor fails? Is the organizations are able to adequately oversee this outsourced function?

Step Two: Due Diligence in Vendor Selection

The intensity of due diligence required in selecting a vendor will depend on the results of the risk analysis the organizations completed in deciding to contract with a vendor to provide goods or services. Due diligence requires a reasonable inquiry into a vendor’s ability to operationally meet the requirements for the proposed service and an inquiry into the vendor’s financial ability to deliver on its promise.

Financial institutions should also question operational issues such as staffing, expertise, and the vendor’s internal controls.

Assessing staffing requires questions such as:

What is the quality and experience of the staff?
Are there sufficient employees to meet the financial institution’s expectations for performance?
Are the managers competent and familiar with the industry?
Are employees and management well trained?
Does the staff turnover quickly or is it stable?

Assessing industry expertise requires questions such as:

How long has the vendor been involved in providing this service?
Does the vendor provide this service to other financial institutions?
Are there user groups or references that the bank can consult concerning quality?
How do these references assess the quality of service performed by the vendor?
Does the vendor rely on third parties or partners to provide the services?
Does the vendor have information concerning the expertise of these third parties?
What is the reputation of the business?
Has the vendor been involved in litigation that casts doubt on its ability to provide the services in the manner required by the bank?
Is the vendor aware of any bank regulatory requirements and other legal requirements relating to its goods or services?

Depending on the organization’s risk analysis, it should consider on-site visits. If the vendor is geographically distant, will that distance affect the cost or quality of service?

Organizations should also analyze the vendor’s operations and controls. Some questions to be ask include:

What are the vendor’s security precautions concerning the bank or bank customer’s confidential information?
What are the service provider’s standards, policies, and procedures relating to internal controls, record maintenance, background checks on employees, and physical security of its operations?
What kind of internal audit is performed at the vendor?
Are there internal audit reports or internal control evaluations available for review by the bank?
Does the vendor have contingency plans in place?
Are those plans adequate?

In performing its due diligence, the financial institution must consider the financial condition of the vendor. It should analyze any available audited financial statements. If audited financial statements are not available, the vendor’s most recent and year-end balance sheet and income statements should be examined.

If adequate financial information is not available for the vendor, the lack of information should be considered a risk in the assessment of the vendor. In addition to financial information, the existence and adequacy of insurance coverage should also be questioned. Does the vendor have fidelity bond coverage, liability coverage, fire, data loss, document protection, and other coverage in amounts deemed adequate for the services the vendor is to perform? Will the bank’s contract with the vendor require the vendor to make additional investments in personnel or equipment? Can the vendor easily absorb any such additional investment?

Step Three: Documenting the Vendor Relationship Contract Issues

A strong contract with a significant vendor is essential to properly managing the relationship. Even relationships with vendors that provide low-risk services can, and often should, be defined in simple form contracts.

All contracts should be in writing and, to the extent applicable, should cover expectations and responsibilities, the scope of work and fees, type and frequency of reporting on the status of work involved, process for changing scope of work, ownership of any work product, an acknowledgement that the vendor is subject to regulatory review, privacy and information security, a process for ongoing monitoring, and supervision and dispute resolution. Legal counsel should review all significant contracts.

A common problem with many vendor contracts is that the expectations and responsibilities of the vendor and the financial institution are not adequately communicated. When problems develop, resolution becomes very difficult, as each party insists that the other is responsible.

The scope of services to be performed should be carefully addressed in the contract. Scope should, at a minimum, include:

Services to be performed by the vendor
Responsibilities of the financial institution
Timeframes
Implementation activities
Details concerning fees
The financial institution’s responsibility for expenses incurred by the vendor

Performance standards should likewise be included in the contract. What tolerance does the financial institution have for errors?

If the contract is a technology contract, a service level agreement (SLA) is essential. An SLA will establish the performance standard and service quality expected under the agreement. For each service covered by the SLA, it should provide for an acceptable range of service quality, a definition of what is being measured, a formula for calculating the measurement, and penalties (or credits) for meeting or exceeding targets.

Vendor contracts must also include references to the organization’s right to monitor the performance and condition of the vendor. It should require the vendor to submit appropriate reports, including financial reports, audit reports, and internal control reports, depending on the risk assessment for the subject of the contract.

The term of the contract is another essential factor. The regulators are increasingly clear that they are concerned about the use of long-term contracts, especially in technology agreements. Technology changes rapidly and organizations need the flexibility to change providers if the chosen vendor fails to keep up with current practices.

Step Four: Ongoing Supervision and Monitoring of Vendors

An organization must provide in its contracts for the ability to monitor vendors during the term of the contract. To adequately supervise a vendor, an officer must review and be accountable for the performance of the vendor. How much supervision is required is, of course, dependent on the institution’s assessment of the risk of the particular service being provided. The staff assigned to oversee each vendor should have the necessary expertise to do so appropriately.

Monitoring and supervision should include ongoing (at least annual) review of the vendor’s financial condition and insurance coverage, including a verification that the insurance coverage represented to the bank are in force. The vendor’s policies relating to internal controls and security should be reviewed and some method of determining whether the vendor is following such controls should be developed.

Review and monitoring also requires an assessment of whether the third party has provided services in accordance with representations made in the contract and in accordance with applicable regulations and laws. The vendor’s contingency plans should be reviewed to be certain that they remain in place and have been adequately tested.

Document, Document, Document

The true purpose of a vendor management program is to maintain quality vendors and quality relationships with those vendors to operate the financial institution efficiently and well.

In addition to that purpose, each financial institution must prove to its regulator that vendors are managed efficiently and well. As compliance officers know, to satisfy regulators, documentation is paramount. Document the risk analysis engaged in at the time a decision is made to engage a vendor. Document the due diligence performed. Require effective contracts and maintain up-to-date versions of the contracts (complete with all amendments) in a place where the bank and examiners can easily review them. Document the process of monitoring and reviewing each vendor’s performance. Report significant vendor relationships to the board of directors on at least an annual basis.

Vendor management is complex and indeed cumbersome and annoying. Properly implemented, however, it can save the financial institution money, loss of reputation, failing to provide core services in a quality manner, and regulatory headaches.

Many variables make navigating outsourcing contracts challenging and confusing. Contract reviews are detailed assessments of a potential or existing contract’s favorability for a company. They are useful in determining whether the deal is advisable, what are the best areas to focus on while signing up for renewal, and which contracts can be exited most easily during a Vendor consolidation.

Contract reviews facilitates new deals, re-negotiations, and exiting relationships. For existing contracts, timely contract reviews help in assessing the contract performance and identifying the areas of improvement/opportunities/potential threats that determine the favorability of the contract. The provision for periodic contract review is essential for longer engagements. This provides an option to fine tune your baseline and optimize your spends based on actual utilization and changing market trends.

On the other hand, a new contract review assists in effectively comparing solution offerings of different vendors and selecting the right vendor. An experienced Sourcing Advisor can aid in taking a more selective sourcing approach that meets specific objectives while maximizing savings.

Points to Consider While Reviewing Contracts

Solution Competitiveness – When there is more than one competitive bid, which one is best for you?
Price Competitiveness – Is the deal fair financially when compared to market pricing?
Accuracy of Scope – Is the contract scope in line with your business and financial objectives. Example: mix of services, delivery vehicles, and level of services.
Appropriate Service Levels – Are the service levels fair, measurable, and enforceable?
Terms and Conditions – Are the all terms and clauses, like exit clauses, favorable? Are any important clauses missing?
Service Delivery Platform – Is the technology and delivery architecture used by the vendor to provide services aligned with contract standards?
Others – Are there any missing items or anything misleading? Example: scope mismatch between financial proposal and technical proposal, etc.

In managing vendors, contract management is one of the most important step, negotiation and renegotiation is required so many times in business. Currently the best Practices for Smooth Contract Renegotiation consist of some clear rules are widely appreciated.

Rule: 1. Be very clear about your Business intentions

You should be aware of all the aspects of the deal and should have a detailed understanding of your business requirements so that relevant levers in the agreement can be pulled, to achieve the stated objectives. That means spending ample time with your business leaders for understanding their needs; synthesizing their input; and translating those needs into a set of goals that need to be achieved through renegotiation.

Rule: 2. Evaluate Contract Performance

Review performance levels both internally and with the vendor. Determine whether the intended objectives have been achieved or not, and if not, why not. Bring out the points of concern in the renegotiation meetings with your vendor. The success or failure of an Outsourcing Contract is dependent on effective vendor management and the governance structures which have been put in place.

Rule: 3. Have Clear Rules of Engagement

Set out and agree clear rules with your vendor before you start the re-negotiation process. These should include a charter of behaviors and principles to be applied throughout the process, the number of senior-level people to be involved from client and vendor side, and a timeline for calling off the renegotiation process.

Rule: 4. Avoid hastily negotiating a Contract

You should be armed with plenty of facts and figures to make your business case. Do a detailed review of your services and have a clear picture in mind as to what are the business objectives that are to be achieved through this contract. Work on a collaborative discussion with your Vendor that brings out your concerns and goals as well as ways to manage them.

Rule: 5. Bring an Appropriate Team for the Re-negotiations

Do not re-negotiate a contract using only the account, service management and governance team on both sides. They are typically focused on short term issues and actions; and lack the executive mindset and big-picture view. Your team should be aware of your wider business needs, and not just immediate requirements. Hence identify and engage a corporate leader to act as the focal point for your negotiating team. Also ensure that your Service Provider’s corporate team is aware of your goals and is engaged at every step of the process.

Rule: 6. Extend Your Contract

If criteria such as end-user satisfaction and service level agreements are being met, and the contract is meeting your needs, the agreement with your existing service provider can be extended. However you still need to figure out latest developments and important amendments and build them into your existing contract. A rigorous external benchmarking exercise is critical to achieve this understanding. An Advisor can help you negotiate the best extension with their in-depth market insight and benchmarking experience.

Rule: 7. Contract Termination

The cancellation of an Outsourcing Agreement may happen due to following reasons:

Your existing Provider has failed to deliver particular services to your satisfaction
Commitments of process improvement and efficiency not being honored
Your requirements have changed to such an extent that a vendor with a different set of services and areas of expertise is now required

In the event of a Contract being terminated, you can exercise a number of options:

Bring in an Advisor to guide you on ‘Exit’ Strategy’, ‘Risk Identification & Mitigation’· Transfer whole or a part of your Outsourced services to a different Provider
Keep your existing Service Provider in some capacity
Bring some of the Outsourced services back in-house – here you need to determine if you have the right infrastructure and team in place to support such a move
Enter into a new contract

Specific Objective: 02

To give a generalize idea of vendor management system for direct and indirect procurement of NSN BD Ltd.

Nokia Siemens Networks generally deals with three types of vendors those are for

Indirect purchasing

2. Internal purchasing
3. Direct purchasing

Figure 01: General work flow for all types of purchase and vendor management

General work flow for all types of purchase and vendor management

Category groups of products generally purchase     

  • Facility Services
  • IT Terminals, Testing and Manufacturing
  • Equipments
  • Logistics Services
  • Professional Services
  • Travel & Fleet

All these materials, services and software are usually charged to the following accounts:

  • Cost centers,
  • Fixed assets, capital investments
  • WBS elements.

