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Architecture

Outer Ring Road a Solution of City Traffic Congestion

Problem Statement
Chittagong is a major commercial and industrial hub; generating 12% of Bangladesh’s GDP; 40% of industrial output and 80% of maritime trade (sea Port of Chittagong). Chittagong is the main busy seaport of Bangladesh (RHD, 2010). Chittagong port, Shah Amanat International Airport, including largest industrial and commercial areas like Kalurghat industrial area, Agrabad commercial area and export processing zone are situated in the city. It is home to many of Bangladesh’s largest and oldest corporations, including those involved in textiles, shipping, petroleum, steel, tea, commodities, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, automotive industry, chemicals and logistics. Chittagong intends to emerge as a regional economic hub in South and East Asia, and is undertaking various megaprojects, such as a deep sea port (Hashemi, 2006).
In a recent government announcement, the Chittagong City is declared to be the commercial capital of Bangladesh. Chittagong City is not only the principal city of the District of Chittagong but also the second largest city of Bangladesh. It is situated on the right bank of the river Karnafuli between 22°-14´ and 22°-24´-30´´ North Latitude and between 91°-46´ and 91°-53´ East Longitude (Hashemi, 2006).
Chittagong has been contributing the national economy since the independence of the country in 1971. The major economic establishments/resources are (1) Chittagong Port. (2) Lots of Garments Industries. (3) Huge numbers of medium and heavy Industries (Industrial belt at Fouzdarhat, Baizid Bostami, Kalurghat Industrial and Patenga industrial area). (4) Natural Beauties such as the Patenga Sea Beach. Batali Hill, Foy’s Lake, Karnaphuly river bank, court building, Circuit House etc. in the city is playing a significant role in the development of Tourism Industry in Chittagong region (Hashemi, 2006).
So, Chittagong is the major port city, the main commercial capital of the country and the gateway for Bangladesh. Productivity of the port depends partly on the efficiency as to how the port is operated, but it also depends on the efficiency of transport connectivity to and from the port to inland destinations. Chittagong port has a unique geographical location, with respect to the hinterland countries as and regions, namely Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Northern Myanmar and Yunnan province of China. The importance of Chittagong could increase tremendously if regional traffic is allowed to use the port, for which capacity augmentation of port facilities, though both public and private sector investment would be essential. Considering the importance of the Chittagong city and the port from both national and regional points of view, its transportation system ought to be efficiently and well developed to cater to the future transport demand. Cargo handled at Chittagong Port has consistently increased about 10 percent in the past five years; and container traffic has increased 12-14 percent per year. This has led to a rapid traffic growth and robust socioeconomic development in the Dhaka–Chittagong corridor (ADB, 2007). Besides, Roads have been championed by ADB as instruments for achieving inclusive growth (ADB, 2012).
To this end, some policies need to be adopted, to address some of the deficiencies. In order to serve the city and the port traffic, as well as the regional traffic, it was found that many of the road links recommended by the Chittagong Metropolitan Master Plan (CMMP, 1995-2015) were supported by the JBIC study of 2005 (CDA, 2008).
Further analysis under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan, revealed that most of the links suggested by these two studies are in fact required to be developed in a phased manner. Under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan (CDAP), it is proposed to promote two ring roads, in the city. These would be called the “inner ring road” and “outer ring road”. Most of the road links for the two ring roads are already in place.
The northern part of the proposed outer ring road will also serve as the Chittagong bypass road. The outer ring road, when completed, will therefore, serve both city and regional traffic and will greatly reduce traffic congestion on the inner city roads (CDA, 2008)
Though from all aspects, it is an important place in the country as well as in South-East Asia but the city is vulnerable to cyclone and natural disaster like tsunami and tidal surge. The infrastructure and productive sector of the port city suffered by far a large amount of damage by natural disaster like cyclonic surge in 1991.
The City Outer Ring Road will help save the important constructions and infrastructures like EPZ, Port, Naval base, defense constructions and airport from the disaster and reduce the gridlock in the port city too (The Daily Star, 2011).

Background of the Study
Bangladesh is a developing country and this country has enormous potentialities to be a developed country. Tiny in area with a giant size of population and multi-sectored potentialities have turned this country to a more complex situation. So for managing the complex situation, more strategies and planning practices in various sectors is urgent for the efficient continuation of our country progress.
In Bangladesh, the road network is an important means of transportation. Between 1998 and 2006, the number of registered vehicle increased at an annual rate of around 6%. In the future, it is anticipated that both the number of vehicles and traffic demand will increase even more due to the impact of economic development and population growth. On the other hand, traffic congestions occur frequently because in addition to the fact that the systematic road network connecting each urban center is still under development, arterial roads within the major urban centers (particularly in the city of Dhaka and Chittagong) have not been developed sufficiently. This problem requires urgent attention (JICA, 2010).
The development of the road sector in Bangladesh is put forward as one of the most important issues in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for the country to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction. At a national level, development of the road transport system is being carried out with a focus on connecting the economic growth centers with the suburban road network in accordance with the National Land Transport Policy (JICA, 2010).
Besides the potentialities of industrialization has been establishing in our country with outstanding performances. So the practice of industrialization is being prominent in our economic sector where Chittagong city, the second largest city of Bangladesh, is the backbone of Bangladesh industrial sector with the country’s largest seaport, accumulation of industry and export processing zone. Therefore, the full utilization of its potentials contributes to the development of Bangladesh. Although Chittagong city is recognized as an important city for Bangladesh development, there are various bottlenecks in infrastructure which prevent the smooth private sector activities. Among the bottlenecks, traffic congestion is the most serious issue to be solved for this city.
The massive importance of smooth transportation in Chittagong city for our country development naturally turns anyone’s concentration to the existing traffic congestion problems of this city. While the traffic congestion problem in the inner road network is accelerating day by day, the existing trunk road system of Chittagong city is insufficiently developed compared to the volume of traffic in the city. So now the city’s greatest infrastructure bottleneck is considered to be the inadequate development of roads and bridges (JICA, 2008).
Chittagong port has a unique geographical location, with respect to the hinterland countries as and regions, namely Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Northern Myanmar and Yunnan province of China. The importance of Chittagong could increase tremendously if regional traffic is allowed to use the port, for which capacity augmentation of port facilities, though both public and private sector investment would be essential. Considering the importance of the Chittagong city and the port from both national and regional points of view, its transportation system ought to be efficiently and well developed to cater to the future transport demand. To this end, some policies need to be adopted, to address some of the deficiencies. In order to serve the city and the port traffic, as well as the regional traffic, it was found that many of the road links recommended by the Chittagong Metropolitan Master Plan (CMMP, 1995-2015) were supported by the JBIC study of 2005. (CDA, 2008)
Further analysis under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan, revealed that most of the links suggested by these two studies are in fact required to be developed in a phased manner. Under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan (CDAP), it is proposed to promote two ring roads, in the city. These would be called the “inner ring road” and “outer ring road”. (CDA, 2008)
The CDA which is responsible for the development plans for Chittagong city and its environment also strongly recognizes the importance of Chittagong Ring Road. It has already constructed the northern section of the ring road under the outer ring road project which means CDA has initialized a big deal for the traffic problem solution in the city because it is the largest project the CDA has ever taken (The Daily Star, 2011). So, this project is very much important to be analyzed for assessing the necessity of this as well as to measure the effectiveness of the City Outer Ring Road in Chittagong city.
In this study, there is an attempt to fully understand a section of the outer ring road project of CDA from the transportation planning perspective, to measure the effectiveness and probable problems of this project planning. Moreover, during the analysis of this project planning, there is also an attempt to search out the probable solution for the discovered problems of this project and the level of necessities of this project for the ultimate traffic solution in Chittagong city.

Rational of the Study
Chittagong city is announced as industrial capital of Bangladesh. The various industrial establishments and the biggest port of the country cause tremendous traffic growth in the city. On the other hand, the existing trunk road system of Chittagong city is insufficiently developed compared to the volume of traffic in the city. The inter city traffic congestion has made the transport system more problematic. As the city’s greatest infrastructure bottleneck is considered to be the inadequate development of roads and bridges. The development of a satisfactory trunk road system is vital to the future growth of Chittagong city, one of the centers of industrial activity in Bangladesh.
The Chittagong Development Authority (CDA) has undertaken a mega project for construction of 14.7 kilometer long outer ring road from Patenga to Sagorika Stadium road. The construction of the ring road has an extremely important meaning in terms of mitigating the infrastructure bottleneck in the road sector besides the aim to save the lives of millions of peoples of the coastal regions. In this study there is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of the project of the sectional city outer ring road as the solution of the city traffic congestion and to recognize the probable strategies which can increase the efficiencies of the project. So there is needed to be answered of the following questions:
What are the existing traffic volume conditions of the alternative routes of the project?
After the implementation of the project what will be the traffic volume condition of the alternative routes and the route under the project?
What is the condition without strengthening the embankment?
What will be the condition after strengthening the embankment?
What are the reasons for which such project losses it’s effectiveness? And what can be recommended as the probable solution for increasing the effectiveness of the project of a section of city outer ring road?

Objectives of the Study
To find out the answers of the questions of the study concerned area, several aims and objectives were fixed. This study mainly aims to investigate the potentialities of a section of the city outer ring road as a solution of Chittagong city and to fulfill this aim there is attempt to illustrate the traffic volume condition or traffic pressure without the project and the probable efficient traffic volume after the implementation of the project and the same for the embankment perspective also. There is an additional aim to recommend some probable solution if there can be found any lack. For the fulfillment of the aim of this study some specific objectives are:
To examine the Chittagong Coastal Road (Patenga-Sagarika) as a Solution of Chittagong City Traffic Congestion.
To investigate the potentialities of the Chittagong Coastal Road for the development of Chittagong city.
To make probable recommendations which can mitigate the negative effects or impacts of such project & can influence the positives of such project.

Scope of the Study
The application of outer ring road for a city is new for Bangladesh. Study on outer ring road for any city in our country is also very rare. So, the analytical study on a section of outer ring road will help other researchers to study about outer ring road for any other city.
This study is based on an on-going project which project has great impact on the transportation system Chittagong city as well as the economy of whole country. So, analytical study on this project will be helpful for the transport students.
In the study, traffic volume has been conducted for the year 2012 on 24 hour basis, which will be a great traffic volume data source for the Chittagong city roads. Any researcher will be helpful by using this traffic volume data and can be able to realize the trend of traffic growth by comparing the data with the data of previous years.
There have been illustrated a different method of traffic volume forecast by comparing the relationship with GDP. So the basis of this theory and data can also be helpful for the transport students.
In the study, various studies on the transportation system of Chittagong city has been applied and used, so any scholar who want to study on the roads of Chittagong city will find the study as a combinations of all prominent studies on Chittagong road sector.

Limitation of the study
The project is an undergoing project which is not implemented fully yet, so the effectiveness of the project is fully based on calculation and projection. If it would have been implemented, then real practical information could be found from the onsite survey.
The whole project has been examined in this study only from the transportation perspective. As an embankment, its efficiency has been illustrated here only from the JICA study; there is no more analysis of this project as a coastal disaster problem solution for the limited time.
As the study area of the research is situated at a long distance, data collection needed much time. Whenever I needed further data, it was not possible to rush to the study area. All the data sources were at a distance, because the developing authority of the project related to the case study is situated in Chittagong city. This problem had been faced many a time during the study. The limited time made it difficult for going to the study area and data sources for data collection.

Organization of the Thesis
The organization of the thesis is in a simple manner which has been illustrated below.
In chapter one, the problem of the study and the background of the study has been illustrated. Moreover, rational of the study, objectives of the study, scope and limitations of the study have also been demonstrated in this chapter.
The methodology, which has been followed to conduct the study, has been illustrated in chapter two.
For the study, various transport related literatures have been reviewed to understand the transportation problems in the study area and to analyze the condition of the study area. Besides, there are some conceptual terms which have been used in the study, have been illustrated in the study. These are included in chapter three.

A brief description about the study related project and the study area have been provided in chapter four.
In chapter five, the necessity of the coastal road has been analyzed only from the point of view of transportation.
But the road has potentialities from other perspectives also which have been analyzed in chapter six.
In chapter seven, the findings which have been explored during the analysis of the necessity of the road have been illustrated. With the findings, recommendations have also been provided as the probable solution of the problems found.
The conclusion has been pulled in chapter eight.

Overview

The study is mainly focused on transportation. Besides, one of the most prominent aims of the construction of the section of Chittagong Outer Ring Road which also called Coastal Road is to remove the existing gridlock transportation system by releasing the transport load from the inner roads and to ensure the full utilization of the existing road for the intra district traffic.

So, understanding the existing transport problems which can be released by the new road is necessary. Besides, an analytical study of probable future traffic volume of the coastal road and existing road is necessary to understand the fruitfulness of the coastal road. In this chapter, there is attempt to illustrate the existing traffic congestion problem and to visualize the future scenery after the completion of the coastal road.

Existing Traffic Condition of the M. A. Aziz Road

The mainly adjacent road with the section of the ring road, from which traffic can be released by the coastal road and will be used as an alternative route, is the M. A. Aziz road. So the present traffic volume condition of the M. A. Aziz road is necessary to be studied.

Traffic Volume Analysis of M. A. Aziz Road

Traffic volume survey has been adopted as a method of measuring traffic volume in the study and the survey has been conducted in the year 2012. Survey has been conducted by dividing a day into two period- pick hour period and off-pick hour period. From 7.00-19.00 has been counted as peak hour because this time traffic volume is intense than the other period of the 24 hour. The rest period 19.00-7.00 has been counted as off-pick hour period.

ring road

From the traffic volume survey data of pick hour and off-pick hour, when the traffic volume is converted to the PCU unit (Appendix-1, 2),

The PCU/ hour in the pick-hour= 5021.833.

The PCU/hour in the off-pick hour= 2120.875

Comparison of the M. A. Aziz Road Traffic Volume with the Standard of HCM (1985)

In the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 1985, there are standards for uninterrupted flow which indicates specific volume of traffic in PCU unit for specific number of lanes. In the study, to understand the condition of the existing traffic flow of M. A. Aziz road, comparison has been made with the standard.