Nokia Siemens Networks

Some are parts:

Nokia Siemens Networks (Part 1)

Nokia Siemens Networks (Part 2)

Categories
Architecture

Analysis and Design of Building Components

Design of the Building Components:

The basic function of a building is to provide structurally sound and environmentally controlled spaces to house and protect occupants and contents. If this basic function is not achieved, it is because some aspect of the building has failed. Exponent’s architects, engineers, and scientists have a broad range of expertise with failures in the built environment, and providing clients with in-depth investigations of individual building components, as well as the interdependence of components with each other and the outside environment. Failures of basic building functions can range from defects in single components such as windows, to extensive deficiencies in an entire exterior wall system, to the inability of HVAC systems to properly condition the air. The source of these deficiencies can include inadequate design, improper execution of the work, defective materials, or simply normal and expected aging perhaps coupled with lack of maintenance.

Beam Design:

 Option I Building:

Design of Beam 1:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 3.390  k-ft

-M = 6.780  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 6.780k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  3.424″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

  R==

                 = 158.60 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

Steel for mid span:-

  R= =

                  = 50.08 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 3.92 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 2:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 6.007  k-ft

-M = 12.014  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 12.014 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  4.56″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

  R==

                 = 177.50 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

  R= =

                  = 88.75 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 4.71 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 3:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 4.078  k-ft

-M = 22.287  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 22.287 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  6.21″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 R==

                 = 329.26 psi

  = 0.006

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.006x 10 x 9.5 = 0.57 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

 R= =

                  = 60.25 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 5.36 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 4:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M =5.174  k-ft

-M = 10.348  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 10.348  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  4.22″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 152.88 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 76.44 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 5.386 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 5:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M =7.132  k-ft

-M = 14.263  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 14.263  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  4.97″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 210.72psi

  = 0.0036

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0036x 10 x 9.5 = 0.34 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 105.37 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 4.89 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 6:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M =5.254  k-ft

-M = 22.646  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 22.646  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  6.26″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 334.57 psi

  = 0.006

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.006x 10 x 9.5 = 0.57 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 77.62psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 3.76 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 7:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M =5.099  k-ft

-M = 10.199 k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 10.199  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  4.20″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 150.68 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 75.33 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 6.273 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 8:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 6.377  k-ft

-M = 12.754  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 12.754 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  4.7″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 188.42 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 94.21 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 4.635 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 9:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M =3.088  k-ft

-M = 6.177  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 6.177  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  3.27″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 91.26 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 45.62 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 4.635 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 10:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 3.295  k-ft

-M = 6.59  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 6.59k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  3.37″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

 Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 97.36 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 48.68 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 3.938 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 11:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 4.328  k-ft

-M = 8.656  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 8.656 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  3.87″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

 Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 127.88 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 63.94 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 4.881 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 12:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 1.752 k-ft

-M = 3.503  k-ft

 ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 3.503 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  2.46″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 45.1 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.003x 10 x 9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 25.88 psi < 200 psi

 min  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x9.5 = 0.31 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 2.669 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 10.41k

Vc = 0.75 x 10.41 = 7.81k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 4.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 4.5″ c/c

S = 48 x  = 18″ c / c

S = Minimum width of column = 10″ c / c

We use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Others beam are same as above beam calculation.

 Option II Building:

 Design of Beam 25:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x20″

Effective depth, d = 20″ – 2.5″ = 17.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 97.467  k-ft

-M = 14.803  k-ft

 

‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 97.467  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  12.98″ < 17.5″

               So, ok

 Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 64.45 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x17.5 = 0.0.58 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 424.35 psi

  = 0.0068

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0068 x 10 x17.5 = 1.19 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars  and  2#5 Ext. bottom bars.

Ap = 1.24 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 5.804 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 19.17 k

Vc = 0.75 x 19.17 = 14.38 k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 8.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 8.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 26:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 20″

Effective depth, d = 20″ – 2.5″ = 17.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 75.896  k-ft

-M = 9.106  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 75.896  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  11.45″ < 17.5″

               So, ok

 Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 39.65 psi < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x 17.5 = 0.58 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 330.43 psi

  = 0.0058

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0058 x 10 x17.5 = 1.015 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars  and  1#6 Ext. bottom bars.

Ap = 1.06 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 5.79 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 19.17 k

Vc = 0.75 x 19.17 = 14.38 k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 8.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 8.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 27:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 20″

Effective depth, d = 20″ – 2.5″ = 17.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 72.632  k-ft

-M = 8.439  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 72.632  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  11.21″ < 17.5″

               So, ok

 Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 36.74 psi  < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x 17.5 = 0.58 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 316.22 psi

  = 0.0056

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0056 x 10 x17.5 = 0.98 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars  and  1#6 Ext. bottom bars.

Ap = 1.06 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 7.509 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 19.17 k

Vc = 0.75 x 19.17 = 14.38 k

Vu < Vc,  So, Stirrup is no required.

Use minimum shear reinforcement-

Smax = =  = 8.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 8.5″ c/c

 Design of Beam 28:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 20″

Effective depth, d = 20″ – 2.5″ = 17.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 26.048  k-ft

-M = 52.096  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 52.096  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  9.49″ < 17.5″

               So, ok

 Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 R==

                 = 226.81 psi

  = 0.0038

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0038 x 10 x 17.5 = 0.67 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars  and  1#5 Ext. top bars.

Ap = 0.93 in

 Steel for mid span:-

R= =

                  = 113.41 psi  < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x17.5 = 0.58 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 19.870 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 19.17 k

Vc = 0.75 x 19.17 = 14.38 k

Vu > Vc,  So, Stirrup is required.

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 19.87  – 14.38 = 5.49 kip

4bwd = 4 x 0.75 x 10 x  = 28.76 >Vs

Smax =   = 8.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 8.5″ c/c  Throught the beam length.

 Design of Beam 29:

 Here,

Beam size = 10″ x 20″

Effective depth, d = 20″ – 2.5″ = 17.5″

From Etabs-

+M = 17.468  k-ft

-M = 34.936  k-ft

  ‘d’ Check:

Mmax= 34.936  k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.021

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.021= 0.0158

Mmax      = bd fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=  7.77″ < 17.5″

               So, ok

 Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

R==

                 = 152.10 psi  < 200 psi

  = 0.0033

 min   =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x 17.5 = 0.58 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Steel for mid span:-

 R= =

                  = 76.77 psi  < 200 psi

  = 0.003

 min  =  = 0.0033

 min =  = 0.00274

As = bd = 0.0033 x 10 x17.5 = 0.58 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars

Ap = 0.62 in

 Stirrup design:-

From Etabs-

Vu  = 14.507 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2bwd = 2 x 10 x = 19.17 k

Vc = 0.75 x 19.17 = 14.38 k

Vu > Vc,  So, Stirrup is required.

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 14.507  – 14.38 = 0.127  kip

4bwd = 4 x 0.75 x 10 x  = 28.76 >Vs

Smax =   = 8.75″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs Stirrup #3 @ 8.5″ c/c  Throught the beam length.

Others beam are same as option I beam.

 Column Design:

 Option I Building:

Design Data:–

Colomn height = 10′  c / c

Column type     = Tied

Clear cover        = 1.5″

For tied column-

  = 0.80

 = 0.65

g = 0.02

Materials:

Fy = 60 ksi

f′c = 3 ksi

wc = 150 psf

 Design of column C1:

 Here, Pu = 49.001 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 49.001 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 25.47 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 49.001 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C2:

 Here, Pu = 98.846 k

Ag (Provided)  = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 98.846 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 51.2 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 98.846 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C3:

 Here, Pu = 97.368 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 97.368= 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 50.62 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 97.368= 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C4:

 Here, Pu = 60.253 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 60.253 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 31.33 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 60.253 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C5:

Here, Pu = 62.259 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 62.259 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 32.37 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 62.259 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C6:

 Here, Pu = 126.655 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 126.655 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 65.847 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 126.655 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C7:

 Here, Pu = 170.054 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 170.054 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 88.41 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 170.054 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C8:

 Here, Pu = 110.947 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 110.947 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 57.68 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 110.947 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C9:

 Here, Pu = 49.019 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 49.019 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 25.48 inch< 150 inch, ok

Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 49.019 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C10:

 Here, Pu = 99.013 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 99.013 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 51.48 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 99.013 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C11:

 Here, Pu = 108.54 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 108.54 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 56.43inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 108.54= 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C12:

 Here, Pu = 60.848 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 60.848 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 31.634 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 60.848 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Design of column C13:

 Here, Pu = 35.069k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 35.069 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 18.23 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 35.069 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C14:

 Here, Pu = 69.45 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 69.45 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 36.106 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 69.45 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C15:

 Here, Pu = 62.943 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 62.943 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 32.724 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 62.943 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C16:

 Here, Pu = 40.405 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 15 = 150 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 40.405 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 21 inch< 150 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 40.405 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Option II Building:

 Design of column C17:

 Here, Pu = 126.557 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 18 = 180 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 126.557 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 65.80 inch< 180 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 126.557 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C18:

 Here, Pu = 126.557 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 18 = 180 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 301.559  = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 156.778  inch< 180 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 301.559 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = 3.44 inch

Use 8 # 6 bars, Ap = 3.52 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 12″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Design of column C19:

 Here, Pu = 125.959 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 18 = 180 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 125.959 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 64.75 inch< 180 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 125.959 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C20:

 Here, Pu = 123.383 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 18 = 180 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 123.383 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 64.15 inch< 180 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 123.383 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Design of column C21:

 Here, Pu = 115.408 k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 18 = 180 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 115.408 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 59.00 inch< 180 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 115.408 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

 Design of column C22:

 Here, Pu = 118.007  k

Ag (Provided) = 10 x 18 = 180 inch

 Check for size:

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 118.007  = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 60)]

Ag = 61.35 inch< 180 inch, ok

 Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 118.007  = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) +60 Ast]

Ast = ( – )

So, 1% reinforcement should be provided.

As = 0.01 x 150 = 1.5 inch

Use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86 inch

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 10″  c/c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c/c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c/c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c/c

Others column are same as option I column.

 Bracing  Design:

 Design of Bracing BR1:

 Design for A36 steel.

Here,  Mmax  = 20.498 k-ft = 245.976 k-in

Assume compact section,

The allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66 Fy

                                                      = 0.66 x 36 = 24 ksi

Hence, Required section modulus, Sx =

                                                             =

                                                            = 10.249 in

Try, W 8 x 15 section

Sx = 11.8 in, A= 4.44 in, d = 8.11 in,  tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in, t= 0.315 in

Checking width thickness ratio for compact section:

 =  = 6.373 < = =10.83  (ok)

=   = 33.102 < = = 106.67 (ok)

So, the section is a compact section.

Checking bending stress of the beam:

Bending stress, f=  = = 20.85 ksi < Allowable stress = 24 ksi (ok)

So, the section W8 x 15 is acceptable.

 Design of Bracing BR2:

 Design for A36 steel.

Here,  Mmax  = 18.866 k-ft = 226.392 k-in

Assume compact section,

The allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66 Fy

                                                      = 0.66 x 36 = 24 ksi

Hence, Required section modulus, Sx =

                                                             =

                                                            = 9.433 in

Try, W 8 x 15 section

Sx = 11.8 in, A= 4.44 in, d = 8.11 in, tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in, t= 0.315 in

Checking width thickness ratio for compact section:

 =  = 6.373 < = =10.83 (ok)

=   = 33.102 < = = 106.67 (ok)

So, the section is a compact section.

Checking bending stress of the beam:

Bending stress, f=  = = 19.19 ksi < Allowable stress = 24 ksi (ok)

So, the section W8 x 15 is acceptable.

Design of Bracing BR3:

 Design for A36 steel.