Table : Comparison of the M. A. Aziz Road Traffic Volume with the Standard of HCM (1985)

Source: Kadiyali, 2006., Calculation by the researcher.

Highway Type Capacity (In PCU) according to HCM manual (1985) Comparison with the HCM Manual standard
Two-lane Two way 2800 total, both directions
M. A. Aziz road (Pick hour) 5021.833 Exceeds the ideal capacity and cross the capacity approximately at double.
M. A. Aziz road (Off-pick hour) 2120.875 Within the capacity but nearer to the capacity.

So, the result of the above table indicates the emergence of the management of the extra traffic load in M. A. Aziz road. Because in the peak hour, the existing traffic volume in this road creates severe traffic congestion which is one of the most unavoidable problem in the study area.

Not only in pick hour, the off-pick hour traffic volume also indicates the urgency of any solution because the existing condition will reach the road capacity soon and the day is not so far when traffic congestion will be unavoidable even at the off-pick hour period. This is the scenario of the traffic condition of 2012.

This is the only north-south axis road which serves the industrial hub of this zone. In the zone, major industrial establishments are situated, especially CEPZ and Chittagong Port, the rate of traffic volume of which are increasing in a rapid growth. So the traffic volume condition of this road will be deteriorating day by day.

As traffic congestion is a common phenomenon in this road in day time, excess load of traffic volume not only causes congestion in this road, but also deteriorates the level of service of the road by reducing the speed of vehicles in this road.

Travel Speed along M. A. Aziz Road

The travel speed data about the road is of the year 2008. Traffic moved the slowest in the evening (16:00 hour or 17:00 hour), indicating that traffic volume is the heaviest in the evening peak hours. Similar results were obtained by the JBIC study carried out in 2005. In particular, the average travel speed of vehicles traveling in the Patenga to City Gate direction was 24 km. In the Chittagong EPZ and other sections where congestion is severe, travel speeds were 20 km or slower (JICA, 2009).

Table: Travel Speed between Patenga to City Gate (km/hour)

Start Point Morning Afternoon Evening End Point
Patenga 33.3 30.2 24.1 City Gate
End Point Morning Afternoon Evening Start Point
Patenga 31.0 29.3 27.9 City Gate

Source: JICA, 2009.

Level of Service of M. A. Aziz Road According to the HCM Manual

There are standards about the level of service of roads in the HCM manual. So, according to this standard, the level of service of M. A. Aziz road can be assumed. Besides, the operating characteristics within the road for the specific level of services can be determined

Table : Level of Service of M. A. Aziz Road According to the HCM Manual

Speed in KPH Level of Service Operating Characteristics
80 KPH or more A Relatively free flowing with service volume capacity ratio of .60 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.0. Peak hour factor at .70 or less.
Drops down to 40 KPH or more B Stable flow. Slight delay is common. Service volume capacity ratio is .70 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.1 or less. Peak hour factor at .80 or less.
Drops down to 40 KPH or more C Stable flow, with acceptable delays. Service volume capacity ratio is .80 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.3 or less. Peak hour factor at .85 or less.
Drops down to 25 KPH D Approaching unstable flow, with tolerable delay. Service volume capacity ratio is .90 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.7 or less. Peak hour factor at .90 or less.
25 KPH to 15 KPH E Unstable flow, with congestion and intolerable delay. Service volumes are at capacity, or nearabouts. Load factor at intersections about 1.0 or less. Peak hour factor at .95 or less.
Below 15 KPH F Forced flow, with jammed conditions. Demand volume capacity ration may well exceed 1.0. Intersections overloaded.
Speeds in

M. A. Aziz Road10 KPH-20 KPHE/ FUnstable flow or forced flow. Intolerable delay, congestion, jammed conditions are common. Service volume exceeds the capacity or at capacity at the ratio 1.00. Load factor at intersections about 1.0 or less. Peak hour factor at .95 or less or simply overloaded.20 KPH-30 KPHD/ EApproaching unstable flow or unstable flow, with tolerable/ intolerable delay. Service volume capacity ratio is .90 or less or volume at the capacity. Load factor at intersections about 0.7 or less/ 1.0 or less. Peak hour factor at .90 or less/ .95 or less.

Source: Kadiyali, 2006; JICA, 2009.

M. A. Aziz road is the only trunk road of the southern zone of Chittagong city. As the southern zone is an important zone for prominent industrial establishments and land uses, the level of service of this road should be well enough. The level of service of this road should be A, B or at least C. In the manual, Level of service C at least is recommended for good condition, where the level of service of this road is sometimes D, sometimes E or F according to the manual. So, unstable flow or forced flow is a common phenomenon for this road. Similarities can be found with the practical experiences with the operating characteristics according to the level of services of the road (Survey, 2012). This situation is very much unacceptable with the importance of the road. And this is because of the extreme pressure of the traffic volume on the road.

In future, the situation will be worsening. So, to re-establish the level of service A or B in the road, traffic volume load of this road should be lessened by diverting some traffic to another road, where the new coastal road is being expected to be an alternative route of the M. A. Aziz road.

As the project of the sectional ring road is for aiming the accommodation of the traffic volume of the year 2030, so to assess the necessity of the road, the traffic volume of M. A. Aziz road and the coastal road of 2030 is needed to be assumed.

Future Traffic Forecast of M. A. Aziz Road

The existing scenario of M. A. Aziz road provides the information that, the road is now overloaded and the level of service of the road is at the position of near the lowest. But if this situation is continued and if there would be no alternative route for this road, the probable scenario of the road should be illustrated to understand the condition.

To illustrate the probable future condition, traffic volume of this road has been illustrated for the year 2030, because traffic information about the new coastal road is available for the year 2030.

Relationship between GDP and Traffic Increase

Traffic volumes are generated as an integral part of a region’s socioeconomic activities, and therefore traffic volumes are believed to be closely linked to GDP, which is an indicator of overall socioeconomic activity.

There is a relationship between the traffic volume increase rate and the GDP increase rate, which has been explored from a Chittagong city road traffic study by RHD. This relationship is analyzed below on the basis of that study.

An analysis of the traffic increase on National Highway 1 was made on the basis of traffic counts carried out by the RHD in the past. From time to time, the RHD carries out traffic counts at key points along national highways. One of the counting stations is located near Fouzderhat, the ending point of the Coastal Road. While the station is outside the Chittagong City area, the data was used to conduct the following analysis.

Traffic counts from the above counting station are available for the years 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2007.

As seen, traffic on National Highway 1 shows a constant increase. However, the average increase in traffic as indicated by the regression line is only about 490 units annually, which is not a very steep growth.

On the assumption that traffic fluctuations on National Highway 1 reflect national economic trends, the Study plotted the relationship between the above count data and the nation’s GDP based on constant prices with 1995-1996 as the base year, as shown in Figure 5.3.

There is a solid correlation between the two other than in the year 2000, and it is believed that traffic volumes on National Highway 1 can be explained in terms of GDP trends.

Estimations of future traffic volumes often take into account the ratio of traffic increase to economic (e.g. GDP) growth. This ratio is called elasticity. In developing countries, the elasticity of traffic with respect to GDP is generally over 1.0, although there are differences based on vehicle type. The above traffic counts obtained from National Highway 1 give an elasticity of 0.8, which is slightly lower than the typical value for developing countries (RHD, 2008).

So, from figure of the relationship between GDP increase rate and traffic volume increase rate, the relational equation is,

Y= 3.3137x+ 6953.9

Where,

Y= Vehicle/ day

X= GDP at constant price.

So, for making the projection of traffic volume of 2030, data about GDP growth rate till 2030 is needed. But there cannot be found any official projections on long-term GDP growth. But data are available about the previous GDP record. So, an approximate assumption about the average GDP growth rate can be done.

Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Bangladesh 5.2 5.3 5.6 4.4 5.3 4.9 6.4 6.6 6.3 4.9 5.7 6 6.1

Table : GDP – growth rate of Bangladesh

Source: ADB, 2013

If we count the last five years GDP growth rate, the average growth rate stands at 5.8. But this rate is for the last five years, which can be used for only to assume the growth rate, but the projection of traffic volume for 2030 by using this GDP growth rate can give result far rich from the actual value.

There are some studies about the roads of Chittagong can be found which have conducted for various road projects and operation and maintenance project in the Chittagong city. In those studies, for the projections of traffic volume in the Chittagong city roads various traffic increase rate has been assumed.

Future Traffic Increase Rate Estimated by Other Studies

Traffic projections for Chittagong and its environs can be found in studies conducted by the ADB, RHD and others.

Table : Future Traffic Increases Estimated by Other Studies

4 Laning of Dhaka-Chittagong Highway Port Access Road Dhaka-Chittagong Access Controlled Highway Road Network Maintenance and Improvement Project II Average
2010-2020 6.0 6.3 6.13 5.41 5.96
2020-2030 5.0 6.3 5.58 3.18 5.02

Source: RHD, 2007; RHD 2008; ADB, 2008.

The average rates of traffic increase projected by the four main studies listed below are 5.96% for 2010 – 2020 and 5.02% for 2020 – 2030; these are also close to the result of the growth rate from GDP records in this study.

As traffic volume growth rate can be found for specific ten years from the above table and these have been calculated from the applied rates in various studies of Chittagong city, so these growth rates have been used in this study to make projection of the traffic volume of the year 2030.

Probable Traffic Volume at the Year 2020 and 2030 in PCU/ Hour

By using the traffic volume growth rate at 5.09% till 2020 and 5.02% till 2030, the following probable traffic volume can be found for the year 2020 and 2030.

Table : Probable Traffic Volume at the Year 2020 and 2030 in PCU/ Hour

Roads Probable Traffic Volume at the year 2020 in PCU/ hour Probable Traffic Volume at the year 2030 in PCU/ hour
M. A. Aziz Road (From 7 am-7 pm) 7979.908 13023.21
M. A. Aziz Road (From 7 pm-7 am) 3370.161 5500.103

Source: Calculated by the author.

If the total volume from the above result is run along the existing M. A. Aziz road, then the future traffic flow scenario of this road will be treacherous.  The road will be fully incapable to function as a major trunk road of the southern zone of the city.

Where, already the traffic congestion is sometimes intolerable, so what will be the future scenario of the traffic volume of this road, if the same road has to accommodate the traffic volume of 2030.

In a study of JICA for Chittagong City Ring Road Project, .traffic flow of 2030 has been represented in a pictorial diagram. The Study carried out traffic assignment on how the two sets of OD trips (upper and lower estimates) obtained for the target year of 2030 will flow on the trunk road network in and around Chittagong City. Routes were selected on the basis of the minimum pass method, which is the method that is usually employed in such forecasting (JICA, 2009).

In the traffic assignment case where the OD trips projected for 2030 were assigned to a future road network that has no coastal road, traffic is heavy in Section A-A, indicating that the construction of four-lane roads is strongly required by 2030. If no such roads are constructed, traffic on the M.A. Aziz Road is predicted to exceed 70,000 vehicles per day, resulting in chronic congestion and creating an enormously adverse impact on the activities of the Chittagong and Karnaphuli EPZs and other industrial centers, as well as transport hubs such as Chittagong Port and the Chittagong International Airport.

The Port Connecting Road, which has sufficient right-of-way for four lanes but is currently functioning as a two-lane highway, will require two new lanes in the future in Section B-B. In the northern section, two to four lanes will be required. At present, the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway Project is under way, and if the highway is completed as a four-lane highway, capacity shortage in Section C-C will correspond to only about two lanes in 2030 (JICA, 2009).

Table : Required Number of Lanes by Section

Section Future Growth Future Traffic

(veh./day)Required No. of Lanes (a)Existing No. of Lane (b)(a) – (b)A – AHigh75,500624Low59,10064B – BHigh34,000422Low26,70042C – CHigh40,40062 (4)4 (2)*Low31,60042 (0)*

*: The number of lanes when Dhaka – Chittagong Highway will be completed.

Source: JICA, 2009.

If the Coastal road is constructed and can perform its full performances as believed by the project designers, then the probable traffic flow scenario in the existing roads and in the new road at 2030 will be more releasing.

Besides the M. A. Aziz road, there is another road, run parallel with the coastal road is named Port Access Toll Road. The traffic volume of this road is also can be diverted to the coastal road by adequate designing of the coastal road. So, the coastal road can also be act as an alternative route of the Port Connecting Road users if situation demands.

So, the traffic forecasting of the Port Access Toll Road is necessary to know the necessity of the coastal road from the Port Access Toll Road perspective.

Traffic Volume Forecast in the Port Access Toll Road

The Port Access Road is an access-controlled highway that directly links the Chittagong Port District with the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway (National Highway 1). It has one lane in each direction, and vehicles cannot enter/exit the road in the middle of its route. The Road links with the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway in the Fauzderhat District, at a point approximately 50 m to the north of the intersection between the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway and the Outer Ring Road (RHD, 2006).

Traffic forecasts for the Port Access Road are given in the February 1999 “Feasibility Study Report” and the June 2000 “Report on Highway Design Review and Technical Matters.” Traffic forecasts for the Port Access Road given in the above study were made by first establishing the assumptions that the growth rates of future traffic demand will be 8% from 2000 to 2008, about 6% from 2008 to 2014, and 5% from 2014 and thereafter and the road will be operated as a toll road. The actual commencement of service was in 2007 (RHD, 2006).

Table : Traffic demand Forecast on Port Access Road                                 (veh./day)

  2004 2008 2015 2024
Estimated Traffic Volume 6,896 9,382 13,974 21,679
Growth Rate (%) 8.0 5.9 5.0

Source: RHD 2008.

Because the Port Access Road has only two lanes, its capacity is believed to be only about 16,000 vehicles per day under normal conditions. In the year 2015, traffic on the road is projected to increase to approximately 14,000 vehicles per day, at which point traffic on the road will be in near capacity. When traffic capacity will exceeds in port access road, traffic congestion would increase on the present port connecting road that passes through Chittagong City. Consequently air quality in the built-up town area would deteriorate and the air quality and noise level and the accident rate would increase (RHD, 2000).

So, the excess traffic will flow onto other roads in the city, further aggravating congestion in the Alonkar – Fauzderhat section, where traffic volume congestion already exists and where vehicles using the Port Connecting Road and the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway enter the City.

So traffic of this road should be systematically diverted to a new road, otherwise outflow onto other existing roads in the city is likely to trigger congestion on the two major routes mentioned above. And as the route of new Coastal Road is parallel to the Toll Road, if this road is systematically designed, can act as an alternative route of the toll road and can release the road from excessive traffic load as well as from the extra load in Alankar- Fauzdarhat section and Port Connecting Road.

Coastal Road Necessity from the Transport Perspective at a Glance

Elimination of Transport Bottlenecks

The M.A. Aziz Road is the only trunk road in Chittagong’s southern built-up district and the only road linking the district with the Chittagong and Karnaphuli EPZs and the Chittagong International Airport. This road fulfills vital roles as key arterial route. The roads are already operating exceeds the capacity. Traffic on the M.A. Aziz Road is forecast to increase to 13023.21 PCU/ hour in the pick hour in 2030. To process this volume adequately, the road will need to be widened to eight lanes. However, the roadside area has a high concentration of buildings, and widening would be extremely difficult to carry out. Without any alternative routes to the road, congestion will become chronic and stoppages may occur unexpectedly. Such conditions can greatly delay or prevent the transport of goods to and from the Chittagong EPZ and other important facilities, seriously affecting their operations. Besides, the traffic volume overview of Toll Road also indicates that traffic volume of this road  will also rich the capacity in near future, which will create further problem in the inter city roads such as Port Connecting Road, Alankar to Fauzdarhat section simultaneously. So, the implementation of the coastal road has consecutive impact on the inter city roads and can release the inter city roads by consecutive outflow of the traffic from the central core of the city.

As indicated by the foregoing, the construction of the Coastal Road is greatly needed from the transportation perspective for the fruitful functioning of the existing roads.

Categories
EEE Modern Civilization

Mobile Phone Effect on Youth in Bangladesh

Overview

The main concept of this study is to investigate effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh. The study starts reviewing the existing related literature and advances to construct its methodological portion and sets the various techniques of data collection Such as interview schedule, guide line for case study to provide a sociological approach .than it formulates the conceptual frame work  of the study. It is evident from this study that mobile phone effects on youth in Bangladesh. It is seem from the study, with the help of mobile phone social and personal life patterns of youth is changing. Often the smallest technological advances create the largest social impacts. Technology impacts the developing world in great ways because the contrast it has to the developed world. Mobile technology is no longer a new one. Companies and governments already know the opportunities that the mobile technology has created in the developing world, because the lack of technology and communication, the developing worlds are unable to participate in the global scenario and its benefits. This paper argues that mobile phones are quickly becoming an affordable, useful and accessible tool to young generation around the country and strengthen social networks. Teen-ager and young also negative impact on family relation in Bangladesh is remarkable negative impact of mobile phone uses. There is a direct correlation between mobile phones and poverty alleviation.

 In this paper we will focus the effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh using Various data collected through questionnaire, published source, internet etc. The data for this paper have been collected both from primary and secondary sources of information.

Considering the research objectives, the study use to both quantitative and qualitative method.so, at one hand it gives a statistical analysis and on the other hand it also presents us with impetrative analysis by using qualitative method.

Introduction

Mobile phone has dramatically changed peoples’ social and communication behavior use telephones. The land telephone line restricted the user’s accessibility to phone and also abilities to move around while talking and telephones were usually located in areas away from and more or less isolated from other activities. After the introduction of Cell Phone in Bangladesh in 1993, today, we see people use in mobile phone all kinds of situations, to public places such as in the streets, on the bus, in shops, restaurants, public theaters, offices, at work as well as leisure, while attending seminars, alone as well as together with others. There are over six nation-wide independently owned cell phone companies competing for business. As of March, 2011 there are 70.963 million mobile phone subscribers in

Bangladesh (BTRC). Expansion of cell phone has an impact on our behavior. Mobile phone users often perform cell phone conversations in combination with multiple other activities and simultaneously with other social interactions. This study was undertaken with the objective to understand why people use cell phone in a range of situations and identify the impact of expansion of cell phone on interpersonal communication and behavior change.

Statement of the problem

 Mobile phones have dramatically changed the way people communicate. Traditionally, telephone conversations were restricted to relatively fixed locations. The land telephone lines restricted the user’s abilities to move around while talking and telephones were usually located in areas away from and more or less isolated from other activities. The locations of the telephone in private homes and offices have also been regulated by norms and traditions, balancing the benefits of a central location with the comfort of having the phone conversation away from the noise and disturbance of other activities. The mobile phone have brought telephone conversations out from these designated areas of traditional fixed line telephones, and into the huge variety of social situations and settings people take part in. Today, we see people use cell phones in all kinds of situations, to public places such as in the streets, on the bus, in shops, restaurants, public theaters, offices, at work as well as leisure, while attending seminars, alone as well as together with others. Bangladesh is one of the few countries in the world that can guarantee each one of its residents can get a cell phone signal – no matter where they are in the country with a population of over 150 million. There are over six nation-wide independently owned cell phone companies competing for business. Bangladesh’s six cell phone carriers added 2.05 million new subscribers in January,2009 making the total number of user to 36.4 million in the one of the world’s fastest growing mobile market, official data showed. Expansion of mobile phone has an impact on our behavior especially on youth behavior. Mobile phone users often perform Mobile phone conversations in combination with multiple other activities and simultaneously with other social interactions. Rather than being a one-to-one interaction between the two telephone speakers, mobile phone conversations often involve other persons in the speaker’s local context. Today, a mobile phone is not merely a tool which enables us to make phone calls and send text messages or pictures. It can process, store, and output/input complex and diverse information. For instance, the functions the Apple phone has: Multimedia, Internet connectivity, Web accessibility, E-mail, etc. It is also time consuming and cost effecting to us. There is no doubt that many find mobile phone highly useful, and appreciate the flexibility and accessibility they represent. However, the use of cell phones may also be experienced as annoying and disturbing, and even perceived as improper behavior in many social situations. The problem of cell phone disturbance in public spaces has mainly been treated as a social phenomenon related to norms of social behavior in the various social settings.

The general argument being that cell phone usage may challenge the social norms of behavior of the social setting, and/or that specific norms of mobile phone usage have yet to be established. While the performance and cost of current new cell phone functionalities, or call services, are not yet completely satisfying no one can deny that a new age is coming – the age that belongs to the mobile phone. Now it is being a prestige issue without having mobile phone.

 In today’s world nearly everyone has access to a mobile phone. How people use Mobile phones is an interesting topic of young generation. It is related to how mobile phones will be designed in the future and how to apply information technology to our quality of life. Thus, the answers to these questions may inspire thoughts towards the effects of Mobile phones.

Rationale of the Study

Mobile phones have become a mainstream product in today’s world and have a huge impact on today’s world. With youth population constituting almost half of the population, Bangladesh has become a fine breeding ground for higher mobile connections. When mobile phones hit the high street over 10 years ago, not only did it give us the ability to communicate with friends, family and colleagues anytime and anywhere, but along the way it has also changed our social behavior and has made a huge cultural impact. It is the easiest way to stay connected with family and friends and also provides security, like updating our parents where we are if it gets late to go home. It helps to socialize, creates a sense of belonging to peer group and easy access to media and environment. Apart from its regular use, cell phones express individual identities. Right from the model we buy till the ring tone and wallpaper set, every minute detail is noted. On the contrary, cell phones have also made people introvert, that is, mobile phone has some dangerous effects. And in this case, youth of our society are the most vulnerable portion. Different mobile phone companies are trapping our youth society through offering some attractive but deceptive packages.

In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages. They are losing the essence of their profession/studies. They are derailing and deviating themselves. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. Their minds are becoming stagnant and static. Creativity and innovation is blocked by the consistent telephonic conversations spread. They are losing their interest towards the interactions and sociality. Alienation is increasing within small community or groups of people. In one room four roommates are strangers to one another. They never try to tie up the relation because they don’t have a pinch of time. By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health. Due to spending whole nights the absenteeism is skyrocketing in every profession. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents. They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents. They are traveling towards the lone parent family system in which one is not accountable to anyone and he is the only decision maker. Such kind of behavior is leading towards the social fragmentation and terrible decline of moral values in which respect is core one. They are crossing the restraints and limitations, very essential for the well integrated society.

Due to the bogus projection of the companies their effectiveness and determination is diminishing if we put a furtive glimpse on the chart of protests and rallies conducted against the negative policies, the ratio of youth’ contribution is at minor level and seems vanished because they have engrossed in making affairs and spending their potential and energy to locate the suitable packages.

Thus the young people of our society have been under a great threat due to the impact of using mobile phone. Though it is a fact of great concern for us, there do not have enough studies regarding this subject. Therefore, this study will be an effort to explore the devastating impact of mobile phone on our youth society.

The Objectives of the Study:

Broad objectives

The broad objective of the study is to understand why people use mobile phone in a range of situations and identify the impact and effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh.  

Specific objectives

  1. To explore the changing pattern of behavior of youth
  2. To identify the communicative practices of young mobile phone users.
  3. To assess the perception of an adaptation of social norms
  4. To introduce the user comprehension of mobile telephony technology.

Literature review

Pamela (2000) has discussed with different sectors in which cell phones have a great impact on today’s youth. Here, at first she has discussed with the educational sector. According to her, cell phones allow kids to text quiz answers, take pictures and videos of problem-solving methods for tests and leave voice messages detailing classroom pop quizzes and other events that otherwise would not spread by word of mouth in one day. A ban on cell phones in schools is not the answer, as a phone set to silent or vibrate mode may easily go unnoticed by teachers. Then she has discussed with fact of Sexing. The newest thing to hit young cell phone users today is sexing. Verbal texts, pictures or videos can be sent out to an entire contact list in seconds. Those kids that receive it in turn send it out and within an hour, potentially detrimental sexual material has been spread to a massive audience. Many kids can be hurt if pictures or texts that they think are going to one person are spread around to others. Pamela has also expressed her concern on the role of mobile phone in occurring an accident. Young cell phone users know how to text while driving. They can talk on the phone or text and drive on the streets and highways without regard to the potential danger. Car accidents involving cell phones and youth have increased.

The discussion made by Pamela in this article would certainly be an important one to study the impact of mobile phone on the youth of Bangladesh. But the discussion might have lacked some positive impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

A research conducted by Market Analysis and Consumer Research Organisation in the title of “ Study of mobile phone usage Among the teenagers and Youth in Mumbai ” (2004). In this study an effort has been provided to learn about the attitude of teenagers and youth ,age group 15-30 years, towards cellular phones. The study tends to examine the way young people relate to the functionality of mobile phones as well as asses observable phenomena. It also discusses with the different usage patterns of mobile phone in age-wise or gender wise. In all, the research was conducted in an attempt to replicate the study in an Indian context in order to arrive at the current trends, especially in metros like Mumbai where mobile telephony seems to have made an immense impact.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone on the youth but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Kheifets (2001) warned, however, that there were other possible explanations, including that mothers who were frequently on the phone through pregnancy might continue the pattern after birth, spending less time with their babies.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone on the pregnant women but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

 This study was performed by Nahid r.ghorbani and rosemarie n.heidari(2004) Effects of Information and Communication Technology on Youth’s Health Knowledge.The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives. The study tends to examine the way young people relate to using it and become addicted .

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed health knowledge and effects of it but but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

A research conducted by John-Harmen Valk , Ahmed T. Rashid ( 2006) conducted  by the analysis the title Using Mobile Phones to Improve Educational Outcomes evidence of the role of mobile phone-facilitated Learning in contributing to improved educational outcomes in the developing countries of Asia by exploring the results of that took place in the  Thailand, India, and Bangladesh. In particular, this article examines the extent to which the use of mobile phones helped to improve educational outcomes in Bangladesh. Analysis of the projects indicates that while there is important evidence of mobile phones facilitating increased access, much less evidence exists as to how mobiles promote new learning.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone for Improve Educational outcomes. But has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Johansson(2003)  has studied the effects of mobile phones, Wifi etc on humans since over 20 years and finds the evidence are compelling about Professor Johansson finds that the brain tumor issue is a minor thing compared to many other harmful effects. While brain tumors affect a small percentage other serious effects, affect the whole population including genetic damage, sleep disturbances, reduced learning capacity, concentration difficulties and psychological problems and serious hazards.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed, concentration difficulties and psychological problems and serious hazards. But the discussion might have lacked some positive impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Defining the concept of “Effects of mobile phone on youth”

Mobile phones have an important function in many people’s daily lives and it’s hard for us to imagine curtailing our dependence on them. Therefore, it might not be advisable to ban your child’s mobile phone, which could lead to social isolation. The goal is to establish healthy habits. Time spent on mobile phones, while useful and fun, is time not spent focusing on other important activities, such as studying, working, and improving mental and physical health.

It’s important to recognize that although mobile phones provide us with the ability to seek social contact and feedback at any hour of the day, it might be a worthwhile idea to spend time “offline” and to realize that our time might be well spent alone. In the same vein, parents might rely to heavily on mobile phone to communicate with their children, contacting them too much, in the place of a face to face conversation

Many young today have their own mobile phones to use for social, family, and professional purposes. Mobile phones are equipped to send/receive phone calls and text messages. “Smart” phones or PDAs and other devices also enable you to access the Internet, take/send photos/videos, play games, listen to music, use a calculator, alarm clock, and calendar, not to mention the thousands of apps that offer a growing array of services.

Many teens use a mobile phone as a part of a family plan, where the bill is sent to one person in a household or family. However, teens are able to procure their own mobile phones without committing to a contract by purchasing a prepaid phone.

Positive effects of mobile phone on youth

In economic sector, the aggregation of the supply-side, demand side and intangible benefits provide an indication of the total economic impact of mobile communications in Bangladesh. The total impact of mobile communications on Gross Domestic Product .

contribute to employment via several avenues:

 direct employment of the industry and related industries; support employment created by outsourced work And taxes that the government subsequently spends on employment generating activities; and Induced employment resulting from the above employees and beneficiaries spending their earnings, and creating more employment .the estimated that in aggregate, including direct and indirect employment for the related industries, dividing the proportion of

Revenue spent on wages by the average wage rate in each sector. , representing our view of the relative open-news of the Bangladeshi economy.