Here,  Mmax  = 20.349 k-ft = 244.188 k-in

Assume compact section,

The allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66 Fy

                                                      = 0.66 x 36 = 24 ksi

Hence, Required section modulus, Sx =

                                                             =

                                                            = 10.175  in

Try, W 8 x 15 section

Sx = 11.8 in, A= 4.44 in, d = 8.11 in,  tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in, t= 0.315 in

Checking width thickness ratio for compact section:

 =  = 6.373 < = =10.83  (ok)

=   = 33.102 < = = 106.67 (ok)

So, the section is a compact section.

Checking bending stress of the beam:

Bending stress, f=  = = 20.71 ksi < Allowable stress = 24 ksi (ok)

So, the section W8 x 15 is acceptable.

 Design of Bracing BR4:

 Design for A36 steel.

Here,  Mmax  = 15.630 k-ft = 187.56 k-in

Assume compact section,

The allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66 Fy

                                                      = 0.66 x 36 = 24 ksi

Hence, Required section modulus, Sx =

                                                             =

                                                            = 7.815 in

Try, W 8 x 15 section

Sx = 11.8 in, A= 4.44 in, d = 8.11 in,  tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in, t= 0.315 in

Checking width thickness ratio for compact section:

 =  = 6.373 < = =10.83  (ok)

=   = 33.102 < = = 106.67 (ok)

So, the section is a compact section.

Checking bending stress of the beam:

Bending stress, f=  = = 15.89 ksi < Allowable stress = 24 ksi (ok)

So, the section W8 x 15 is acceptable.

 Design of Bracing BR5:

 Design for A36 steel.

Here,  Mmax  = 20.608 k-ft = 247.296 k-in

Assume compact section,

The allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66 Fy

                                                      = 0.66 x 36 = 24 ksi

Hence, Required section modulus, Sx =

                                                             =

                                                            = 10.304 in

Try, W 8 x 15 section

Sx = 11.8 in, A= 4.44 in, d = 8.11 in,  tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in, t= 0.315 in

Checking width thickness ratio for compact section:

 =  = 6.373 < = =10.83  (ok)

=   = 33.102 < = = 106.67 (ok)

So, the section is a compact section.

Checking bending stress of the beam:

Bending stress, f=  = = 20.96 ksi < Allowable stress = 24 ksi (ok)

So, the section W8 x 15 is acceptable.

 Design of Bracing BR6:

 Design for A36 steel.

Here,  Mmax  = 16.204 k-ft = 194.448 k-in

Assume compact section,

The allowable bending stress, Fb = 0.66 Fy

                                                      = 0.66 x 36 = 24 ksi

Hence, Required section modulus, Sx =

                                                             =

                                                            = 8.102 in

Try, W 8 x 15 section

Sx = 11.8 in, A= 4.44 in, d = 8.11 in,  tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in, t= 0.315 in

Checking width thickness ratio for compact section:

 =  = 6.373 < = =10.83  (ok)

=   = 33.102 < = = 106.67 (ok)

So, the section is a compact section.

Checking bending stress of the beam:

Bending stress, f=  = = 16.48 ksi < Allowable stress = 24 ksi (ok)

So, the section W8 x 15 is acceptable.

Design-of-Building

Some are parts:

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 1)

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 2)

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 3)

 

Categories
Architecture

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 3)

COLUMN (C-7):-

Assume column size = 10″ x 15″ = 150 sq. inch

a) Load Calculation:-

Load from F. B – A2,A3 =  = 15.19 kip

Load from F. B – A3,A4 =  = 8.25 kip

Load from F. B – A3,D3 =  = 15.95 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – ) = 1.40 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x 1.40 + 15.19 + 8.25 + 15.95

= 41.07 kip

Total column load for 6 – stored = 6 x 41.07 = 246.42 kip

 b) Check for size:-

Pu = 243.11 (kip) (story -1)                        / ρg = 0.02

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- ρg) + ρgfy]

Or, 246.42 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + .02 x 40]

Ag = 143.64 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 15″

Provided size = 150 in

 c) Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 150 = .80 x .65 x [.85 x 3 x (150- Ast) + Ast x 40]

Ast = 2.27 in

Use # 7 bars, Ap = 2.40 in

Tie bar:-

Use # 3 bar @ as Tie

S = 16 x Main bar dia = 16 x  = 14″ c / c

S = 48 x Tie bar dia = 48 x  = 18″ c / c

S = Minimum width of column = 10″ c /c

We use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

COLUMN (C-8):-

Assume column size = 10″ x 24″

a)  Load Calculation:-

Load from F. B – B2,B3 =  = 24.08 kip

Load from F. B – B3,B4 =  = 13.08 kip

Load from F. B – B3,C3 =  = 8.11 kip

Load from F. B – D3,B3 =  = 3.12 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – ) = 2.25 k

Factored load                 = 24.08 + 13.08 + 8.11 + 1.2 x 2.25+20 k

= 67.97 kip

Total column load for 6 – story = 67.97 x 6 = 407.82 kip

b) Check for size:-

Pu = 407.82 (kip)

Pu  = Ag [ .85f’c (1- ρg) + ρgfy]

Or, 407.82  = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- .02) + .02 x 40]

Ag = 237.80 in

Size of column = 10″ x 24″

Provided size = 240 in

So, Ok

c) Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 407.82 = .80 x .65 x [.85 x 3 x (240- Ast) + Ast x 40]

Ast = 4.59 in

Use 8 # 7 bars st, Ap = 4.80 in

Tie bar:

Use # 3 bar  as Tie

S = 16 x  = 10″ c / c

S = 48 x  = 18″ c / c

S = Minimum width of column = 10″ c / c

We use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

COLUMN (C-9):-

Assume column size = 10″ x 15″ = 150 sq. inch

a) Load Calculation:

Load from F. B – B3, C3 =  = 7.81 kip

Load from F. B – C2, C3 =  = 6.81 kip

Load from F. B – C3, C4 =  = 3.06 kip

Load from stair Beam =  = 19.38 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 1.97 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x 1.97 + 7.81 + 3.06 + 19.38 +20

= 59.42 kip

Total column load for 6. story = 6 x 59.42= 356.54 kip

b) Check for size:-

Pu = 116.232 kip

Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- ρg) + ρgfy]

Or, 356.54  = 0.80 x .65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- .02) + .02 x 40]

Ag = 207.83 in

Size of column = 10″ x 21″

Provide, Ag = 10″ x 21″= 210 in

So,  ok.

 c) Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 356.54  = .80 x .65 x [.85 x 3 x (210- Ast) + Ast x 40]

Ast = 4.00 in

Use 10 # 6 bar straight.

Tie bar:-

Use # 3 bar  as Tie

S = 16 x  = 12″ c / c

S = 48 x  = 18″ c / c

S = Minimum width of column = 10″ c / c

We use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Check for lateral tie:-

S =  = 4.75″ < 6″

So, Ok

No latered ties are required.

 COLUMN (C-10):-

Assume column size = 10″ x 15″ = 150 sq. inch

a) Load Calculation:-

Load from F. B – A3, D3 =  = 15.95 kip

Load from F. B – D3, D4 =  = 9.29 kip

Load from F. B – D3, B3 =  = 13.08 kip

Self weight of Column = 150 x  x 9′ = 1.41 k

Factored load                 = 15.95 + 9.29 + 13.08 + 1.41 x1.2

= 40.00 kip

Total column load for 6- story = 6 x 40 = 240 kip

b) Check for size:-

Pu = 240 kip (Story -1)

Pu  = Ag [ .85 x f′c (1- ρg) + ρg fy]

Or, 240  = .80 x .65 x Ag [.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + .02 x 40]

Ag = 139.90 in

Size of column = 10″ x 14″

Provided size  = 10″ x 15″= 150 Sq. inch.

Ok.

c) Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 240  = .80 x 0.65 [.85 x 3 (150- Ast) + Ast x 40]

Ast = 2.11 in

Use 4 # 7 bar st, Ap = 2.40in

Tie bar:

Use # 3 bar  as Tie

S = 16 x  = 14″ c / c

S = 48 x  = 18″ c / c

S = Minimum width of column = 10″ c / c

We use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

Table:- 4.4.   Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all Columns (C – 1 ~ C – 10):

Columngroup Numberof Column ColumnSize Columnload Area of steel req. (sq.inch) QuantityOf bars Tie barsspacing
Pu (kip) Ast Main bars Use # 3 bars

C – 1

02

10″ X 30″

516.34

6.10

14 # 6

10″ C/c

C – 2

02

10″ X 18″

308.96

3.60

8 # 6

10″ C/c

C  – 3

02

10″ X 18″

289.77

2.52

6 # 6

10″ C/c

C – 4

02

10″ X 20″

342

3.95

10 # 6

10″ C/c

C – 5

02

10″ X 12″

189

1.53

6 # 5

10″ C/c

C – 6

02

10″ X 12″

152.5

0.34

4 # 5

10″ C/c

C – 7

02

10″ X 15″

246.42

2.27

4 # 7

10″ C/c

C – 8

02

10″ X 24″

407.82

4.59

8 # 7

10″ C/c

C – 9

02

10″ X 21″

356.54

4.00

10 # 6

10″ C/c

C- 10

02

10″ X 15″

240.00

2.11

4 # 7

10″ C/c

1

Plan of Grade beam

Figure Plan of Grade beam

 Design of grade beams:

Design Data:–

Materials:-

Fy = 40 ksi

f′c = 3 ksi

wc = 150 pcf

w brick = 120 pcf

Thickness of wall on GB = 5″

Clear cover                       = 3″

 Grade Beam GB-1:

Size  = 10″ x 15″

Effective depth (d) = 15-3 = 12 inch

a) Load Calculation:-

Self weight of beam GB-1 =  x 150 = 156.25 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =  ( 10- )x120 = 430.00 Ib/ft

Total Dead load                  = 156.25 + 450 = 606.25 Ib/ft

Factored load GB-1            = 1.2 DL    = 1.2 x 606.25

= 727.5 Ib/ft

= 0.73 k/ft

b) Moment Calculation and ‘d’ check:-

(-) Ve moment at Ext. support =  = 7.04 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 8.04 k-ft

(-) Ve moment at Int. support =  = 11.26 k-ft

Mu = 11.26 k-ft

b = 0.85ß1 x  x

= 0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.037

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.037 = 0.028

Mu       = bd  fy (1-0.59  x

Or 11.26  x 12 = 0.9 x 0.028×12 x d x 40 x (1-0.59 x .028 x

= 3.78″ < 12″

So, ok

 c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Mid span steel:-

= = 62.03 < 200 psi

min = =  = 0.005

min = =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.005x 12 x 12 = 0.72 inch

Use 2 # 6  hanger bar.

Steel for Int. Support:-

= = 86.88 psi < 200 psi

min  = 0.005

min = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.005x 12 x 12 = 0.72 inch

Use 2 # 6 hanger bar.

Steel for Ext. Support:-

= = 54.32 psi < 200 psi

As = bd = 0.005x 12 x 12 = 0.72 inch

Use 2 # 6  hanger bar.

d) Stirrup design:-

Vv = 1.15 x  = 4.86 K

Vu = 4.86 – ( ) x.73 = 4.13 k

Vc = 2 bw d = 2  x 10 x 12 = 13.14 k

 Shear strength of concrete,

Vc = .75 x 13.14 = 9.86 K

Since, Vc > Vd; no shear reinforcement is required.

Use # 3 bar @  =  = 6″ c / c throughout beam length.