The internationally acclaimed Village Phone Program with the help of Village Phone operators is providing telecommunication services in the Village Phone Program is a unique initiative to provide telecommunications facilities in remote, rural areas all over Bangladesh. Some 75 percent of the operators are women. The Village Phones have proventheir immense potential in boosting income of poor households in rural areas, promoting health care, development of agri-business and in the social empowerment of rural women.They have created a “phone culture” among women by enabling their access to communication tools from which they might otherwise be excluded. They have also shown that poor, largely uneducated women can master the skills and run a small business. Women phone operators have achieved economic and social empowerment within their households and communities.

There are a number of ways that mobile services can promote cohesion in families and society. For example, a cheap mobile service allows families and communities to remain as a coherent unit when family members are away for long periods. In cases where a family member is abroad either

Temporarily or permanently it allows the family unit .

In Bangladesh, it is common for mobile phone owners to use them for the benefit of those with low levels of education and literacy,. The same study found that owners are more likely to have higher incomes whilst users are more likely to have lower incomes. The operators in Bangladesh recognize the importance of broadening the accessibility of their services

Access to data services encourages local content, allowing users to learn about local services such as healthcare, agri service,as well as their general standard of education and knowledge in current affairs. Access to data services allows organizations to provide basic information such as protection against dangerous conditions such as avian influenza and other diseases, surgery times and how to obtain vaccinations. Mobile communications provide these capabilities To all sectors of society, whilst fixed services do not. In developing countries, fixed services are generally only available to wealthy individuals and corporations. Given an appropriate policy regime, mobile services can be extended to

all the whole population.

Mobile services dramatically improve access to emergency Services, which would otherwise only be available the wealthy.It also allows families to stay in touch with each other in the event of natural disasters, communicate with relief providers and obtain information that will allow them to obtain more rapid relief. A recent study “The Roles of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies” into the use of mobile phones in disaster relief used network data and other evidence to try to understand how people used mobile phones in extreme circumstances. The research identified

that mobile phones are used in the following many situations:like,Early warnings, Disaster management,  Immediate after math,  Recovery and rebuilding

One of the most consistent messages to emerge was the benefit of the timely spread of information in response to a disaster. The research found that while mobiles are only one element of a whole array of communications, they are especially effective at diffusing information rapidly to where it is most urgently needed. Particularly important is the superior resilience of mobile compared with fixed networks and the ability to install new capacity very quickly where needed.

 As one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy, mobile operators have taken steps to promote social responsibility, the education and welfare of communities and employees.

-Maintaining interpersonal communication. Using cell phoneincreasing social communication and spread one’s circle of acquaintance. especially  who want to optimize use of their time agree that using cell phone help in increasing proficiency in efficient delivery of responsibilities and goods.

Using mobile phone enriches their information and use internet option.Carrying cell phone gives a feeling of security which is especially supported by women .

Negative effects of mobile phone on youth

People were done up and vexed with internet but due to  cellular technology all gaps have been bridged for the destruction of youth.

The telecommunication companies in our country have been inclined towards introducing new and attractive packages for youth .

I think All necessary and normal interactions can be dealt with during daytime but the companies offer the packages that start after end of family or business communication. My feeling is that these packages are more likely to spoil and ravage our youth than to do anything else. Except on very urgent occasions ordinarily no one would like to talk after midnight

In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages. They are losing the essence of their profession/studies. They are derailing and deviating themselves. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. Their minds are becoming stagnant and static. Creativity and innovation is blocked by the consistent telephonic conversations spread over the whole of night.

They are losing their interest towards the interactions and sociality. Alienation is increasing within small community or groups of people. In one room four roommates are strangers to one another. They never try to tie up the relation because they don’t have a pinch of time.

By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health.

Due to spending whole nights the absenteeism is skyrocketing in every profession. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents.

They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents. They are traveling towards the lone parent family system in which one is not accountable to anyone and he is the only decision maker. Such kind of behavior is leading towards the social fragmentation and terrible decline of moral values in which respect is core one.

Role of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh

Mobile phone use has several potential costs: financial, academic, social, and health.

Aside from using more minutes than allocated in your mobile phone plan, extra text messages (both sent and received) can quickly add to your bill.

Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. Schools set restrictions because of the use of mobile phones for cheating on tests, harassing other people, causing threats to the schools security, and facilitating gossip and other social activity in school.

Some teens and young text message so much that they have developed physical symptoms, Texting Teen and Tendonitis. So much texting can lead to pain in the hands, back and neck soreness from poor posture while texting, impaired vision, and, possibly, many years down the line, to arthritis.

One study found that teenagers who excessively use their mobile phone are more prone to disrupted sleep, restlessness, stress and fatigue.  Another found that mobile phone addiction can result in psychological disorders.

Because mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation, concerns have been raised about cancer risks that may pose when used for long periods of time. The current consensus view of the scientific and medical communities is that health effects are very unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations. At the same time, cellular phones became widely available only relatively recently, while tumors can take decades to develop. For this reason, some health authorities have urged that the precautionary principle be observed, recommending that use and proximity to the head be minimized, especially by children.

Conceptual frame work

Mobile phone is an important medium of communication. Nowadays Accompanying cell phone gives a feeling of security. Using of mobile phone maintain interpersonal communication and build proficiency. Now it is found in every ones hand in our country. For Using cell phone increasing social communication and people can enrich knowledge.

However with all merits, a mobile phone has some negative effects too. Social harassment is increasing through excessive using of cell phone. Sometimes

Factor contributing in increasing incidence of social disturbance and eve teasing due to mobile phone. Tendency of telling lie is increasing for using mobile phone. Specially the habit of Preference of unnecessary talking over night and develop complicacy in personal/family relation affected much. Excessive using of cell phone cause health hazard to the users.

Operational definition

Mobile Phone: Wireless phones which brought conversations out from designated areas of traditional fixed line telephones, and into the huge variety of social situations and settings people use it/.

Youth: a period between child hood and adult age. The qualities of energy, freshness, immaturity etc. associated with being young.

presentation and analysis of case study

Case study 1

Ms. Shirin Afroz (28) working in an NGO for last two years. She is from Chittagong and living at Dhaka with her husband. She was involved in Red Crescent Society as a volunteer in 2003 while she was student. As a part of assignment she joined a seminar in Dhaka arranged by Red Crescent Society in which participants from different districts attended. During the seminar Ms. Shirin introduced with Mr. Zakaria who was from

Narshindhi and they exchange their address and phone number. Gradually they shared all about their personal and family affairs via cell phone. According to her opinion, day by day interpersonal communication and mental dependency between each other increased. After a long sharing they mutually decided to get married and accordingly did so.

Case study 2

Ms. Rafayet Ara is a housewife and involve in a cooperative society where all 40 members are female. Most of the society members are small and medium handicraft garments entrepreneur. Earlier they directly interacted with the customer and ship owners to receive selling order. Hence, they had to invest a lot of time to convince the customer. As a result they could not provide much more time to increase their production level. But when they started to use the cell phone they communicated quickly with the customer and received order from them. Gradually their business area

Expanded. Presently all entrepreneurs are able to provide more time to increase their production level.

Case study 3

Ms. Ferzana Nargis (33) is working in an NGO using the cell phone for last 10 years. She said that cell phone make easier to communicate with the friends. When she completed SSC examination some of her close friends got admitted in different colleges of Dhaka city. Therefore she couldn’t communicate with all of them. 15 years later, suddenly one of her friend called her. At first Ms. Ferzana could not recognize that person but after a while she recalled that the caller is her childhood friend. Therefore

they started to communicate in a regular interval. At present they meet each other in different social occasion and share about their family life.

Case study 4

Mrs. Huq received a miss call from an unknown person. She called back and told the caller that this is not the CP of the person he is trying to reach. In spite of that the caller continue to bother her with miss calls. Mrs. Huq’s daughter saved the number as “disturb” so that she can avoid the miss call.

Case study 5

Shahana (35) is a homemaker. Her daughter Lima is studying in a local college. She regularly goes out of home to attend the classes in the college. A few days back Shahana received a call from Farhana’s class friend enquiring why she is not attending the college for last five days. Although surprised, she avoided to reply her. But she was

worried and called Lima to know where she is. Lima replied angrily “Why, I am in theclass”. Shahana could feel that she is lying, but she had no way to check it.

Case study 6

Hossain is a businessman. His wife Mily comes from a large extended family. She is also very social. As such, she receives and makes lots of call daily. Some time even at night she is talking with someone over mobile phone. This irritates her husband. As such there is often conflict between them.

Findings of the study

Reason for use of  mobile phone:

Most of the respondents said that they use mobile phone to keep contact with others. In addition the students use mobile phone  to keep themselves informed about study and business people to maintain business related contact, use mobile phone also for safety. make and receive calls mostly from guardians and relatives by Students

Number of calls made and Expense:

Around two third of the total respondents said that daily approximate dialed call is 10 and below which includes mostly homemakers, students and service holders. Among businessman, half of them said daily approximate dialed call varies between 11 to 20. Most of the students and

homemakers spend between Tk.300/- to Tk. 1000/- monthly. Businessman generally spend more money for payment of cell phone calls. Most of the respondents do not agree that cell phone expense curtails the demands of everyday need and expense for  mobile phone is wastage.

Benefits of mobile phone:

Respondents from all categories highly support the statement that facilitates in maintaining interpersonal communication. Large number of respondents agree that using cell phone increasing social communication and spread one’s circle of acquaintance. Most of the respondents especially service holders and business people who want to optimize use of their time agree that using cell phone help in increasing proficiency in efficient delivery of responsibilities and goods. Also the respondents in the categories of student, business man and service holders agree that using  Mobile phone enriches their information and knowledge base. Among homemakers half of them did not agree to this, most probably because few of them use internet

option. Most of the respondents think that carrying cell phone gives a feeling of security which is especially supported by homemaker and business people. Home makers being women are more susceptible to insecure environment. They are also anxious about security of their children and spouse. Business people handling cash may also use mobile phone for safety measures.

Pattern of Mobile phone use:

The respondents are mostly get annoyed when some one around talk through  in Mobile phone loud voice and also conscious about not to do the same when they are using . Mobile phone Only some businessman said they are not that concerned about whether people around gets annoyed or not. To avoid unnecessary calls respondents generally do not pick up the Mobile phone and some of them cut off the line. A few of the respondents including students use call block option.

Behavioral effect:

The respondents in general supported that there are some amount of moral degradation due to

increased use of Mobile phone which includes enhancement in:

1. Tendency of telling lies;

2. Watching pornography;

3. Public discloser of personal and confidential information/ photograph

4. Habit of unnecessary talking

5. Annoying people through unnecessary miss call and eve teasing.

6. Indecent behavior in public place

Considerable percentage of homemakers and service holders considers calling people after midnight is interference of personal time of others. Whereas student and businessmen do not consider this as improper. However, along with home maker, service holder, most of the business man do not prefer to use mobile to call late at night. Only certain percentage of student like to use discount call offered by Mobile phone companies to make late night calls

Result of the study

Depending on the data collected from the field, various analyses have done by using SPSS and the results are shown in the tabular format. In our analysis there are 100 respondents and

their demography shows in the Table 1-7. Most  of the respondents age is 15-25  and 26-35 years which are 33 and 30 percent of the total respondent. This is assumed that the study was conducted with 52percent female and 48 percent male respondent. Among the participants most of the respondents are student and employee which are 38 and 26 percent of the total respondents. Every participant recently appeared in Secondary School Certificate examination and some are doing graduation which is 38 and 29 percent of total respondents.

 This is Assumed that all participants deserve Muslim values, which are 87 percent of total respondents. . Among the participants’ 48 percent respondents are married and 49 percent are single. And it is seem that is  39 percent respondent’s income is in the range of 501-15000 taka. and 15001-50000 taka constitutes by 36 percent respondents

Among all respondent.40 percent respondents  using mobile phone 6-10 years. And 20 percent respondents using mobile phone more than 20 years

 Out of 100 responses 44 percent  respondents have GP connections and 24 percent have Banglalink . It is visible from the table 14 that, only 14 percent respondents change their phone number frequently, while 86 percent respondents did not change their phone number frequently. Fifty seven percent respondents using first mobile phone on the age of 21-35 .Among total respondents65 percent  respondent said that they use mobile phone to keep contact with others which is general equally shared by all categories of respondent. . On the other hand respondents who mentioned use mobile phone for safety, which is followed by students (23%). Twenty eight percent respondent use more than one mobile to separate family and buissness life.

All the respondents uniformly said that they use general calls. All of the respondents  44 percent respondent use internet service of mobile phone. according to the percentage of 100 percent respondents among 100 respondents think that the rate of using mobile phone has now increased than before. Eighty five percent respondent  said that the reason of increasing is for communication. 56 percent respondents  said that they used to maintain mobile phone to store name and address.some of them are stored music ,pictures. among all repondents 51 respondents response their souce of recreation is TV. And 19 percent response on mobile. Tecnology are highly appreciated because it is not only Time consuming and complex work can be done quickly and easy and for communication.it is said by most of the respondent.

 most of the respondents expend 3 hours over phone. It is said by 49 percent responded. Only 6 percent responded expend time more than 3 hours over phone40 percent responded sleeps early in night. But most of the people sleep late night. It is said by 60 percent responded. 45 percent respondent want to prefer talk over night.and 25percent respondents think that because of mobile phone they feel any health problem. They all know that excess of talking usage might causes hearing problem but they all prefer it to use.Out of  all respondents it is said by all  in increasing incidence of social disturbance due to mobile phone. most of the responded they switch the ring off, it is said by 74 percent responded. Five percent responded said that switch the phone off. Most of the respondent’s opinion is public harassment. It is said by 64 percent responded, while 12 percent responded thinks that sector of misuse is eve teasing. fourteen percent responded said the crime is sector of misuse and only 10 percent opinion is unnecessary use is sector of misuse. and increased incidence of telling lie through cell phone (40%) has been rated high. All respondents’ observed that some people impulsively tell lies whenever they use cell phone the most of the respondents facing unnecessary calls. it is said by 44 percent respondents. On the other hand, 14 percent respondents facing excessive consciousness of parents.seventy six percent respondents are conscious about using mobile phone  consciousness increasedSixty three percent responded think that by media,while13percent believe that by family member. All respondent 74 percent having not any restriction for using it.it finds out that the reason of not having full control of respondents.78 percent respondents think that because of communication Fifty two percent respondents youth should control of using mobile phone ,whereas 48 percent respondent view is not like that. respondents 87 percent respondents are agreed with the statement that government should be taken step, whereas13 percent responded are disagree with this. 86 percent think that accompanying cell phone gives a feeling of security, whereas  24 percent respondent feel without mobile  in unsecured position. , seventy percent responded agreed that expansion of mobile phone in some cases creating misunderstanding and complicacy in personal and family life, whereas30 percent are disagreed with that., 88 percent respondent among100 percent respondent think that mobile phone playing role in economy, whereas 12 percent don’t think  so.

All respondents’ opined that comparatively female are mostly sufferer from unexpected

call /mobile teasing than the male. Mostly8o percent of responded unexpected mobile call bothered them during their resting time. respondents are highly support the statement that mobile phone facilitates in maintaining interpersonal communication. Sixty seven percent of the total respondent are agreed with that. And 33 percent are disagreed.

Most of the respondents support the statement that using cell phone increases social communication. it is said by 70 percent respondent, while 30 percent of respondent don’t agree with it According to them usage of cell phone strengthened  the interpersonal communication r. In other words, the social relation Most of the respondents are response in easy communication. It is said by 58% respondent.. Although 5 percent of respondent response in changing business Pattern. Nine percent are said in supplying valuable information, around 28 percent people do not agree with this they think mobile phone effects in committed crimes easily by criminals.

 80 percent of total number thinks that communication sector got revolutionary change by using of mobile phone. respondents are highly support the statement that mobile phone advantage of mobile phone much. Sixty eight percent of the total respondent are agreed with that. And 13percent are said fairly much. Respondents view about the impacts of mobile phone. Seventy three percent respondent’s opinion on positive impact while 27 percent thinks mobile phone has negative impact.

 Most of the respondents’ said that a changes of peoples lifestyle has been observed whilst the number of cell phone subscriber increased. For instance, cell phone. All respondents’ admitted that mobile phone is one of the popular entertaining medium for the people. Browsing internet, listing music. But the evil consequences of using mobile phone are not explicitly realized to all respondent.

CONCLUSION

In This study attempted to determine and measure the various usages of mobile phone in Bangladesh among different demographic factors and also the impact of usage in social and economical factors. Mobile phones,now increasingly affordable and widespread in all clusters of people have significant impact to extend social relations. On the other hand, incense usages of this technology are now creating some social problems and also advancement to have mobile phone.

In today’s world, with technological advancements, mobile phones have metamorphosed into an all-in-one gadget. A gadget that plays music, takes high-resolution pictures, offers services to access internet instantly, and many more. For young ones, a mobile phone has helped them to socialize, and share thoughts through a fast, efficient and common platform. Because of mobile phones, young member of a family is more reachable nowadays. However, on a less encouraging note, mobile phones being used while driving have added to the increased tally of traffic accidents. And share of involvement youths in the cases of road accidents while attending a mobile call.
It is true that mobile phone are potent enough to raise quite a few health related complicacies, and young individuals being the prominent users, do come into the umbrella of ill effects of a mobile phone. However, saying so, we still have to remind that every technical innovation possess a faithful follower in the name of ill effects. If one youth’s reckless attitude is sure to amass problems uncalled for, other’s judicious steps with a bit of precaution can help one and all to enjoy the limitless possibilities of a mobile phone. It is up to us to determine the functioning of one of our most loved device as a useful slave or a demanding master.

Recommendations:

The respondents made following recommendations to promote positive behavioral change among mobile phone users:

  • · Creating awareness and positive attitude about use of mobile phone, especially among youths.
  • · mobile phone should be used only to maintain contacts.
  • · Should not talk at late night (without sleep), Day call rate should be reduced and night call rate should be increased.
  • · Should not misuse free talk/SMS time, free talk time/SMS by mobile phone companies should be stopped.
  • · Unnecessary use of call/gossip /SMS should be stopped.
  • · Not to disturb someone especially girls/women by mobile phone. There should be law to prevent such incidents.
  • · Not to call unknown people/number especially at night in order to disturb.

mobile phone should be kept in silent mode in a class/ hospital/work place.

  • · Avoid speaking in a mobile phone in public place/ talk gently in a public place.
  • · Not to misuse money/spend money for mobile phone use beyond their means.
  • · Not to use mobile phone while driving or crossing road.
  • · Age of users of mobile phone should be restricted. Use of mobile phone by under age (18 years and below) children should not be allowed.
  • · Call block service should be improved.
  • · Taking photographs by mobile phone especially without consent of the person being photographed should be discouraged.
  • · Not to publicize personal information/photograph through mobile phone.
  • · Not to be addicted in use mobile phone
  • mobile phone should be considered as a necessary tool to meet the need.
  • · Too much or unnecessary talk should be avoided.

mobile phone effect

Categories
Accounting Architecture

Overall Accounting Procedure of Real Estate Company

An-Overview

Techno Holdings Limited. (THL) has been a part of the real estate industry in Bangladesh for not very long but has earned a good name with its properties in the prime location of the capital city. It started its journey in the early 2010 with a vision of ling term business building modern apartment projects in the city, not to satisfy an individual client only but to contribute to the entire society as a whole. Our corporate philosophy is however based on very simple principle Quality apartments for the future. To this end we are constantly working towards upgrading & improving every aspect of our activities Techno holdings Limited is the exclusive developer and builder for planning, implementing and allotment and allotment of all facilities of the project as a modern and luxurious apartment complex consisting of self contained apartment, reserved car parking other features etc. as described in details.

Emerging with the confidence to face existing challenges in the ever competitive market of real estate, it has timely succeeded in proving its capabilities though undertaking a number of projects in the city.

Within a short span of time, it has earned the satisfaction from landowners and valued clients by virtue of its free and fair business practices. To ensure basic civic amenities and to add a new dimension in the quality of modern living, it remains mindful about its commitment in all respect.

Be it the quality of our architectural design of our after-sale service, the emphasis is to jeep on improving. It is because of this unrelenting quest for example that we have earned the goodwill of so many of our customers.

Techno holdings’ prime objective is to build beautiful apartments keeping pace with the changes in tastes and needs of modern lifestyle. Not only the aesthetic qualities of apartment projects is its concentration but its thought & ideology centre around the right combination of practicality, as it constantly strives to shore up the confidence of its valued clients.

As such, our main motto is to satisfying our potential customer with super commitment return in the field of making unique construction with the best infrastructure materials within the demarcated committed schedule.

Using innovative entrepreneurial approaches, transparent sets to offer a new tune of services to landowners and clients in a bid to ser a distinction in the trade and brand its entity as an authenticated name in the real estate sector and subsequently to place it in the rank of mainstream.

The project management team consists of project managers, project engineers and skilled supervisors who remain on site to thoroughly oversee the execution of project. The designers having all round conception are well conversant with client’s needs and aspirations. Using most updated software for accounting and financing, this dept keeps each and every individual client’s record in order.

Vision     : Quality apartments for the future.

Mission: We constantly strive to shore up the confidence of our esteemed clients through upholding our commitment in ensuring a beautiful and peaceful living which ultimately help them build a beautiful future for the generations to come.

The team at a glance:

Engineers possess very competent technical skills, yet are creative, bold and innovative. With years of accumulated experience at home and abroad, the engineers and planners have adopted an outward looking quality oriented construction strategy being driven by specialized engineering and management skills, prefect guidelines and thorough compliance with the stipulated specification, yielding the highest possible quality in construction.

Customized software’s are applied for structural and architectural designs to achieve highest accuracy. The engineering team is well equipped with latest computer aided solutions that produce instant updated records on areas of concern and advancement of projects as well. A flawless and formatted project schedule is well maintained by the engineering dept. to scan at a glance the whole activities under its lens.

The Architectural Design for each of our project is minutely detailed for achieving on impressive façade and a strong functional relation within the interior space layout. The balanced distribution in a harmonized manner results in a smooth and comfortable living at an affordable price. Sophisticated software called STAAF-lll is used for high tech structural design and stress analysis. CAD designs are followed for all architectural design.

Board of Directors:

A super combination of multi – disciplined experts with proven track records galvanizing the team  efforts in all respect.

Name % Number of Share
Md. Morshed Alam (Managing Director) 80% 4000
Mrs. Nasrin Alam   (Director) 20% 1000

Introducing of Board of Directors                                                   

A. Mrs. Nasrin Alam, Director of the company is one of the extra-ordinary woman entrepreneurs in the county .she is a solid 6 years of practical and first hand experience in real estate development and construction .She is much more obligated person. Her motivation, force, courage and gratitude towards work are symbolical .she posse’s outstanding leadership qualities and charismatic power through which he had resolved innumerable critical issues he met during project execution. Associated with a number of socio-economic organizations, he has been contributing to the society since long.

B. Md. Murshed Alam, Managing Director of the company, He has 25 years practical experience in real estate development and construction. He is a BSC His potentiality and idealism is authentic. Specializes in project management and facilitation of government affairs and legal matters. A competent member of general management with expertise in general administration & logistics. By virtue of his leadership capability he managed a large team of manpower from all walks of trades and having professional dexterity in the field of logistics supports. He is actively involved with various socio cultural organizations in the country.

LIST OF PROJECTS:

LIST OF ON-GOING PROJECTS

Prime Rose:

Residential Project             Particulars
Name of the Project : Prime Rose
Address : Plot No-4,Road No-1,Block-D Nobodoy Housing, Mohammadpur Dhaka.
Area of land : 6 kathas
Total Floor : 8 Nos
Total Unit : 21
Construction area : 26880 sft.
Total cost : 40000000.00 Approx.
Developers part : 15350 sft.
Total sale   a. Flat sale:                                          4,91,20,000 .00

b.car parking:                                         20,00,000 .00

c.Utility                                                   12,00,000.00

Total :                                                              5,23,84,000.00
Profit :                                                               1,23,84000.00
Source of fund : Owner source / Bank Loan
     

Niloy:

Residential Cum Commercial Project  

 

Particulars
Name of the project : Niloy:
Address : House no-948/2/c,East Shewrapara,Kafrul,Dhaka.
Area of land : 5.36 kathas
Total Floor : 6
Total Unit : 15
Construction area : 13,560s.ft
Total cost : 26,850,000.00
Developments parts : 9
Total sale : a. Flat Sale   :                                         2,375,000.00

b. Car Parking :                                      15,00,000.00

c. Utility  :                                             1,350,000.00

Total : 4,10,00,000.00
Profit :                                        63,50,000.00
Sources of Fund : Owner source / Bank loan

LIST OF UP-COMING PROJECTS:

1)  Project Name  

:

 

Roselein

Address

 

:

 

Plot # 205, Chata mosjid Lane, She-e- Bangla Road

Rayer Bazar, Dhaka-1209.

Type of Building : Residential
No. of Building : 2 Nos
TotalLand : 25 Khata
No. of Storied : Ten Storied
Size of Apartment : 1050 S.ft
No. of Apartment : 108 Nos
Total Car Parking Provision : 50 Nos

2)  Project Name : Hatirzil  Lake City
Address

 

:

 

Plot # 5-20, 1st Lane Road # 01, East Merul, Tek Para, Badda, Dhaka-1212.
Type of Building : Residential
No. of Building : 10 Nos
TotalLand : 100 Khata
No. of Storied : Ten Storied
Size of Apartment : 1100 S.ft
No. of Apartment :  360 Nos
Total Car Parking Provision : 200 Nos
3)  Project Name : North Land
Address

 

:

 

Plot # 2, Road # 01, Block # D,  Nobodoy Housing Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207.
Type of Building : Residential
No. of Building : 1 Nos
TotalLand : 6 Khata
No. of Storied : Ten Storied
Size of Apartment : 1050 S.ft
No. of Apartment : 27 Nos
Total Car Parking Provision : 12 Nos

Nature of the Organization:

The Company is engaged in purchasing land, developing the same for urban housing and selling to the people of different income group. The company also purchase high land for construction of multistoried apartments building.

Company Objectives:

The main objective of the company is to give the clients safe home with his/her suitable location. Techno Holdings ltd specializes in residential and commercial real estate listings and sales in the surrounding areas. Techno Holdings ltd offers Mohammadpur, East Sewrapara, Shohid Buddhijavi road, Nobodoy Housing Society Zone to the target customers for their upcoming projects.

The another objective of the company is to provide housing facilities to the middle class people with a mid term installment basis payment policy .THL believes that idea creates business , Business creates profit. Minimum profit  taking by providing equal benefit to the clients is the purpose of the company.

Administration and Logistic:

Techno Holdings Ltd has professional & skilled administration team to co-ordinate all departments of the company. Logistical services include repair maintenance facilities such as plumbing and prompt troubleshooting (solve problems). Permanent maintenance personnel ensure that the apartments are in good condition.

ADMIN DEPERTMENT

Sl.No             Name Designation Date of Joining Experience Remarks
1 Md. Azad Rayhan General Manager 01/01/09 11 years  
2 Md.Murshedur Rahman Manager 01/01/09 6 years  
3 Nargish Akhter Executive (Public Relation) 01/01/10 1 years  
4 Mizanur Rahman Jr. Executive (Logistic) 01/01/09 3 years  

Accounts and Finance:

 Techno Holdings Ltd has accountants to maintain the accounts. They also hire experts for their need to get an accurate costing to start new project and for specific forecasting.

ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT

Sl. No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Md. Mahabubur Rahman Account officer 01/01/010 3years  
02 Md. Kawsar Ahamad Executive (Accounts) 01/05/010 2 years  

Sales, Marketing and Customer Service:

 Techno Holdings Ltd has it’s efficient Customer Service Department. This department gives personal attention to each client and is known for the immediate effective action. A warm, friendly atmosphere is created for the client who can make purchase decisions at his/her step without feeling pressurized.