 Grade Beam GB-2:

Size  = 12″ x 15″

Effective depth, (d) = 15-3 = 12 inch

a) Load Calculation:-

Self weight of beam GB-2 =  x 150 = 156.25 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =  ( 10- ) x120 = 450.00 Ib/ft

Total Dead load                  = 156.25 + 450.00 = 606.25 Ib/ft

Factored load GB-2            = 1.2 DL    = 1.2 x 606.25

= 727.5 Ib/ft

= 0.73 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and d check:-

(-) Ve moment at Ext. support =  = 11.43 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 13.07k/ft

(-) Ve moment at Int. support =  = 18.79 k-ft

Now, Mu = 18.79 k-ft

b = .85x 1   x  x

= 0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.037

max = 0.75 x 0.037  = 0.028

Mu       = bd  fy (1-0.59  x

Or 18.79  x 12 = 0.9 x .028×12 x d x 40 x (1-0.59 x .028 x

= 4.88″ < 12″

So, ok

c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Mid span steel:-

= = 100.84 < 200 psi

min = =  = 0.005

min = =  = 0.0041

As = bd = .005x 12 x 12 = 0.72

Use 2 # 6 bar hanger

Steel for Int. Support:-

= = 144.98 psi < 200 psi

min  = 0.005

As =  0.005x 12 x 12 = 0.72 inch

Use 2 # 6 bar hanger.

Steel for Ext. Support:-

= = 88.19 psi < 200 psi

min  = 0.005

As = 0.005x 12 x 12 = 0.72 inch

Use 2 # 6  bar hanger .

d) Stirrup design:-

Vu = 1.15 x  = 6.29 K

Vu = 6.29 – ( ) x .73 = 5.57 k

Vc = 2 bw d = 2  x 10 x 12 = 13.14 k

Shear strength of concrete,

Vc = 0.75 x 13.14 = 9.86 K

Since, Vc > Vd; no shear reinforcement is required.

Use # 3 bar @  =  = 6″ c / c throughout beam length.

Reinfrocement Grade Beam

v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}

Normal
0

false
false
false

EN-US
X-NONE
X-NONE

/* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-noshow:yes;
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-qformat:yes;
mso-style-parent:””;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
mso-para-margin:0in;
mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:”Calibri”,”sans-serif”;}
table.MsoTableGrid
{mso-style-name:”Table Grid”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-priority:59;
mso-style-unhide:no;
border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid windowtext;
mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext;
mso-para-margin:0in;
mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:”Times New Roman”,”serif”;
mso-fareast-font-family:”Times New Roman”;}

Figure Reinfrocement Grade Beam ( GB-2 )

Table : Details of sectional dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of all grade beams ( GB- 1  GB – 2).

Grade Beam Group

Grade Beam

Size

               Moment (Kip-ft)

      Area of steel req. (Sq. inch)

            Quantity of bars

Stirrups (Spacing” C/c)

  At Ext.

M-Ve

At Mid M + Ve

At Int.

M-Ve

At Ext.

As-Ve

At mid

As+Ve

At Int.

M-Ve

Main bars

Extra

Top/bottom

GB – 1

10″ x 15″

7.04

8.04

11.26

0.72

0.72

0.72

At Ext, Suppt:

2 # 6

@ 6″ C/c

At Mid, Span:

2 # 6

@ 6″ C/c

At Int, Suppt:

2 # 6

@ 6″ C/c

GB – 2

10″ x 15″

11.43

13.07

18.79

0.72

0.72

0.72

At Ext, Suppt:

2 # 6

@ 6″ C/c

At Mid, Span:

2 # 6

@ 6″ C/c

At Int, Suppt:

2 # 6

@ 6″ C/c

Design of Building

Some are parts:

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 1)

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 2)

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 3)

 

Categories
Architecture

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 2)

Floor beam, F. B (C3, C4):-

 Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ -2.5″ = 9.5″

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Self weight of beam            =  x 150                = 125 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =    ( 10′ – ) x 120 = 450 Ib/ft

Total Dead load                  = 125 +  450 = 575 Ib/ft

Total Live load                   =  40 x .83    = 33.2Ib/ft

Factored Load = 1.2 x 575 + 1.6 x 33.2 = 743.12Ib/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d ‘check.

 (-) Moment at Int. support = =  = 4.59 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     = =  = 3.16 k-ft

Mu = 4.59 k-ft

b = 0.85 x ßl x  x

   = 0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.037

max = 0.75 ρb = 0.037 x .75 = 0.028

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59  x

or, 4.59 x 12= 0.9 x 0.028 x 10 x d x 40 x(1- 0.59 x 0.028 x

=  2.65″ < 9.5″

               So, ok

 c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Int. Support:-

   = = 56.509 <200 psi

 = 0.005

As = bd = 0.005 x 10 x 9.5 = 0.475 in

As (min) = 0.0018 x b x t = 0.0018 x 10 x 12 = 0.216 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars.

 Steel for mid span:-

 = = 46.69 < 200 psi

 = 0.005

As = bd = 0.005 x 10 x 9.5 = 0.475in

Use ,2 # 5 Straight bar.

Floor beam, (A1, B1):-

 Beam size = 15″ x 10″

Effective depth, d = 15″ -2.5″ = 12.5″

 a) Load Calculation:

 Self weight of beam F. B-3 =  x 150 = 156.25 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =    ( 10′ – ) x 120 = 437.5 Ib/ft

 Load coming from Slabs:-

 S5- Dead load      = 185 x (  + 0.5’)x 0.71        = 881.36 Ib/ft

 Total, Dead load               = 156.25 + 437.5 + 881.36  = 1475.11 Ib/ft

 Live load                          = 40 x  (  + 0.5’)  x 0.71

                                          = 190.56 Ib/ft

Factored load, (F. B-3)  = 1.2 x D.L + 1.6 L.L

                                        = 1.2  x 1475.11 + 1.6 x 190.56

                                       = 2075.028 Ib/ft

                                        =2.075 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d check.

 (-) Ve Moment at Ext. support  =  = 32.50 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 37.14 k-ft

(-) Ve Moment at Int. support  =  = 51.997 52 k-ft

 Mu = 52 k-ft

b = 0.85 x ßl    x

   = 0.85 x 0.85 x x

   = 0.037

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.037 = 0.0278

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d =

=   = 8.93″ < 12.5″

             So, ok

  c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

  R= = = 277.33 Psi >200 psi

   = 0.0071

 min  =  =  = 0.0050

 min =   =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.0071 x 10 x 12.5 = 0.89 inch

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s + 1 # 5 Ext: top.

                                Ap = 0.96inch

 Steel for mid span:-

 R= = 316.93 psi > 200 psi

  = 0.0077

 min  =  = 0.0050

 min  =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.0077 x 10 x 12.5 = 0.962 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars + 1 # 5 Ext: Bottom.

                                Ap = 0.965in

 Steel for Int. Support:-

   R= = = 443.73 psi > 200 psi

  = 0.013

As = bd = 0.013 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.625 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars + 2 # 6 Ext: top.

                                Ap = 1.65in

 d) Stirrup design:-

 Vv = 1.15 x  = 18.89 K at support face

Critical shear strength:

Vu = 18.89 –  x 2.075 = 16.73 k

Concrete shear strength:

Vc  = 2  x 10 x = 13.70k

Vc = 0.75 x 13.70 = 10.275

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 16.73 – 10.275 = 6.45

4 bwd = 4 x 0.75  x 10 x  = 20.54 > Vc

Smax =  = 6.25″

Smax = 24″

 Use, 2 legs # 3 @ 6″ c / c throught the beam length.

Floor beam (B1, C1):-

 Beam size = 10″ x 15″

Effective depth, d = 15″ -2.5″ = 12.5″

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Self weight of beam F. B-10 =  x 150           = 156.25 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =   ( 10 – ) x 120 = 437.5 Ib/ft

 Load coming from Slabs:-

 S1, Dead load         = 185 x  (  x 0.5) x 0.71 = 881.36 Ib/ft

Total, Dead load       = 156.25 + 437.5 + 881.36  = 1475.11 Ib/ft

Live load                  = 40 x  (  + 0.5)  x 0.71

= 190.56 Ib/ft

 Factored load, (F. B-10)  = 1.2 D.L + 1.6 L.L

= 1.2  x 1475.11 + 1.6 x 190.56

= 2075.028 Ib/ft

=2.075 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d’ check:-

 (-) Ve Moment at Ext. support  =  = 29.83 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 34.1 k-ft

(-) Ve Moment at Int. support  =  = 47.43 k-ft

Mu = 47.43 k-ft

b = 0.85 x ßl   x

= 0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.0371

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.0371 = 0.0278

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59 x

Or, 47.43 x 12 = 0.90 x 0.0278 x 10 x d x 40 x

=   = 5.11″ < 12.5″

So, ok

 c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 R= = 254.55 psi > 200 psi

= 0.0065

min   =  = 0.0050

min =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.0065 x 10 x 12.5 = 0.812 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s + 1 # 5 Ext: top.

Ap = 0.96in

 Steel for mid span:-

 R= = 290.99 psi > 200 psi

= 0.0070

min  =  = 0.0050

As = bd = 0.0070 x 10 x 12.5 = 0.875 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars + 1 # 5 Ext: Bottom bar.

Ap = .96 in

 Steel for Int. Support:-

 R= = = 407.3 Psi > 200 psi

= 0.011

As =  0.011 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.375 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars + 2 # 6 Ext: top.

Ap = 1.65in

 d)  Stirrup design:-

 Vv = 1.15 x  = 14.7 K at support face

Critical shear strength:

Vu = 14.7 –  x 2.075 = 12.53 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2  x 10 x = 13.70k

Vc = 0.75 x 13.70 = 10.275

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 12.53 – 10.275 = 2.26

4 bwd = 4 x 0.75  x 10 x  = 20.54 > Vs

Smax =  = 6.25″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs # 3 @ 6″ c / c throught the beam length.

Floor beam, F. B (A2, B2):-

 Beam size = 10″ x 15″

Effective depth, d = 15″ – 2.5″ = 12.5″

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Self weight of beam  =  x 150                        = 156.25 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =    ( 10 – ) x 120 = 437.5 Ib/ft

 Load coming from Slab:-

 S4 & S5, Dead load         = 185 x  ( ) x ( ) = 1664 Ib/ft

Total, Dead load              = 156.25 + 437.5 + 1664  = 2257.75 Ib/ft

Live load                         = 40 x  ( ) x ( )

= 359.78 Ib/ft

 Factored load  = 1.2 D.L + 1.6 L.L

= 1.2  x 2257.75 + 1.6 x 359.78

= 3284.95 Ib/ft

=3.28 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d’ check:-

 (-) Ve Moment at Ext. support  =  = 51.44 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 58.79 k-ft

(-) Ve Moment at Int: support  =  = 82.32 k-ft

Mu = 85.02 k-ft

b = 0.85 x ßl   x

= 0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.037

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.037 = 0.0278

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d  =

=   = 11.423″ < 12.5″

So, ok

 c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 R= = = 453.46

= 0.0125

min   =  = 0.0050

min =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.0125 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.56 in

Use 2 # 6 Straight bars + 2 # 6 Ext: top bars.

Ap = 1.56 inch

 Steel for mid span:-

 R= = = 518.23

= 0.014

min  =  = 0.0050

min =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.014 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.75 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars + (2 # 6 + 1 # 5)Ext: Bottom bar’s.

Ap = 1.96 in

 Steel for Int. Support:-

 R= = = 725.504

= 0.022

As = bd = 0.022 x 10 x 12.5 = 2.75 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bar’s + (2 # 8 + 1 # 7)Ext: top.

Ap = 2.82in

 d) Stirrup design:-

 Vv = 1.15 x  = 30.88 at support face

Critical shear at `d’ distance,

Vu = 30.80 –  x 3.393 = 27.35 k

Concrete shear strength:-

Vc  = 2 wd = 2  x 10 x = 13.69 k

Vc = 0.75 x 13.69 = 10.27 k

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 27.35  – 10.27 = 17.08 kip

4 bwd = 4 x 0.75  x 10 x  = 20.54 > Vs

Smax = =  = 6.25″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs # 3 @ 4″ c / c

S = =  = 4.8″  4″ c / c

 Floor beam, F B (B2, C2):-

 Beam size = 15″ x 10″

Effective depth, d = 15″ – 2.5″ = 12.5″

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Self weight of beam  =  x 150                 = 156.25 Ib/ft

All main wall weight          =    (10 – ) x 120 = 437.5 Ib/ft

 Load coming from Slab:-

S1 & S2, Dead load    = 185 x  ( ) x ( ) = 1664.00 Ib/ft

Total, Dead load         = 156.25 + 437.5 + 1664  = 2257.75 Ib/ft

Live load                    = 40 x  ( ) x ( )

= 359.78 Ib/ft

Factored load  = 1.2 D.L + 1.6 L.L

= 1.2  x 2257.75 + 1.6 x 359.78

= 3284.95 Ib/ft

=3.28 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d ‘ check.

 (-) Ve Moment at Ext. support  =  = 47.15 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 53.89 k-ft

(-) Ve Moment at Int: support  =  = 75.44 k-ft

Mu = 75.44 k-ft

b   =  0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.037

 max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.037 = 0.0278

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, d  =

=  10.76″ < 12.5″

So, ok

 c) Reinforcement Calculation:

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 R= = = 402.45

= 0.012

min   =  = 0.0050

min =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.012 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.5 in

Use 2 # 6 Straight bars + 2 # 6 Ext: top bars.

Ap = 1.63 in

 Steel for mid span:-

 R= = = 460

min  = 0.012

min  =  = 0.0050

min =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.012 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.50 in

Use 2 # 6 Straight bar’s + 2 # 6 Ext: Bottom bar.

Ap = 1.65 in

 Steel for Int. Support:-

 R= = = 643.75

min  = 0.014

As = bd = 0.014 x 10 x 12.5 = 1.75 in

Use 2 # 5 Straight bars + (2 # 8 + 1 # 5)Ext: top.

Ap = 1.96in

 d) Stirrup design:-

 Vv =  = 24.87 at support face

Critical shear at `d’ distance,

Vu = 24.87 –  x 3.28 = 21.45 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2 bwd = 2  x 10 x = 13.69k

Vc = 0.75 x 13.69 = 10.27k

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 24.45  – 10.27 = 11.18Kip

4 bwd = 4 x 0.75  x 10 x  = 20.54 > Vs

Smax = =  = 6.25″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs # 3 @ 5″ c / c

S = =  = 7.37″ > 5″ c / c, ok.

Floor beam, F. B (A3, D3):-

 Beam size = 10″ x 12″                                      = 0.89

        = 82

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5″ = 9.5″

 a) Load Calculation:-

Self weight of beam,  F.B-7 =  x 150                = 125 Ib /ft

All main wall weight          =    ( 10′ – ) x 120 = 450 Ib/ft

 Load coming from Slabs:-

 S3 & S4, Dead load  = 185 x  ( ) x ( ) = 1804.29 Ib/ft

Total, Dead load       = 125 + 450 + 1804.29  = 2379.29 Ib/ft

Live load                  = 40 x  ( ) x ( )

= 210.60 Ib/ft

Factored load  =  1.2  x 2379.29 + 1.6 x 210.60

= 3192.11 k/ft

=3.19 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d’ check.

 (-) Ve Moment at Ext. support  =  =  = 19.94 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 22.79 k-ft

(-) Ve Moment at Int: support  =  = 31.90 k-ft

 Mu = 31.90 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl    x

= 0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.037

max = 0.75 b = 0.75 x 0.037 = 0.028

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, 31.90 x 12 = 0.9 x .028 x 12 x d x 40 (1- 0.59 x .028 x

=  5.62″  5.5” < 9.5″

So, ok

 c) Calculation of Reinforcement

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 = = 244.99 > 200 psi

= 0.007

As = bd = 0.007 x 12 x 9.5 = 0.798 in

Use 2 # 6 bar Straight.

 Steel for mid span:-

 = = 280.57 > 200 psi

= 0.008

As = bd = 0.008 x 12 x 9.5 = 0.912 in

Use 2 # 5 bar Straight + 1 # 5Ext.

 Steel for Int. Support:-

 = = 392.7 > 200 psi

= 0.011

As = bd = 0.011 x 12 x 9.5 = 1.254 in

Use 2 # 6 bar Straight + 1 # 6 bar.

 Floor beam, F B (B3, C3):-

 Beam size = 10″ x 12″

Effective depth, d = 12″ – 2.5 = 9.5″

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Self weight of beam  F.B-4 =  x 150 = 125/ft

All main wall weight          =    ( 10′ – ) x 120 = 450 Ib/ft

 Load coming from Slabs:-                            

m =    =  = 0.74

S2, Dead load                  = 185 x  ( ) x .24 = 249.75 Ib/ft

Total, Dead load              = 125 + 450 + 249.75  = 824.75 Ib/ft

Live load                        = 40 x  ( ) x .24 = 54.00 Ib/ft

 Factored load F,B-4 =  1.2  x 824.75 + 1.6 x 54

= 1076.10 Ib/ft

=1.07 k/ft

 b) Moment Calculation and ‘d’ check.

 (-) Ve Moment at Ext. support  =  = 15.38 k-ft

(+) Ve moment at Mid span     =  = 17.58 k-ft

(-) Ve Moment at Int: support  =  = 24.61 k-ft

 Mu = 24.61 k-ft

b    = 0.85 x ßl   x

= 0.85 x 0.85 x x

= 0.037

max = 0.75 ρb = 0.75 x 0.037 = 0.028

Mu       = bd  fy (1- 0.59  x

Or, 24.61 x 12 = 0.9 x .028 x 12 x d x 40 (1- 0.59 x .028 x

=  5.59″ < 9.5″

So, ok

 c) Calculation of Reinforcement

Steel for Ext. Support:-

 = = 189.35  > 200 psi   190.00

= 0.008

min  =  =  = 0.005

min =   =  = 0.0041

As = bd = 0.008 x 12 x 9.5 = 0.912 in

Use 2 # 6 Straight bars + 1 # 6 Ext: top.

 Steel for mid span:-

 = = 216.43  216 > 200 psi

= 0.006

As = bd = 0.006 x 12 x 9.5 = 0.684 in

Use 2 # 6 Straight bars.

 Steel for Int. Support:-

 = = 302.98  303 > 200psi

= 0.008

As = bd = 0.008 x 12 x 9.5 = 0.912 in

Use 2 # 7 Straight bar.

 d) Stirrup design:-

 Vv = 1.15 x  = 8.82k at support face

Critical shear at `d’ distance,

Vu = 8.82 –  x 1.07 = 7.97 k

Concrete shear strength,

Vc  = 2 bwd = 2 x  x 12 x = 12.48k

Vc = 0.75 x 12.48 = 9.37k

Vs = (Vu – Vc) = 7.97  – 9.37 = -1.40 kip

4 bwd = 4 x 0.75  x 10 x  = 15.61 > Vs

Smax =   = 4.75″  4.5″

Smax = 24″

Use, 2 legs # 3 @ 4.5″ c / c Throught the beam length.

DESIGN OF COLUMN.

 Design Data:–

Colomn height = 10′  c / c

Column type     = Tied

Clear cover        = 1.5″

  = 0.80 for tied column

g = 0.02

 = 0.65

 Materials:

Fy = 40 ksi

f′c = 3 ksi

wc = 150 psf

COLUMN (C-1):

 Assume column size = 10″ x 30″ = 300 inch

  a) Load Calculation:-

 Load from F. B,  (B1,B2) =  = 13.97 kip

Load from F. B (B2,B3)=  = 6.3 kip

Load from F. B ( A2,B2) =  = 25.96 kip

Load from F. B (B2,C2) =  = 22.75 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 2.734 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x (13.97 + 6.3 + 25.96 + 22.75 + 2.734)

                                        = 86.06 kip

Total load for 6 – story = 6 x 86.06 = 516.36 kip

b) Check for size:-

 Pu  = Ag [ .85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 516.36 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 40)]

Or, 516.36 = 0.52

Ag = =300.99 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 30.1″ = 301inch

Provided column size = 10″ x 30″ =300 in

 c) Calculation of steel:-

 Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 516.36 = 0.80 x .65 [0.85 x 3 x (300- Ast) + 40 Ast]

Or, 516.36 = 0.52(765-2.55 Ast + 40 Ast)

Or, 516.36 = 398 + 19.474 Ast

Ast = = 6.1 in

Use 14 # 6 bars, Ap = 6.8 in

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing :

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x    = 12″ c / c

ii) S = 48 x    = 18″ c / c

iii) S = Minimum thickness = 10″  c / c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

COLUMN (C-2):-

 Assume column size = 10″ x 18″ = 180 inch

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Load from F. B  (A1,A2) =  = 8.35 kip

Load from F. B (A2,A3)=  = 6.04 kip

Load from F. B ( A2,B2) =  = 26.85 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 1.670 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x (26.85 + 8.35 + 1.670 + 6.04)

                                        = 51.5 kip

Total load column for 6 – story = 6 x 51.50 = 308.96 kip

 b) Check for size:-

 Pu = 261.38 kip (story -1)

Pu  = Ag [0.85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 308.96 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 40)]

Or, Ag =  = 180.10 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 18″

So, provided column size = 10″ x 18.2″ =182 in

 c) Calculation of steel:-

 Pu =  [0.85 x f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 308.96 = 0.80 x 0.65 [0.85 x 3 (180 – Ast) + 40 Ast]

Or, 308.96 = 0.52(459.25 – 2.55 Ast + 40 Ast)

Or, 308.96 = 19.474 Ast + 238.69

Ast = = 3.60 in

Ast 3.60 in

So, we provided, Use 8 # 6 bars, Ap = 3.89 in

 Tie bar Calculation / Spacing:

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 12″ c / c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c / c

iii) S = 10″ c / c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10″ c / c

COLUMN (C-3):-

 Assume column size = 10″ x 18″ = 180 inch

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Load from F. B  (C1,C2) =  = 8.57 kip

Load from F. B (C2,C3)=  = 7.26 kip

Load from F. B ( B2,C2) =  = 22.75 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 1.670 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x (8.57 + 7.26 + 22.75 + 1.670)

                                        = 48.30 kip

Total load column for 6 . story = 6 x 48.30 = 289.77 kip

 b) Check for size:-

 Pu = 289.77 kip (story -1)

Pu  = Ag [0.85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 289.77 = 0.80 x 0.65 Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 40)]

Or, Ag =  = 168.95 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 18″ = 180 inch

So we use ( 10″ x 18″) Size.

 c) Calculation of steel:-

 Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 289.77 = 0.80 x 0.65 x [0.85 x 3 (180 – Ast) + 40 Ast]

Or, 289.77 = 0.52(459 – 2.55 Ast + 40 Ast)

Or, 289.77 = 238.69 + 19.474 Ast

Ast = = 2.62 in

Ast 2.62 in

Use 6 # 6 bars, Ap = 2.92 inch

 Tie bars:-

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 12″ c / c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c / c

iii) S = 10″ c / c

So we use # 3 bar @ 10 c / c

COLUMN (C-4):-

 Assume column size = 10″ x 15″ = 150 inch

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Load from F. B  (B1,B2) =  = 13.97 kip