Sl.No Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Md.Mamunur Rashid Asst. Manager (Marketing & Sales) 01/01/09 5years  
02 Md.Tanvir Mahamud Executive (Land) 01/01/10 3 years  

Engineering & Design:

 Techno Holdings Ltd has developed in house design team for architectural, structural, planning & electrical design. THL has three engineers in construction and development team in addition to its Quality Control, Monitoring & Evaluation and Construction management personnel with senior level professionals, engineers, architects, planners trained at home and abroad.

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
1 Engineer  Md. Abdul Alim Civil Engineer 01/07/10 5 years  
2 Engineer  Md. Nazrul Alam Civil Engineer 01/07/10 15 years  
4 Engineer Mirza Motiar Rahman Electrical Engineer 01/06/10 4 years  
5 Engineer  Md. Rafiqual Islam Site Engineer 01/07/09 10 years  
6 EngineerMd. Gulam Sarwer Site Engineer 05/08/10 3 years  

DESIGN DEPARTMENT

Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Arch. Tuhin Hasan Architect 01/01/10 5 years  
02 Md. Shahin Aziz Architect 01/01/10 5 years  
02 Md. Masudul Alam Executive (AutoCAD) 07/03/10 3 years  

PROCUREMENT & CUSTOMER SIRVICES DEPARTMENT:

Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
O1 Md. Shah Poran Executive Purchase 01/01/10 10 years of experience in Material procurement.  
02 Abu md. Jubary Customer Care 01/06/10 3 Years  

Staffs

Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Md. Nur Mohammad        
02 Md. Kayum Office Peon 01/06/09 5 years  
03 Md. Nujrul Site Guard 01/06/09 5 years  
04 Md. Ashraful Site Guard 01/03/10 3 years  
05 Md. Ballal Site Guard 01/05/10 1 years  
06 Md. Hashem Sarker Site Guard 08/05/10  1 years  

Activities of the Organization: 

Real Estate Business in private sector mainly concentrated on land development and construction of apartments. “Techno Holdings Ltd” collects land and sell the flat to the people. They construct residential building and sell them to make profit. In order to accomplish the above task the company proceeds in the following ways-

  • The first task to the company is to find out the elite class of the society who are in housing needs. Such class includes the engineering association, teachers association, doctors association, agriculturist association etc. Generally such classes are grouped according to the professions.
  • The next task of the company is to collect the corporate data of the above-identified classes. Generally these data includes the following:

A)    Income Level

B)    Living style

C)    Living standard

D)    Thinking about housing

After studying the potential customers then the company informs them regarding the ongoing projects and also the coming projects in details.

Customer Facilities:

Techno Holdings Ltd is conscious about the facilities for customers beside the projects. The facilities to its customers are:

  • Proper Road facilities beside the project
  • School, college, university and mosque beside the projects
  • Well organized security system throughout the project
  • Availability of Shopping centers beside the projects
  • Availability of health facilities beside the projects.
  • Arrangement of house building loans.
  • Construction of security wall at market price.

Finance & Accounts Department:

Actually this is my department where I directly involved. Because of that I know about everything about this department. Like all other Organization Techno Holdings Ltd follows some Function of accounting. Account division is very crucial and sensitive for the Company. Because the Business does require very frequent financial transaction. The specific tasks are as follows:

Input / form

Voucher

Daily expenditure

Employee information

Department, designation

Salary for employee

Remuneration for director

Overtime and bonuses

 

Output / form

Salary sheet

Net pay

Salary summary

Advance ledger

Advance of date

Bonus sheet

Department wise employee information

Receipt and Payments accounts

Income and Expenditure account

Balance sheet

 

Job Description of an Accountant:

SUMMARY

Apply principles of accounting to analyze financial information and prepare financial reports by compiling information, preparing profit and loss statements, and utilizing appropriate accounting control procedures.

PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITIES

  1. Prepare profit and loss statements and monthly closing and cost accounting reports.
  2. Compile and analyze financial information to prepare entries to accounts, such as general ledger accounts, and document business transactions.
  3. Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of accounting and accounting control procedures.
  4. Analyze and review budgets and expenditures for local, state, federal, and private funding, contracts, and grants.
  5. Monitor and review accounting and related system reports for accuracy and completeness.
  6. Prepare and review budget, revenue, expense, payroll entries, invoices, and other accounting documents.
  7. Analyze revenue and expenditure trends and recommend appropriate budget levels, and ensure expenditure control.
  8. Explain billing invoices and accounting policies to staff, vendors and clients.
  9. Resolve accounting discrepancies.
  10. Recommend, develop and maintain financial data bases, computer software systems and manual filing systems.
  11. Supervise the input and handling of financial data and reports for the company’s automated financial systems.
  12. Interact with internal and external auditors in completing audits.
  13. Other duties as assigned.

ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES

  1. Develop the annual operating budget and consult with departmental management on the fiscal aspects of program planning, salary recommendations, and other administrative actions.
  1. Provide accounting policy orientation for new staff.

 WORKING CONDITIONS

Working conditions are normal for an office environment. Work may require occasional weekend and/or evening work.

Definition:

Under direction of a Division Manager, performs professional accounting work, including auditing, analyzing and verifying fiscal records and reports, preparing financial and statistical reports, providing information to City staff regarding accounting practices and procedures, and reconciling general ledger accounts; assists in preparing the City’s annual and mid-year budgets; prepares year-end audit reports and schedules; trains and provides technical advice to lower-level accounting personnel, and performs related work as required.

Class Characteristics:

This professional-level Accountant class is assigned to the Finance Division of the central Administrative Services Department. The incumbent works with a high degree of independence in performing accounting and financial activities for the City, the Redevelopment Agency and the Public Financing Authority. Successful performance of the work requires good knowledge of governmental accounting practices and procedures, fund accounting and fiscal management. Responsibilities include direct contact with all

City Department Directors, Division and Program Managers and other staff regarding monthly reports, revenue and expenditure accounts, the automated purchasing and financial reporting system and payroll activities. The class is distinguished from the lower level class of Office Specialist (Accounting), which is a technical support class not requiring the equivalent of a four-year professional degree and has responsibilities of a technical processing nature.

Examples of Key Duties: (Duties are illustrative and not inclusive and may vary with individual assignment.)

  • Prepares journal entries and reconciles general ledger and subsidiary accounts; prepares monthly financial statements, including distributing monthly revenue and expenditure reports to departments.
  • Analyzes and reconciles expenditure and revenue accounts, including trustee accounts and investment reports.
  • Makes wire transfers and journal funding transfers and reconciles monthly bank statements.
  • Monitors grant revenues and expenditures, ensuring data is recorded in the City’s financial accounting system.
  • Calculates and prepares reimbursement billings and tracks receivables; reconciles monthly accounts receivable.
  • Prepares audit schedules for external auditors and acts as a liaison between the City and auditors.
  • Prepares and files annual financial statements for the City, Redevelopment Agency and Public Financing Authority.
  • Assists with the preparation of the annual and mid-year budgets.
  • Assists with the fiscal year-end and fixed asset accounting.
  • Provides training in the use of the City’s computerized financial system and assists departmental personnel with budget questions, proper expenditure coding, document processing and other accounting related activities.
  • Performs other duties of a similar nature or level.

Physical Requirements and Working Conditions:

Must possess mobility to work in a standard office setting and to use standard office equipment, including a computer, stamina to maintain attention to detail despite interruptions, strength to lift and carry files weighing up to 10 pounds; vision to read printed materials and a computer screen, and hearing and speech to communicate in person and over the telephone.

Knowledge of: (at entry)

  • Generally accepted accounting practices and principles;
  • Fund or governmental accounting practices and principles;
  • Auditing practices and principles;
  • Public agency budgeting practices and principles;
  • Computer applications related to the work;
  • Standard office practices and procedures;
  • Applicable laws, codes and regulations; and
  • Techniques for dealing with a variety of individuals from various socio-economic, cultural and ethnic backgrounds, in person and over the telephone.

Skill in: (at entry)

  • Maintaining accurate financial records and preparing clear and accurate reports for informational, auditing and operational use;
  • Reconciling accounts, records, reports and journals;
  • Preparing financial and/or auditor statements, schedules and reports;
  • Interpreting, applying and explaining complex laws, codes, regulations and ordinances;
  • Reviewing and verifying accuracy of data;
  • Maintaining accounting records for special accounts and projects;
  • Making sound, independent judgments within established polices and procedures;
  • Organizing own work, setting priorities and meeting critical deadlines; and
  • Communication to interact effectively with co-workers, managers, subordinates and the general public sufficient to convey information and to receive work direction.

Cost Estimation:

1. Project Name

 

 

:

Niloy
2. Project Location

 

:

 

House no -948/2/C, East Shewrapara, Kafrul, Dhaka.
3. Purpose

 

: Construction of building and sales flats
4. TotalLand

 

: 5.36  kathas
5. Project  area

 

: 3860 S.ft
6. Construction area

 

:  13560 S.ft

 

7. No of Building

 

: 01 = 06 (Six) Storied
8. Number of  Apartment    

 

 

:  

a. Developer  :

b. Land owner:

Number

09

06

%

60%

40%

9. Number of car parking

 

 

 

:  

a. Developer:

b. Land owner:      

Number

06

04

%

60%

40%

10. Size of Apartments

 

 

 

: Type A, 825 s.ft  of 05 Flat

Type B, 835 s.ft  of 05 Flat

Type C, 600 s.ft  of 05 Flat

11. Project starting time

 

:  December 2010
12. Project completion time

 

:  June 2013
13. Project grace period

 

 

:  01 year

STASTEMENT FOR COST ESTIMATION

14. Cost of the project:

SL NO Description Cost Incurred Cost To Be Incurred Total Cost
01 Land (5.36  khathas) 1,500,000.00 Nill 1,500,000.00
02 Consultation 400,000.00 Nill 400,000.00
03 Marketing, Advertising & others 200,000.00 150,000.00 350,000.00
04 Construction   3,000,000.00 18,600,000.00 21,600,000.00
05 Bank Interest Nill 3000,000.00 30,00,000.00
  Total 5,100,000.00 21,750,000.00 26,850,000.00

14. Model of Finance

SL NO Description Cost Incurred Cost To Be Incurred
01 Sponsors equity 4,500,000.00 7,350,000.00
02 Bank Loan             Nill 150,00,000.00
  Total 4,500,000.00 22,350,000.00

15. Debt – Equity ratio                      56: 44

FEATURES & AMENITIES

Each apartment contains the following luxury and specification selected for your convenience ensuring beauty and easy of maintenance.

Bathrooms

1. Floor and wall of all bathrooms will be furnished with Bangladeshi glazed tiles.

2. All porcelain fittings (commode, basin, pan etc) will be BISF or RAK band standard.

3. Commode will be used only in the attached toilet of master bed.

4. All metal Fittings (shower head, towel rail soap case tissue holder, bibcock etc) will be

Sharif  metal.

Floors& Fire Safety

5. 12”x12” glazed tiles (made in Bangladesh)in all over floors

6. 4”skirting will be provide in rooms.

Electrical

 7. 220vpower connection from DESA with separate electric meter (2KW) for each flat.

8. Gang switch and BRB cable will be used.

Doors and Windows

 9. Door frame with mahogany seasoned wood.

10. And shutter will be teak crumple partex flash door.

11. In all bath rooms durable PVC door will be used.

12. 4mmx20mm flat bar grill will be used

13. 3” sliding Thai aluminum channel will be used

14. 5mm thick tinted glass of good quality will be provided in all window shutters.

Wall &Partition:

15. Internal and external 5” thick wall will be made of 1st class brick & salt less white fine sand.

16. Wall surface will be smooth with finished plaster.                                                          

Kitchen Features:

17. Double burner gas point with one gas riser.

18. A single sink, bibcock & a wash corner.

19. One RCC self (12” wide) will be provided.

20. Wall of kitchen will be furnished with 8”x12” glazed tiles up to 7’-0” height

2.7 Painting & Polishing:

21. Plastic paint in all internal walls and distemper in calling.

22. Outside with snowcap painting.

23. Enamel paint in Grill will be used.

Utility Lines:

24. The company will provide 1” water line & sewerage connection to WASA.

25. Under Ground water Reservoir with 20,000 liter capacity.

26. Wall of kitchen will be furnished with 8”x12” glazed tiles up to 7”-0”.

Others:

Generator:

Power generator connection will be provided in each flat.

Intercom:

               Intercom line (kokum set) will provide in each flat to link with guard room.

Cost Details:

Sl.

NO.

Description Area (Sft.) Quantity Rate Per S.ft./Pc Work Already Done Work to be Done Total
        Taka Taka Taka
01 Land Procurement   Lump Sum 1,500,000.00   1,500,000.00
02 Consulting (Architectural)   Lump Sum 3,00,000.00   300,000.00
03 Consulting (Structural) 13560 Lump Sum 50,000.00   50,000.00
04 Consulting (Electrical) 13560 Lump Sum 25,000.00   25,000.00
05 Consulting (Plumbing) 13560 Lump Sum 25,000.00   25,000.00
06 Advertisement & Graphics   Lump Sum 100,000.00 50,000.00 150,000.00
07 Marketing Promotion   Lump Sum 100,000.00 10,0000.00 200,000.00
08 Cost Of Piling 2400 550.00 1,320,000.00   13,20,000.00
08 Cost of Column up to Grade Beam 2260 500.00 1,130,000.00   11,30,000.00
09 Cost of Water Reserve 1 Lump Sum 300,000.0   300,000.00
10 Frame Structure Grade Beam to G.F. Slab 2260 500.00   1,130,000.00 11,30,000.00
11 Frame Structure up to 5th Floor 11,300 500.00   5,650,000.00 5,650,000.00
12 Brick Works up to 5th Floor 14,500 150.00   2,175,000.00 2,175,000.00
13 Plaster Works up to 5h Floor 30,000 50.00   1,500,000.00 1,500,000.00
14 Tiles Works 18000 100.00   1,800,000.0 1,800,000.00
15 Grill Works 4000 100.00   400,000.00 400,000.00
16 Thai Aluminum Works 1800 300.00   540,000.00 540,000.00
17 Wood Works:          
  A.  Main Door 350 400.00   140,000.00 140,000.00
  B.  Internal Door 1800 300.00   540,000.00 540,000.00
  C.  Louvered 125 120.00   15,00.00 15,000.00
18 Plumbing, Sanitary & Sewerage System:          
  A. Water Distribution  System 15000 40.00   600,000.00 600,000.00
  B. Sanitary fittings & Fixtures 7000 35.00   245,000.00 245,000.00
19 Electrical Works:          
  A. Internal   Lump Sum   350,000.00 350,000.00
  B. External   Lump Sum   350,000.00 350,000.00
20 Painting & Coloring 42000 10.00   420,000.00 420,000.00
21 Utility:          
  A. Gas Connection 15 8000.00   120,000.00 1,20,000.00
  B. Wasa Connection 15 5000.00   75,000.00         75,000.00
  C. Substation & DESHA Connection 1     900,000.00 9,00,000.00
  D. Lift 1 10,00,000.00   900,000.00 9,00,000.00
  E. Generator 1 500,000.00   5,00,000.00 5,00,000.00
22 Boundary Wall/Gate/Tank Etc.       3,00,000.00 3,00,000.00
23 Lime Concrete in roof 2270 Lump Sum   200,000.00 200,000.00
24 Bank Interest for Project Loan       3,000,000.00 3,000,000.00
     

 

4,850,000.00 22,000,000.00

26,850,000.00

(Total Taka Two Core Sixty Eight Lac and Fifty Thousand Only.)