Load from F. B (A1,B1)=  = 16.42 kip

Load from F. B ( B1,C1) =  = 15.69 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 1.39 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x (1.39 + 13.97 + 16.42 + 15.69)

                                        = 56.96 kip

Total column load for 6 . story = 6 x 56.96 = 341.78 kip

                                                                     = 342kip.

b) Check for size:-

 Pu = 342 kip (story -1)

Pu  = Ag [0.85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 342 = 0.80 x 0.65 Ag [0.85 x 3 x (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 40)]

Or, Ag =  = 199.35 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 20″

So, Provided size we use = 10″ x 20″ = 200 inch

                                       So, ok.

 c) Calculation of steel:-

 Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 342 = 0.80 x 0.65 x [0.85 x 3 (200 – Ast) + Ast x 40]

Or, 342 = 0.52(510 – 2.55 Ast + 40 Ast)

Or, 342 = 265 + 19.474 Ast

Ast = = 3.95 in =4inch

So, we provided, Use 10 # 6 bars, Ap = 4.86  inch

 Tie bar Calculation:-

Use # 3 bar’s as Tie:-

i) S = 16 x   = 12″ c / c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c / c

iii) S = 10″ c / c

So, we use # 3 bar’s @ 10″ c / c

COLUMN (C-5):-

 Assume column size = 10″ x 12″

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Load from F. B  (A1,A2) =  = 8.35 kip

Load from F. B (A1,B1)=  = 16.42 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 1.115 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x (1.115 + 8.35 + 16.42)

                                        = 31.062  31.50 kip

Total column load for 6 . story = 6 x 31.50 = 189 kip.

 b) Check for size:-

 Pu = 189 kip (story -1)

Pu  = Ag [0.85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 189 = 0.80 x 0.65 Ag [0.85 x 3 x (1- 0.02) + (.02 x 40)]

Or, 189 = 1.71548 Ag

Or, Ag =  = 110.20 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 11″

So, Provided size = 10″ x 12″ = 120 inch

 c) Calculation of steel:-

Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 189 = 0.80 x 0.65 [0.85 x 3 (120 – Ast) + Ast x 40]

Or,189 = 0.52(306 – 2.55 Ast + 40 Ast)

Or, 189 = 19.474 Ast + 159.12

Ast = = 1.53 inch

So, we use 6 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.86  in

                                                So, ok

 Tie bar Calculation:-

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) Spacing, S = 16 x   = 10″ c / c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c / c

iii) Minimum width of Column, S = 10″ c / c

So,  # 3 bar’s @ 10″ c / c

 COLUMN (C-6):-

 Assume column size = 10″ x 12″ = 120 inch

 a) Load Calculation:-

 Load from F. B, (B1,C1) =  = 15.73 kip

Load from F. B (C1,C2)=  = 8.6 kip

Self weight of Column =  x 150 x (10 – )/1000 = 1.114 k

Factored load                 = 1.2 x (1.114 + 8.6 + 15.73)

                                        = 25.41 kip

Total column load for 6 . story = 6 x 25.41 = 152.5 kip.

 b) Check for size:-

Pu = 297.04 kip (story -1)

Pu  = Ag [0.85f′c (1- g) + g fy]

Or, 152.52 = 0.80 x 0.65 x Ag [0.85 x 3 (1- 0.02) + (0.02 x 40)]

Or, 125.50 = 1.71548 Ag

Or, Ag =  = 88.9 inch

Size of column = 10″ x 10″= 100 inch

So, Provided size = 10″ x 12″ = 120 inch

 c) Calculation of steel:-

 Pu =  [0.85 f′c (Ag – Ast) + Ast fy]

Or, 152.50 = 0.80 x 0.65 [0.85 x 3 (120 – Ast) + Ast x 40]

Or,152.50 = 0.52(-2.25Ast + 306 + 40 Ast)

Or, 152.50 = 19.474 Ast + 159.12

Ast = = – 0.34 inch

So, we use 4 # 5 bars, Ap = 1.24  inch

 Tie bar Calculation:

Use # 3 bar as Tie:-

i) Spacing, S = 16 x   = 10″ c / c

ii) S = 48 x   = 18″ c / c

iii) S = 10″ c / c

So, Use  # 3 bar’s @ 10″ c / c

Design of Building

Some are parts:

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 1)

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 2)

Analysis and Design of Building Components (Part 3)

 

 

Categories
Architecture

Four Storied Building with Interior and Without Interior Columns at Ground Floor

INTRODUCTION:

 General:

 Bangladesh is one of the most density populated countries of the world. The population of Dhaka city is much higher than its capacity. The pressure on the land is tremendous, land value is already very high and continuously increasing. People who cannot have a piece of land can have a flat or apartment and it is also likely  that he will have a car. Due to higher land value or due to lack of sufficient land, people do not get large space. So the building should not have sufficient space for parking. Again parking maneuver is very difficult is closely spaced column areas. It may not be feasible to have separate land for parking due to lack and highly priced land adjacent to the building. The most feasible option would have been the parking facilities within the building in the ground floor.

The building having more columns in the ground floor reduces the open space in the ground or parking floor. The parking area can be significantly increased if the building can be built with less number of columns in the ground floor. This thesis focuses in the analytical study supported by design of a four storied building built over 2 kathas  (1440 sft ) of land for two alternatives, one having 11 columns at ground floor and 16 columns on all over floors, others having 16 columns on all the floors.

This will give a comparative picture about the advantages and disadvantages, suitability and feasibility, particularly in terms of economy so as to enable someone to choose the suitable option.

 Objective of the Study:

The objectives of the study were:

  • To explore the possibility of obtaining an uninterrupted column free space for a relatively small piece of land by eliminating interior columns at ground floor.
  • To analyze of a four storied building built over 2 kathas (1440 sft ) of land for two different framing systems, one with 16 columns for all floors and the others having 11 columns at the periphery and bracing system at the ground floor, the remaining floors will have 16 columns.
  • To identify the proper location of bracing at ground floor in order to reduce the stress results in the structural members.
  • To compare the above two alternatives particularly in terms of economy.

Scope of the study:

The scope of the study is as follows:

i. Analysis Phase

  • Structural analysis by using  ETABS Analysis.

ii. Design & Estimation Phase

  • Beam & Column Design & Estimation through manual calculation.

Organization of the Thesis Works:

The thesis has been arranged in the following order also including as well as appendices used for the study-

Chapter- 1: Includes a brief introduction, objectives of the study and organizations of the

       thesis paper.

Chapter- 2: Includes compilation of the relevant literature that has been reviewed for the

                   study.

Chapter- 3: Includes a detailed description of the analysis.

Chapter- 4: Includes the comparison of the results of analysis.

Chapter- 5: Includes conclusions and recommendations for further study.

LITERATURE REVIEW

General   :

Now a days the parking problem in residential buildings has become a great problem because many of the buildings are build over a small piece of land which are four, five or six storied. Many of the residents have their own car and every one need a sufficient parking space and easy parking maneuver. But the column spacing in fact omitting the interior columns then the parking provision will be improved. But it will have to remember in mind that economy is an important factor in this matter. This is a recent problem in our country. So many researches have not been produced regardless of this matter and in the developed country people do not face such kind of problem due to the small piece of land because their population growth is not as high as ours and their every city is sufficiently planned.

 This thesis is a comparative study on the performance of two four storied buildings built over 2 katha (1440 sft) of land is made. The buildings considered are a similar type, only greater floor area is taken but one with 16 columns and other with 11 columns at the ground floor. The rest of the floors of each building have 16 columns. This study has been made mainly to explore the possibility of obtaining an uninterrupted column free space for such a small piece of land. The linear elastic analysis was made using ANSYS finite element package. Both 2D and 3D analysis were performed to obtain the stress resultants for different structural elements of the buildings. Different load combinations were considered in the analysis. The second conditioned building bracing system will be provided at the ground floor. The proper position of the bracing will have to be located and be made the proper design of the bracing.

Now the main focus is to make the building economical with sufficient parking space and increase lateral stability.

Concrete structures: design  components & types

 Generally, a concrete structure is made of a set of frames consisting of several vertical and horizontal members. That is why , it is known as “ frame structure”. There are two types of frame structures:

  • Low Rise Structures: Total height is 40~60 ft above the ground level. Earthquake and wind lodes are not considered during design of such Structures.
  • High Rise Structure : Total height is more than 60 ft above the ground  level . Earthquake and wind loads are considered during design of such structures.

The whole frame structure is divided into three parts, They are-

a)      Superstructure : This is the portion which is above the ground level and consisted of the following design components:

                                i.       Beams – All horizontal  reinforced concrete member.

                              ii.       Slabs – Plain and flat reinforced concrete surface , which rest on beams.

Two types:   1. Roof –Top slabs

                     2.Floors – all slabs except the top one.

                            iii.       Columns – all vertical reinforced concrete member on which beam rest.

b)     Substructure: Portion of the structure , which is below the ground level. Basement floor , car parking etc. are constructed under the ground. Substructure also consists of beams, slabs and columns.

c)      Foundation: This is the portion on which the total structure rest. Foundation of a structure may be footing or piling type

Review of the structural elements of a building

Slab:

 The slab provides a horizontal surface and is usually supported by column, beams or walls.  Slabs can be categorized into two main type : one –way slabs and two – way slabs. One – way slabs is the most basic and common type of slab. One – way slabs are supported by two opposite sides and bending occurs in one direction only. Tow – way slabs are supported on four

Sides and bending occurs in two directions. However, slabs supported by four sides may be assumed as one- way slab when the ratio of length to width of two perpendicular sides exceeds 2. Although while such slabs transfer their loading in four directions, nearly all load is transferred in the short direction.

Two- way slabs carry the load to two directions, and the bending moment in each direction is less than the bending moment of one – way slabs. Also two – way slabs have less deflection than one – way slabs . Compared to one – way slabs, Calculation of two – way slabs is more complex.

Types of slab:

Mainly two types of slab, they are-

1)      One  way slab and

2)      Two way slab

Different types of one way slab-

a)      One way beam slab

b)     One way flat slab

c)      One way joist floor system

Different types of two way slab-

a)      Two way Beam slab

b)     Two way flat slab

c)      Two way waffle slab

Beam slab is supported by beams, for this reason the loads are transferred to all floor beams. A flat slab usually  does not have beams or girders but is supported by drop panels or column capitals directly. All loads are transferred to the supporting column, with punching shear resisted by drop panels. Waffle slab consists of a floor slab with large-to-width ratio less than 2, supported by waffles.

Beam:

 Beam can be described  as member that are mainly subjected to flexure and it is essential to focus on the analysis of bending moment, shear, and deflection. When the bending moment acts on the beam, bending strain is produced. The resisting moment is developed by internal stresses. Under positive moment, compressive strains are produced in the top of beam and tensile strains in the bottom. Concrete is a poor material for tensile strength and it is not suitable for flexure member by itself. The tension side of the beam would fail before compression side failure when beam is subjected a bending moment without the reinforcement. For this reason, steel reinforcement is placed on the tension side. The steel reinforcement resists all tensile bending stress because tensile strength of concrete is zero when cracks develop. In the Ultimate strength design (USD), a rectangular stress block is assumed. The design of beam is initiated by the calculation of moment strength controlled by concrete and steel.

Types of beam:

 Most common shapes of concrete beams:

a)      Single reinforced rectangular beams,

b)     Doubly reinforced rectangular beams,

c)      T – shape beams;

d)     spandrel.