The above cost calculated on the basis of present marker rate of construction material and labor charges. During execution of construction work the rate of individual may very from proposed cost structure.

8.0 Project cost and profit analysis:

Profit & Loss Account:

Description Rate per sft. Total Amount (Tk.)
Income from Apartment Tk.4500.00

33,225,000.00

Less Total Construction Cost  

26,850,000.00

                                                              Net profit

6,350,000.00

 Financial Information:

Description Total Area Rate per sft. Total Amount (Tk.)
Earnings From Sale Flat      6750 s.ft

4500.00

33,225,000.00

Total Project Cost 13560

1980.00

26,850,000.00

Construction Cost 13560

1593.00

21,600,000.000

Own Financing  

 

11,850,000.00

Loan from Bank    

15,000,000.00

9.0 Debt-Equity Ratio:

Debt Equity Total Taka Debt : Equity

Tk.150,00,000.00

Tk.11,850,000.00 Tk.26,850,000.00 55.86:44.14

10.0 Cost of the project:

Sl No Description Cost Incurred Cost to be Incurred Total Taka
01 Land ( 5.36 Katha )

15,00,000.00

Nill

15,00,000.00

02 Consultation

400,000.00

Nill

4,00,000.0

03 Marketing, Advertising & Others

200,000.00

150,000.00

3,50,000.00

 

04 Construction

30,00,000.00

18,600,000.00

21,600,000.00

05 Bank Interest

Nill

3,000,000.00

3,000,000.00

  Total project Cost:Tk.=

5,100,000.00

21,750,000.00

26,850.000.00

Total=

Taka Two Core Sixty 

Eight Lac and Fifty Thousand.

11.0 Mode of Finance:

Sl No Description Cost Incurred Cost to be Incurred Total Taka
01 Sponsors equity

4,500,000,00

7,350,000.00

11,850,000.00

02 Bank Loan

 

 15,000,000.00

15,000,000.00

Total Project Cost :Tk=

4,500,000.00

22,350,000.00

262,06,000.00

Debt: Equity Ratio = 56:44

SWOT Analysis

 SWOT Analysis is an important tool for evaluating the company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It helps the organization to identify how to evaluate its performance and scan the macro environment, which in turn would help the organization to navigate in the turbulent ocean of competition.

S Strengths
W Weakness
O Opportunities
T Threats

Strengths:

a) Company Reputation:

      THL has already established a favorable reputation in the Real Estate industry of the country particularly among the new comers. Within a period of Four years, THL has already established a firm in the Real Estate sector having tremendous growth in the profits and deposits. All these have leaded them to earn a reputation in the Real Estate field.

b) Top management:

The top management of the Company is also a major strength for the THL and has contributed heavily towards the growth and development of the Company. The top management officials have all worked in reputed Company’s and their years of working experience, skill, and expertise will continue to contribute towards further expansion of the Company. The top management of THL is the driving force and the think tank of the organization where policies are crafted.

c) Market share profitability:

As already mentioned earlier, THL has established a position among the new comers in the Real Estate industry of Bangladesh. They have already achieved a high growth rate accompanied by an impressive profit growth rate. The number of deposits and the loans and advances are also increasing rapidly as sales revenue increases with the increasing of upcoming a lot of new projects.

d) Strong financial resources:

THL has strong financial resources to run the Real Estate business. It is expected that in the near future the Company’s financial resources will get stronger.

e) Team work at mid level and lower level:

THL’s mid level and lower level management do the responsibilities with team works. Many jobs are performed in-groups of two or three in order to reduce the burden of the workload and enhance the process of completion of the job. People are eager to help each other and people in general are devoted to work.

Weakness:

          The size of the market captured by THL is not as wide as the other established companies do. Most of the projects are six to Eight storied building. They have no high rise building. THL works only Dhaka city corporation. The other city corporation have the activities of real estate business Opportunities. But THL does not expand them because of financial shortage.

Opportunities:

       There are more than 550 companies have the REHAB membership. Most of the companies do not work the other city corporations and cannot think about middle class and lower income group people. Most of the companies do not maintain RAJUK plan and cannot handover the project in time. If some companies do, they charge a huge per square feet rate. Most of the companies do not believe the long term installment basis payment policy. So these are the opportunities to the THL to capture this market.

Threats:

         THL considers hundred companies from all REHAB members as it’s strong competitor. These companies minimum costing and below quality service and fraudulent advertisement criteria is the major threats to THL. The other threats are political disturbance, strike, fiscal policy and natural calamities which ultimately destroy the plan of handover the project in time.

Findings:

  • Whole activities of THL is not computerized, still there exist manual record keeping system.
  • Insufficient training program for the employees.
  • Slow in modernization comparing with its competitors.
  • The working environment is not congenial & appropriate.
  • THL tries to maintain  Safety and security, Highest safety standard, Earth quake protection up to 6.But sometimes fail to provide appropriately all these services because of clients bargaining Existing Human Resources of THL is  not sufficient for delivering proper service. They have to recruit more skilled employees.
  • The of per square feet rate of sales revenue and land owners signing money.
  • At THL’s mid level and lower level management, there are often team works. Many jobs are performed in-groups of two or three in order to reduce the burden of the workload and enhance the process of completion of the job. People are eager to help each other and people in general are devoted to work.
  • THL’s financial resource is not enough to run the Real Estate business in a wide view. It is expected that in the near future the Company’s financial resources will get much stronger by venture capital.
  • Real estate business Opportunities are available in other city corporations.
  • But THL does not expand their business because of financial shortage.
  • THL doing promotional campaign to attract their customers. Because of high demand in the market THL does not have to invest lots of money in promotional activities. THL puts their advertisement in the print media. The promotional activities are not enough to cover the whole market in present competitive situation.
  • The key marketing tools which I have found in  Techno Holdings Ltd is given bellow:
  • In some cases -Project type, Land area, Consultant, No of apartments, Size of apartment, Total car parking are not specifically mentioned which ultimately give a negative impression about the company.
  • The company does not follow the service marketing mix at the time of product, price place and promotional strategies.
  • Available packages, Real Estate Business Cards, Company websites, Brochure, Print media, Electronic media, Billboard, Banner. So, It’s marketing strategy is not well designed.
  • General terms and conditions is not mentioned clearly. Because of abstruse sentences sometime clients cannot understand the policy of the company which can give negative result to company.
  • The estimated cost and estimated sales revenue is not appropriately measured. Because the estimation price is lower than the original costing price. Many factors like inflation, government fiscal policy, break in continuous construction, political interruption is not considered at the time of cost estimation. The sales revenue forecast is not match with the original situation. Negotiable-(Bid and Ask) price is charged to the clients. As a result the sales revenue varies with the forecasting. Pricing strategy is not appropriate because the clients bargaining are not satisfied.
  • In Dhaka the housing problem is basically for the lower income people, but the private real estate developers are developing the land for the higher income people. Due to poor load bearing capacity of soil, high-rise buildings are very difficult to build in places being developed by real estate entrepreneurs at present. Hence, low density of residential area is resulting in the form of inefficient utilization of the land resources. Urban area is expanding horizontally without maintaining any guidelines. The unexpected and unplanned growth of residential areas is creating extra problems for the city managers. There is no link between the existing structure plan and the real estate developments. Consequently these projects are creating sheer stress on the planned development of the city. This is also creating polarization in the demand of services and facilities. For the buyers, land hoarding is the main objective to purchase the plots. As a result, the developers develop land for housing to earn more profit, which were used for playground. They are also using place, which were in the lake. On the other hand, buyers keep their plots vacant the new housing projects are creating tremendous impact on the natural drainage of an area. Consequently water logging has become a common phenomenon in this area.
  •  Real estate companies doing their business because of profit. They are not doing their duty for society. They are not doing marketing research in huge manner. They only buying land and develop it and then they sell it to the customers. Because of high demand of housing, customers have to buy the flats or apartments in high cost. Real estate companies are not doing any research to fulfill the high perception of the customers.
  •  Real estate business is one kind of service. So customer satisfaction is very important factor in this sector. Real estate companies are not doing any kind of marketing research but they need to do lots of marketing research to give their better service.

Recommendation:

1        THL should increase more skilled manpower to do its activities more efficiently, so that many of the employees do not have to take mental pressure to handover the projects in time.

2        Adopting the latest office automation is very important for delivering swift customer service as well as continuing smooth activities.

3        Maintaining internal quality management through training to its employees.

4        Inclusion of more subjects based on the effective design and construction and marketing  in the Training courses of the THL Training in order to develop expertise.

5        The authority of THL should give more emphasize on modernization of customer service.

6        It should open a customer care window to update the information about their project’s completion.

7        THL should appoint a sufficient number of women employees to deal with woman clients, professionals or officials & open Women desk to consult with the women because most of the women clients booking their flat for their family.

8        To follow the RAJUK plan for a safe, secured, environmental accommodation. To give the security of apartment buyers that the project will be handover in time and the materials will be used same as the contract is made.

9        THL needs venture capitalist from idle asset holder.

10    To establish and develop a market drives leadership and lays great emphasis on securing of quality business.

11    Through pragmatic and market friendly policies to continue increase in volume of business.

12    Product / Service expansion

13    Provides highest level of satisfaction to customers and appraise feedback by questionnaire.

14    REHAB needs to establish a common market place where buyers both home and abroad will find all products in a single location.

15    Project type, Land area, Consultant, No of apartments, Size of apartment, Total car parking should mentioned specifically.

16    General terms and conditions should be mentioned clearly.

17    The estimated cost and estimated sales revenue should appropriately measured because it will give the idea about pricing that will give revenue and will give the business a clear position.

18    Profit maximization should not be the motto.

19    DAP implementation should be in mind for future generation.

20    To keep in mind the middle class customers and prepare the apartment for them.

Conclusion:

          Techno Holdings Ltd is trying heart and soul to overcome all its lacking and doing marketing research for satisfying their customers. But some real estate companies are not doing marketing research as it requires. So they cannot satisfy their customers and also making lots of natural problem. Though main purpose of the real estate companies is to give the service to the customers then it is essential to do marketing research on their projects. They should strictly maintain regular research program when they start any project.

 Real Estate

Categories
EEE

Present State of Electricity in Bangladesh

Introduction: 

Bangladesh is an energy hungry country. Power infrastructure of Bangladesh is small and insufficient but the demand is rapidly increasing. The per capita power consumption in Bangladesh is about 136kwh which is one of the lowest in the world but for huge population density our power sector is in enormous pressure. In Bangladesh, electricity is the major source of power and most of the economical activities depends on electricity.

Generation of electricity

Total electric power generation (installed) capacity of Bangladesh is 5823MW [BPDP, June 2010] and only three-fourth of which is considered to be available. The present [Feb, 2011] effective power generation capacity per day is about 4000 MW and the demand is 5000MW. Only 40% of our total population has the access to electricity and in rural areas it is less than that .

Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal, but potentially very large natural gas resources that’s why, most of the generation plant used natural gas as fuel. Some coal, diesel, furnace oil is also used in production of electric power. About 87% of our total electric power is produced by natural gas, 5.75 % by furnace oil, 4.29 % by coal, 3.19 % by diesel and 3.95 % is produced from hydro electric plant.

Electricity distribution and consumption

In Bangladesh, electricity distribution system in controlled by national grid. Total electric power, generated from the power plants is first supplied to the national grid then to the hole counrty through national grid. The Padma-Jamuna-Meghna river divides power distribution sytem into two zones, East and West. The East contains nearly all of the country’s electric generating capacity, while the West, with almost no natural resources, must import power from the East. Electricity interconnection from the East to the West was accomplished in 1982 by a new, 230-kilovolt (kV) power transmission line. The vast majority of Bangladesh’s electricity consumption takes place in the East, with the entire region west of the Jamuna River accounting for only 22% of the total. There are many organizations to distribute electric power in hole country. Dhaka electric supply authority (desa), Dhaka electric supply company (desco), dhaka power development corporation (DPDC), rural electrification board (REB), west zone power development company limited (WZPDCL) etc.

In last few years power consumption in bangladesh is increased in such a high rate that, inspite of increasing the power generation in a considerable amount , our power system doesn’t meet the goal and still we have a large amount of power shortage.

key problems in power sector

Load shedding and voltage variation
The state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), which controls nearly three-fourths of the total generation capacity in Bangladesh, has resorted to load shedding as a means to reconcile demand to the available capacity. Load shedding is a significant constraint on growth of the economy.

Operating Inefficiency
The power sector does not fare well in terms of operating efficiency. For example, Bangladesh requires considerably more employees per customer served than is the case in many countries.

 System loss
System loss occurs both for technical reasons and for reasons of inefficiency and corruption in administration. Exact figures of loss are unknown but, at approximately 30 per cent, the net country-wide system loss is probably among the highest in the developing world. The losses incurred differ dramatically across the various utilities.

Unadjusted tariff structures and ineffective billing procedures
Many countries have been unable to establish tariff structures and billing procedures that enable the power sector to be financially self-supporting. The resulting losses require subsidies from government or donor agencies that divert revenue away from other important programmes,such as education and public health. This problem has afflicted the Bangladesh power sector entities to varying degrees.