In cast – in- place construction, the single reinforced rectangular beam is uncommon. The T-shape and L-shape beams are typical types of beam because the beams are built monolithically with the slab. When slab and beams are poured together, the slab on the beam serves as the flange of a T-beam  and the supporting beam below slab is the stem or web. For positive applied bending moment, the bottom of section produces the tension and the slab acts as compression flange. But negative bending on a rectangular beam puts  the stem in compression and the flange is ineffective in tension. Joists consist of spaced ribs and a top flange.

Column:

Columns support primarily axial load but usually also some bending moments. The combination of axial load and bending moment defines the characteristic of column and calculation method. A column subjected to large axial force and minor moment is design mainly for axial load and the moment has little effect. A column subjected to significant bending moment is designed for the combined effect. The ACI Code assumes a minimal bending moment in its design procedure, although the column is subjected to compression force only. Compression force may cause lateral bursting because of the low- tension stress resistance. To resist shear, ties or spirals are used as column reinforcement to confine vertical bars. The complexity and many variables make hand calculations tedious which makes the computer – aided design very useful.

 Types of column

Reinforced concrete column are categorized into five main types-

a)      Rectangular tied column,

b)     Rectangular spiral column,

c)      Round column,

d)     Spiral column, and

e)      Columns of others geometry ( Hexagonal, L-shaped, T- Shaped, etc ).

Tied columns have horizontal ties to enclose and hold in place longitudinal bars. Ties are commonly No. 3 or No. 4 steel bars. Tie spacing should be calculated with ACI Code. Spiral columns have reinforced longitudinal bars that are enclosed by continuous steel spiral. The spiral is made up of either large diameter steel wire or steel rod and formed in the shape of helix. The spiral columns are stronger than tied columns.

Footing

The foundation of a building is the part of the structure that transmits the load to ground to support the superstructure and usually the last element of a building to pass the load into soil, rock or piles. The primary purpose of the footing is  spread the loads into supporting materials so the footing has to be designed not to be exceeded the load capacity of the soil or foundation bed. The footing compresses the soil and causes settlement.

 Types of Footing

The most common types of footing are strip footings under walls and single footings under columns.

Common footing can be categorized as follow-

a)      Individual column footing

b)     Wall footing

c)Combined footig

d)     Mat foundation

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

General  :

This chapter gives the outlines of the procedures that were that followed to complete this study. Few steps were considered, many references were gone through and ACI /BNBC Building Design Codes/Specifications were followed to get perfect result so that the objectives of this study can be fulfilled.

Design data and specifications considered in this study

The whole study was carried out based on few considerations and specifications which are summarized in Table 3.1 below.

 Table 3.1 Summary of the design considerations and specification of the study

Items                                   Description
Design method Ultimate Strength Design ( USD )
Design Code For design purposes:
  • American Concrete Institute ( ACI ) Building design code, 2005
  • Bangladesh National Building code ( BNBC ), 1993

For estimation and costing:

  • Schedule of rate for Civil Works, 12 edition, Public Works Department (PWD), 2008.

Type of structures

  • Beam Supported slab system

Building system

  • Frame structure
  • Low rise
  • Residential ( 4 storied single unit building)

 

Items                                   Description
Material    properties
  • 60 Grade reinforcing bars having fy =  60000 psi
  • Concrete compressive strength, f’c = 3000 psi
  • Normal density concrete having wc = 150 pcf
  • Steel ratio for column, g = 2%
Loading
  • Floor plus ceiling finish = 30 psf
  • Partition wall weight = 40 psf
  • Live load = 40 psf
  • No earthquake and wind load are considered
Members Sectional properties
  • Slab type = Two-way
  • Beam type = Singly rectangular
  • Column type = Tied
  • Thickness of all walls = 5 inch

ANALYTICAL STUDY

General:

The analysis is made by using ETABS finite element package. Here different conditioned building will be analyzed and from these results, will be considered that condition which will satisfy the requirements. For this purpose different terms and condition will be used. Finally the governing condition will be used. The whole analysis will be done based on ACI and BNBC code.

The Building Geometry:

The building geometry is as follows:

Option I Building: All the floors have 16 columns and all story height is 10 ft. Typical column size is 10″ x 15″ and typical beam size is 10″ x 12″. The layout is shown in the figure- 4.1

Option II Building: Bottom story have 11 columns but other story have 16 columns. All story height 10 ft. Column  and Beam size will be selected in accordance with analysis. A special  in the figure- 4.4

 The loads considered:

Dead loads, D. L. = 40 psf

Floor finish, F.F   = 30 psf

Live load,  L.L.    = 40 psf

 Load combination:

DCON 1 = 1.4 D.L.

DCON 2 =1.4 D.L. + 1.7 L. L.

Legends:

D.L. = Dead load

L.L. = Live load

Beam and Column layout of option I and option II building

Ground Floor

Figure  : Option I Building ( Ground Floor )

 Typical Short Section of Option I Building

Figure : Typical Short Section of Option I Building

Typical Long Section of Option I Building

Figure : Typical Long Section of Option I Building

Option II Building

Figure  : Option II Building ( Ground Floor )

Typical Short Section of Option II Building

Figure : Typical Short Section of Option II Building

Typical Long Section of Option II Building

Figure : Typical Long Section of Option II Building

Option I Building

Figure  : Option I Building (3D View)

 

Table 4.2 : Analysis result of beams for option I building

Beam

+M

(k-ft)

-M

(k-ft)

Vu

(kip)

B1

3.390

6.780

3.920

B2

6.007

12.014

4.710

B3

4.078

22.287

5.36

B4

5.174

10.348

5.386

B5

7.132

14.263

4.89

B6

5.254

22.646

3.76

B7

5.099

10.199

6.273

B8

6.377

12.754

4.825

B9

3.008

6.177

4.635

B10

3.295

6.590

3.938

B11

4.328

8.650

4.881

B12

1.752

3.503

2.669

B13

1.259

5.830

4.810

B14

1.591

3.183

1.445

B15

7.667

15.335

7.018

B16

2.281

11.249

1.976

B17

3.413

6.826

2.645

B18

7.331

29.574

1.835

B19

2.413

10693

1.835

B20

4.392

8.785

4.434

B21

9.223

18.447

7.795

B22

3.137

6.275

4.010

B23

3.050

6.099

3.701

B24

2.566

5.133

1.588

 Analysis of building without interior columns

Building Without interior columnsFigure  : Building Without interior columns (3D View)

Table 4.3 : Analysis result of building columns for without interior columns

Column

Axial Force,

P (kip)

M2

(k-ft)

M3

(k-ft)

C1

45.255

−5.893

−9.683

C2

120.570

−9.593

−37.848

C3

129.763

−12.738

−11.916

C4

93.549

−7.899

−2.490

C17

118.438

−9.228

82.607

C18

325.291

−24.397

−71.141

C8

100.163

7.892

−10.268

C19

124.287

−9.057

86.289

C20

105.086

17.347

−64.576

C21

116.463

−8.745

85.907

C22

113.620

9.154

92.722

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.4 : Analysis result of building beams for without interior columns

Beam

+M

(k-ft)

-M

(k-ft)

B1

4.313

8.627

B2

7.403

14.806

B3

4.613

23.805

B25

166.747

29.298

B6

11.006

23.010

B26

135.938

28.783

B27

139.538

30.370

B13

7.020

14.041

B14

5.266

10.533

B15

9.302

18.635

B28

30.156

60.312

B29

23.380

46.761

B21

13.104

26.208

B22

7.260

14.521

B23

3.632

7.205

B24

4.211

8.422

By comparing the above tables it is found that the axial forces of the columns and bending moment of the beams significantly increase.

Analysis by introducing bracing system at 45° angle and 7 ft height from the ground level

Bracing at 45° angle

Figure  : Bracing at 45° angle

Table 4.5 : Analysis result for frame at ground floor between Columns C19 & C20 at 45° Bracing on 7 ft height from the ground level.

Columns

Axial force, P

(kip)

M2

(kip-ft)

M3

(kip-ft)

C19

140.344

-112.559

13.897

C20

126.821

90.207

-12.499

Beam

+M

-M

Vu

B26

149.067

6.088

26.375

Bracing

+M

-M

L

131.082

262.164

R

100.839

201.679

 Analysis by introducing bracing system at the point of terminated column and 6ft height from the ground level

Bracing at point of termination of the columnsFigure  : Bracing at point of termination of the columns

Table 4.6 : Analysis result for frame at ground floor between Columns C19 & C20 Bracing  system at the point of  terminated   column on 6 ft height from the ground level.

Columns

Axial force, P

(kip)

M2

(kip-ft)

M3

(kip-ft)

C19

125.959

10.077

140.797

C20

123.383

-10.717

-127.62

Beam

+M

-M

Vu

B26

73.197

8.855

5.639

Bracing

+M

-M

L

10.175

20.349

R

7.607

15.214

 Solution:

From investigation of the above  result it can be said that the internal forces of the building without interior columns is significantly increase. After  bracing a huge amount of negative moment is produced the contact  point of the bracing and the beam. As the bracing angle ( with the vertical ) is increase the beam positive moment also increase, but the negative moment has an unchanged effected. But in this case there is an advantage of reduced internal force of the bracing. It advantageous for positive moment for introducing bracing as low bracing angle as possible but as this way the negative moment can not be reduced. But if the bracing is introduced at the point where the interior columns are terminated as in figure 4.10, the reduced negative moment and slightly increased positive moment compared to the reduced bracing angle. At that time the hugely increased internal forces of the option II building is reduced substantially. We used terminated column bracing.

 Analysis of option II building (With providing bracing system):

 Building Without interior columns, but provided bracing

Figure  : Building Without interior columns, but provided bracing

Table 4.7 : Analysis result of columns after providing bracing at the point of termination of the column for option II building :

Column

Axial Force,

P (kip)

M2

(k-ft)

M3

(k-ft)

C1

42.629

3.197

6.511

C2

117.423

−9.394

−31.620

C3

131.221

9.886

−6.678

C4

95.302

−8.040

−1.047

C17

126.557

10.125

129.821

C18

301.559

−29.736

116.536

C8

103.107

7.733

−15.041

C19

125.959

16.077

140.536

C20

123.383

−10.717

−127.620

C21

115.408

9.990

179.680

C22

118.007

10.234

−189.597

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.8 : Analysis result of beams after providing bracing at the point of termination of the column for option II building :

Beam

+M

(k-ft)

-M

(k-ft)

Vu

(kip)

B1

3.642

7.284

3.675

B2

4.785

9.570

4.835

B3

22.454

4.749

1.342

B25

97.467

14.803

5.804

B6

14.447

28.894

19.808

B26

75.896

9.106

5.790

B27

72.632

8.439

7.509

B13

5.358

10.716

4.904

B14

4.257

8.513

3.839

B15

8.042

16.084

9.870

B28

26.048

52.096

19.870

B29

17.468

34.936

14.007

B21

11.402

22.804

4.886

B22

5.359

10.718

4.947

B23

9.622

19.244

2.967

B24

3.048

6.096

1.769

Table 4.9 : Analysis of bracings:

Bracing

+M

(k-ft)

−M

(k-ft)

BR1

10.249

20.498

BR2

9.433

18.866

BR3

10.175

20.349

BR4

7.815

15.630

BR5

10.304

20.608

BR6

8.102

16.204

Design Work:

For option I building:

Table 4.10 : Ground floor columns reinforcement

Column

Size ( in x in )

Reinforcement

C1

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C2

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C3

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C4

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C5

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C6

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C7

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C8

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C9

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C10

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C11

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C12

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C13

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C14

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C15

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C16

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

 Typical column size should be remain same.

Table 4.11 : Ground floor beam reinforcement

Beams

Size

( in x in )

Main Reinforcement

Shear Reinforcement

Main bar

Extra bar

B1

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B2

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B3

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B4

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B5

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B6

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B7

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B8

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B9

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B10

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B11

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B12

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

For option II building:

Table 4.12 : Ground floor columns reinforcement

Column

Size ( in x in )

Reinforcement

C1

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C2

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C3

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C4

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C17

10 x 18

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C18

10 x 18

Use 8 #6 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C8

10 x 15

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C19

10 x 18

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C20

10 x 18

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C21

10 x 18

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

C22

10 x 18

Use 6 #5 with #3 Tie bar @ 10″ c/c

Table 4.13 : Ground floor beam reinforcement

Beams

Size

( in x in )

Main Reinforcement

Shear Reinforcement

Main bar

Extra bar

B1

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B2

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B3

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B25

10 x 20

For Support

For Middle

2#5 Ext.

bottom

#3 @ 8.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B6

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B26

10 x 20

For Support

For Middle

1#6 Ext.

bottom

#3 @ 8.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B27

10 x 20

For Support

For Middle

1#6 Ext.

bottom

#3 @ 8.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B13

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B14

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B15

10 x 12

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 4.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B28

10 x 20

For Support

For Middle

1#5 Ext.

top

#3 @ 8.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

4 #5 St.

B29

10 x 20

For Support

For Middle

#3 @ 8.5″c/c

4 #5 St.

 

Table 4.14 : Bracing steel

Bracing

Steel Section (Use A36 Steel)

BR1

W8 x 15

BR2

W8 x 15

BR3

W8 x 15

BR4

W8 x 15

BR5

W8 x 15

BR6

W8 x 15

Detailing of the elements of the building:

Option I Building:

 Columns section for Option I building:

All columns

Figure  : Ground floor and typical floor all column details

 Beams section for Option I building:

Beam  All beams

Figure  : Ground floor and typical floor all beam details

Option II Building:

Columns section for Option II building:

Columns section for Option II buildingBeam B26 B27

3rd floor all beam details

 Bracing steel section:Bracing steel section

Here,

                 A= 4.44 sq. in                                t= 0.315 in

                 d = 8.11 in                                      tw = 0.245 in

b= 4.015 in                                                                                      

Figure 4.18 : Details of bracing steel

COMPARATIVE STUDY

 General:

The buildings are analyzed for determine the  best condition which  can  be  constructed

economically. The behavior of each condition is observed carefully. Then suitable condition is selected and suitable dimensions as well as steel area are also determined. The chapter gives a comparative amount of the materials, dimensions etc required for both the option I and option II building. It is obvious that the amount of material required for option II building will be higher than the option I building. But the option II building got column free parking space. Though the saving of space due to reduction of columns in the ground floor is not large, even this columns free space would be able to provide smooth and efficient parking, easy access and exit as well better maneuverability.

Comparison between the buildings:

The comparison is made in terms of element dimensions, volume of concrete and steel requirement, their cost and economic view.

Table 5.1: Dimensions of the different elements of the building

Element

Option I building

Option II buildig

Column no. There are 16 columns at each floor. So the total no of columns of four storied building is 16 x 4 = 64 There are 11 columns at the ground floor and others floor have 16 columns. So the total no of columns of the building is 11 + 16 x 3 = 59
Column size All columns are 10″ x 15″ Ground floor 6 column size are 10″ x 18″ and ground floor others 5 column and typical floor columns size 10″ x 15″
Column height All column height 10′-0″ All column height 10′-0″
Beams All beams size is considered as 10″ x 12″ Ground floor 5 beams size are 10″ x 20″ and others beam size are 10″ x 12″
Bracing No bracing required 6 Nos. of  W 8 x 15 steel section bracing provided.

Table 5.2: Comparative concrete volume of both the buildings

Elements

Option I building

Option II building

Column:

(10 x 15 x 10 x 16)/144 = 166.67 cft

Beam:

Ground floor total beam lenth = 235′

(10 x 12 x 235)/144 = 195.83 cft

Total ground floor  beam & column concrete volume = 362.5 cftColumn:

C1,C2,C3,C4,C8 = (10 x 15 x 10 x 5)

/144 = 52.08 cft

C17,C18,C19,C20,C21,C22 =

(10 x 18 x 10 x 6) = 75 cft

Total column volume = 127.08 cft

Beam:

B25,B26,B27,B28,B29 =

(10 x 20 x 78.58)/144 = 109.14 cft

Oters beam lenth = (235-78.58)=156.42′

( 10 x 12 x 156.42)/144 = 130.35 cft

Total volume of beam = 239.49 cft  Total GF beam & column concrete volume = 366.57 cftTypical floorTotal column volume = 166.67 cft

Total beam volume = 195.83 cft

Total typical floor beam & column concrete volume = 362.5 cftTotal column volume = 166.67 cft

Total beam volume = 195.83 cft

Total typical floor beam & column concrete volume = 362.5 cftFull buildingTotal beam & column concrete volume of the building = 1450 cftTotal beam & column concrete volume of the building = 1454.07 cft

 Table 5.3: Comparative steel quantity

Elements

Option I building

Option II building

Ground floor Column:

All column= 6#5 bars per column

Total reinforcement = ( 10 x 6 x 16)

= 960′-0″ x 0.481 = 461.75 kg

Shear reinforcement = (3.5 x 13 x 16)

= 728-0″ x 0.188 = 136.86 kg

Total column reinforcement =598.61 kg

Beam:

Total beam lenth = 235′

All beam have 4#5 main bars and no ext. bar use

Beam reinforcement= (235 x 4)

= 940 x 0.481 = 452.14 kg

Shear reinforcement = ( 601 x 3.00)

= 1803’−0″ x 0.188 = 338.96 kg

Total Beam reinforcement = 751.1 kg

Total ground floor beam & column reinforcement = 1389.71 kgColumn:

C1,C2,C3,C4,C8 = 6#5 bars per column

Reinforcement = (10 x 6 x 5) = 300′-0″

= 300 x 0.481 = 144.3 kg

C17,C19,C20,C21,C22 = 6#5 bars per column, reinforcement = (10 x 6 x 5)

= 300′-” x 0.481 = 144.3 kg

C18 = 8#6 bars, reinforcement=  (10×8)

= 80’−0″ x 0.752 = 60.16 kg

Shear reinforcement = (3.5 x 13 x 5) + (4.00 x 13 x 6) = 539.5′ x 0.188 = 101.43 kg

Total column reinforcement = 450.19 kg

Beam:

B1,B2,B3 = (29.67 x 4  x 0.481)

= 57.1 kg

B6 = (8.33 x 4 x 0.481) = 16 kg

Elements

Option I building

Option II building

Ground floor B13,B14,B15 = (30.58 x 4 x 0.481)

= 58.83 kg

B21= (15.08 x 4 x 0.481) = 29 kg

B22,B23,B24 = (30.58 x 4 x 0.481)

= 58.83 kg

B25 = (21.33 x 4 x 0.481) + (16 x 2 x 0.481) = 56.43 kg

B26 = (29.67 x 4 x 0.481) + (22.5 x 1 x 0.752) = 74 kg

B27 = (30.58 x 4 x 0.481) + (23 x 1 x 0.752) = 76.13 kg

B28 = (15.67 x 4 x 0.481) + (4.5 x 2 x 0.481) = 34.48 kg

B29 = (30.58 x 4 x 0.481) = 58.84 kg

Shear reinforcement = (204 x 3.00 x 0.188) + (221 x 4.33 x 0.188) = 294.96 kg

Total steel for beam = 785.6 kg

Total GF beam & column reinforcement = 1235.79 kgBracing steelNo bracing useUse W 8 x 15 section

Total Bracing length= (10.31 x 3) + (8.873 x 2) + 12.10 = 60.78′

Weight = 60.78 x 6.8 = 413.30 kgTypical floorTotal column reinforcement =598.61 kg

Total Beam reinforcement = 751.1 kg

Total beam & column reinforcement = 1389.71 kgTotal column reinforcement =598.61 kg

Total Beam reinforcement = 751.1 kg

Total r beam & column reinforcement = 1389.71 kgTotal buildingTotal building beam & column reinforcement  quantity = 5558.84 kgTotal building beam & column reinforcement  quantity = 5404.92 kg

Total bracing steel = 413.30 kg

Costing of the both types of building:

The cost analysis is completed according to “ Schedule of rate for civil works”, 2008 12th edition, PWD and as per considerations.

Cost of option I building (For beam & column)

Total volume of concrete = 1450 cft

Total cost for concrete = ( 1450 x 267 ) = 3,87,150 Tk.

Total quantity of steel = 5558.84 kg

Total cost for steel = ( 5558.84 x 63 ) = 3,50,207 Tk.

Total cost for option I building = 387150 + 350207 = 7,37,357 Tk.

 Cost of option II building (For beam & column):

Total volume of concrete =1454.07 cft

Total cost for concrete =( 1454.07 x 267 ) = 3,88,237 Tk.

Total quantity of steel = 5404.92 kg

Total cost for steel = ( 5404.92 x 63 ) = 3,40,510 Tk.

Total bracing quantity of steel = 413.30 kg

Total bracing cost for steel = ( 413.30 x 110 ) = 45,463 Tk.

Total cost for option I building = 388237 + 340510 + 45463 = 7,74,210 Tk.

It is found that the building with 11 columns at ground floor provide more column free space but require additional material and construction cost. From our investigation it is found that option II building requires 0.3% more concrete and 4.66% more steel. The total cost increased by an amount of Tk. 36,853.

CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION

General:

In this study four storied building with varying number of columns at ground floor were analyzed using ETABS finite element package. The study has been made primarily with view to explore or to investigate the possibility of obtaining an uninterrupted column free space so as to make the efficient use of land demarcated for parking. From the analysis the following conclusion can be drawn.

Conclusion:

From the analysis result it can be said that the internal forces of the building without interior column is significantly increase . After introducing bracing a huge amount of negative moment is produced the contact  point of the bracing and the beam. As the bracing angle ( with the vertical ) is increase the beam positive moment also increase, but the negative moment has an unchanged effected. But in this case there is an advantage of reduced internal force of the bracing. It advantageous for positive moment for introducing bracing as low bracing angle as possible but as this way the negative moment can not be reduced. But if the bracing is introduced at the point where the interior columns are terminated as in figure 4.10, the reduced negative moment and slightly increased positive moment compared to the reduced bracing angle. At that time the hugely increased internal forces of the option II building is reduced substantially.

On the other investigation it is found that the building with 11 columns at ground floor provide more column free space but require additional material and construction cost. From our investigation it is found that option II building requires 0.3% more concrete and 4.66% more steel. The total cost increased by an amount of Tk. 36,853.

Recommendation:

For further study in this field, the following recommendations are put forward:

  • Instead of steel section as bracing, the R.C section can be used.
  • Steel truss or concrete truss  can be used to transfer the load above ground floor to the foundations.

REFERENCES:

  1. ACI Code, 2005, USA.
  2. BNBC, (1993) : Bangladesh National Building Code, 1st Edition, City Art Press, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  3. ETABS V 8.2.7
  4. PWD, (2008) : Schedule of Rate for Civil Works, 12th Edition, Public Works Department, Govt. of People Republic of Bangladesh.
  5. Winter and Nilson, (2003) : “Design of Concrete Structure”, 13th Edition, McGraw-Hill International editions, New Delhi, India.

Four Storied Building