Recommendations 
Bangladesh is a developing country and most serious challenges we faces is power crisis. What ever we forecast for demand but our calculation failed because if you produce right now 7000 megawatt, it will fulfill with in a very short time because of many development and industries are waiting for power. If power is available, we will see many new projects, industries will consume immediately.

In electricity, when we save power it means we produce power. If somebody save 100 watt, another user can use that power. Therefore energy efficiency is essential in every electric product. All the develop world even India also have energy efficiency authority to motivate and regulating energy efficiency policy.

Now, let’s see in which sector we can reduce use of energy and some policy to motivate the people.

Industrial Sector
Major energy use in industrial sector and there are inductive and non inductive load. In our country, there are no major rules or not applied properly the rules for machine use. Like many industry using motor and sometimes those motor are not efficient at all and may be it will be recondition or old enough to be an efficient motor. Most of the inductive load do not have soft starter. Even in general use of water pump, there are no standard efficient level for selecting pump. Therefore people using 2500 tk water pump and that same 1 hp pump, in good branded one will be 7500 or higher. But people choose low price one which will destroy power and less efficient.

Air condition
Now on days, we are used to use of these products. It is inductive load and consumed good amount of energy. Nobody cares to reduce the temp level or efficient products. Recently, at the same price, many manufacture offering 50% less power but same BTU because they are using DC motor. Therefore high tax, high electricity unit price where higher then 3-5 kilo residential load needed. But it may not be possible due to political and public emotion purpose. But still there are no substitutes to make energy expensive then people will careful to use of energy.

 Lighting purpose
We came to new energy saving age and using cfl bulb or tube. It will save energy sure but it cause heavy damage in environmental. Every cfl contain mercury and emit UV. UV is harmful for our skin and mercury is highly radioactive poison. When any bulb damage in our room, we have to keep vacant that room and open door, windows because of mercury vapor. After that we send it outside or sale. If it is goes to river, soil it will damage the water and its poison circle will start. It affect drinking water, fish and we take water or fish and cause cancer, unborn child defect, etc. Some tube light THD level also too high which decrease gird performance. we can use LED light in this purpose. It is environmental friendly, long life (50000 Hrs where cfl is 3000 to 5000 hrs), very less energy consume even one third comparing cfl. As it is still expensive, we can use certified cfl and rules and regulation for recycling cfl. Another thing is still now; customs do not have HS code or tax structure for led light, bulb or tube. Led light must have duty/ tax free access.

BTS for mobile operator
Bangladesh has rapidly expanding mobile uses and according to that base transmission station also need. Now, 25000 over BTS running and more 7000 or more coming within 2 years. For mobile company, energy unit rate must have different category (high). Every BTS they use 2 pc 1 ton air conditioner which run round the clock. Now, if we calculate everyday 18 hrs air condition running this means 32.4 kilo only air condition. 32.4 times 25000 = 810000 kilo everyday 810 megawatt everyday.

Future plan 
In Bangladesh ,crisis in power sector becomes one of the major problems .some recent steps and a strong and clear forecasting is needed to overcome that problems .power sector is always been one of the major priority for Bangladesh government . To overcome the problems, a large and clear future plan is been taken by Bangladesh government.

Bangladesh government will increase power generation to reach their goal of ‘load shedding free Bangladesh ” , for that a large number of power new plant will be installed in next 5 years.

Power plant in Sirajgonj 
Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina recently (4th april,2011) laid foundation stone of 150 megawatt peaking power plant at Saidabad in the district. Hasina also inaugurated expansion works of the Saidabad-Enayetpur road and reopened the much-expected Sirajganj National Jute Mills previously known as Qaumi Jute Mills.

 Chittagong power to get Canadian help
A Canadian company has expressed its interest in generating electricity from the domestic waste produced by the Chittagong city people every day. CEO of Canadian Company Technology Not Theory (TNT) Steve Smith expressed the interest to the Mayor of CCC in meeting with the mayor recently. The project is fully environment friendly and pollution free, Smith pointed.

Power Grid Company installing substation
The Power Grid Company of Bangladesh recently signed an agreement with German company Siemens to install a substation that would link about 30 kilometers grid interconnection between Bangladesh and India to import 500MW electricity from 2012.

BGMEA to set up power plant
Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), apex body of the readymade garment (RMG) industry, will shortly begin a technical assessment on setting up small, area-based power plants. The BGMEA move came in response to Prime Minister (PM) Sheikh Hasina’s call recently to set up such power plants to meet industry demand.

North West power generation company to install 810 MW power plant

North-West Power Generation Company (NWPGCO), a newly formed state-owned power company, is set to install 810 MW power project in the northwestern part of the country to address nagging power crisis of the area.

Bangladesh and India power transmission deal 

Bangladesh and India signed a power transmission agreement for electricity to be imported to energy-starved Bangladesh.

Initially, 250 megawatts of power would be available to Bangladesh from India, with transmission to start in 2012.
Under the deal, state-owned Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. will invest and construct 50 miles of transmission line, which it will own, operate and maintain. PGCIL will recover the construction costs under a fixed rate over 35 years.

While the agreement is limited to importing 500 megawatts of electricity from India, state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board Chairman Alamgir Kabir said that more interconnections might be built in the future with Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar to ensure greater energy security

Bangladesh and Russia deal 
In May 2011, Bangladesh and Russia signed a framework agreement for Bangladesh’s first nuclear plant, expected to produce at least 2,000 megawatts of electricity by 2020. Bangladesh aims to have nuclear energy account for 10 percent of its total power generation by that time.

Government to set up coal based power plant 

According to Power System Master Plan (PSMP) the government has planned to set up eight new power plants with 4,000MW capacity by the year 2015. The government has primarily identified 13 places to install coal based power plants and now trying to install four plants at Khulna, Mongla, Meghnaghat and Chittagong areas, Taking into consideration the fast-growing demand of power consumption amid scanty supply, the PSMP has also taken up a mega-plan for producing about 20500MW additional electricity in 20 years from 2005 to 2025 by setting up 30 new plants. Bangladesh government needs US dollar six billion to implement coal power projects to meet the increased demand of electricity in the country. Of the plants, eight or more will be installed in the country’s north and northeastern regions where demand for electricity is increasing at a galloping rate of seven percent, in order to achieve this goal the development of Barapukuria and Phulbari should be more intensive.

SOURCE OF ENERGY

Natural Gas

Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon-dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.
In Bangladesh natural gas is most important indigenous source of energy that accounts for 75% of the commercial energy of the country. About 89% of the electricity generated in the country comes from gas fired power plants. Installed capacity of Electricity generation by gas is steam-2638 MW (45.31%), Gas turbines-1466 MW (25.18%), combined cycle-1263 MW (21.69%). So far in Bangladesh 23 gas fields have been discovered with the rate of success ratio is 3.1:1 of which two of the gas fields are located in offshore area. Gas is produced from 17 gas fields (79 gas wells). To reduce the dependency on natural gas, alternative energy resource must be explored. Average daily gas production capacity is about 2000 mmcfd of which International Oil Companies (IOC) produce 1040 mmcfd and State Owned Companies (SOC) produce 960 mmcfd. At present the daily approximate projected gas demand throughout the country is 2500 MMCFD. The demand is increasing day by day. Energy and Mineral Resources Division (EMRD) has already undertaken an array of short, medium, fast track and long term plans to increase gas production to overcome prevailing gas shortage. After completion of these plans production capacity is expected to increase to about 2353 MMCFD gas by December 2015. To increase the gas production more programs will be taken in near future.

Oil

Oil is another source of electricity generation. Bangladesh is not a oil enriched country. Diesel, Furnace oil (HFO) are generally used in Bangladesh to produce electricity. Here 226 MW (3.87%) electricity generates from Diesel. To meet the total demand of commercial energy, Bangladesh imports annually about 1.3 million metric Tons of crude oil. In addition to this, another 2.7 million metric Tons (approx) of refined petroleum products per annum is imported. Condensate is mixed with crude oil. Major consumer of liquid fuel is transport sector followed by agriculture, industry and commercial sector which is mostly met by imported liquid fuel. Eastern Refinery Limited (ERL), a subsidiary company of Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC), is capable of processing 1.3 million metric Tons of crude oil per year.

Oil was tested in two of the gas fields (Sylhet and Kailashtila). Crude oil, the liquid form of hydrocarbon, has been discovered in commercial quantity only in the Haripur oil field in Sylhet. The oil field has an estimated in-place oil reserve of about 10 million barrels, with a recoverable reserve of about 6 million barrels. The oil field produced 0.56 million barrels of oil in six years. Khulna Power Company Limited is one of the main oil based power station of Bangladesh. Furnace oil is its main fuel.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is the energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, water, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional Biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.

Hydroelectricity
Karnafuli Hydro Power Station the only hydropower plant in the country is located at kaptai, about 50 km from the port city of chittagong. This plant was constructed in 1962 as part of the ‘Karnafuli Multipurpose Project’, and is one of the biggest water resources development project of Bangladesh. After being commissioned in 1962, the plant could feed the national grid with 80 MW of electricity. In later years, the generation capacity was increased in two phases to a total of 230 MW which is 3.95% of total generated electricity. The plant not only plays an important role in meeting the power demand of the country but is also vital as a flood management installation for the areas downstream.
In future hydroelectricity will be a probable sector of power generation of Bangladesh. Possibility of installing mini and micro level hydro-electric power plant in the hilly areas of Bangladesh would be explored.

Solar Energy

Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Potential of solar energy is good in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a poor country and it’s a huge cost to established a power plant. Consequently, the only option that is open to Bangladesh at the moment is renewable energy such as solar and hydro-electric. Particularly solar energy is sufficiently abundant in Bangladesh and can fruitfully be harnessed. But due to its higher cost of equipment it has to go a long way to become commercially viable. However, in remote areas of Bangladesh it is gradually becoming popular and government has undertaken lot of scheme to subsidize on it. Presently there are about 2, 64,000 solar panels installed throughout the country.

Now, more than 3 lakh houses (.3m) of 465 upazilla of all the districts and 16 islands are getting the light of solar energy. The beneficiaries of this system are about 30 lacks (3m). 44 megawatt electricity is produced everyday from the solar projects in Bangladesh. In future Bangladesh Government wants to produce 20% of electricity from the solar energy.

Bio-Gas 
Biogas may be the most promising renewable energy resource. Presently there are about 50,000 households and village-level biogas plants in place throughout the country. There is a huge potential for expansion in rural areas.
There is prospect of producing 1,000MW electricity from Biogas and if the opportunity is utilized the growing shortage of electricity could be solved in this power-starved country. The government agency Infrastructure Development Company Limited sources said Bangladesh has 215,000 poultry farms and 15,000 cattle farms. Establishing biogas plants in these farms, electricity could be generated. So far 35,000 biogas plants have been established across the country and these plants are producing gas, which is being used for cooking purposes in the rural areas. At present 33 lack squire feet biogas is being produced in the country daily. The Government agency said they got eight core tons of cow dung in 2004.With this cow dung, 30 lack biogas plants could be run. Government has a target to establishing 60,000 biogas plants by 2012.

Wind Power
Wind power harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. 31 At the end of 2009, worldwide wind farm capacity was 157,900 MW, representing an increase of percent during the year. Germany, Spain, Denmark, Portugal, United States are leading wind power producer country.
Bangladesh generates a very small amount of electricity from this sector. Windmills are with capacity of 2 MW in operation in the coastal area of Bangladesh. The possibly of this type of power generation is low.

Nuclear Energy
Nuclear power station use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235 inside a nuclear reactor. Now a day it’s one of the major sources of electricity. At present in Bangladesh electricity generates from nuclear energy is 0%. Recently we signed an agreement with Russia to install our first nuclear plant at Rooppur in Pabna. The construction cost is initially being put at between US$1.5 billion and $2 billion in the final agreement The Rooppur nuclear power plant (RNPP) will eventually generate around 2,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity, with each of two proposed reactors having a capacity to generate 1,000 MW.

Coal as a source of energy

Coal is a valuable and plentiful natural global resource. Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity, worldwide. Coal plays a vital role in electricity generation worldwide. Coal-fired power plants currently fuel 41% of global electricity.
Besides natural gas, Bangladesh has significant coal reserve. Coal reserves of about 3.3 billion tons comprising 5 deposits at depths of 118-1158 meters have been discovered so far in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The name of these deposits are-Barapukuria, Phulbari and Dighipara coal field in Dinajpur district, Khalashpir in Rangpur district and Jamalganj in Joypurhat district. Out of which 4 deposits (118-509 meters) are extractable at present. As an alternative fuel to natural gas, coal can be extensively used. The depth of Jamalganj coal deposit is 640-1158 meter with 1053 Million Tones in-situ coal reserve where production may not be viable by present day’s technology due to the depth of the deposits. Possibilities of extraction of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) need to be explored from this coal deposits. Government is actively reviewing law to be applicable for Exploration and Production of Coal Bed Methane. So far, only Barapukuria coal field is under production. Dinajpur Barapukuria coal fired power plant is our first coal based power plant which capacity is 250MW. Then some small power plant was made. Bangladesh has a bright future in coal based power generation if we remove the obstacle of this sector.

SOURCE OF COAL IN BANGLADESH

Coal fields of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is sleeping on coal mine bed located in the northern districts of Rangpur and Dinajpur, while facing a mounting energy crisis and relies on natural gas as the main source of energy, which is depleting at geometrical progression. In contrast, Bangladesh has proven reserve of 3.0 billion tonnes of low sulphur, low ash, high caloric value bituminous coal in five discovered coal mines – Phulbari, Barapukuria, Jamalganj, Dighipara and Khalsapir.

Bangladesh has 15 tcf (trillion cubic feet) of proven reserve of natural gas; the remaining 6 tcf reserve of natural gas may run out by 2015, if no discovery is made soon.  As against this, the coal reserves in five fields of Bangladesh are estimated at 3.0 billion tonnes equivalent to 67 tcf of gas, which can conveniently serve the energy needs of Bangladesh for 50 years.

 The depth of the discovered fields ranges between 119 – 506 metres and 150 – 240 metres in Barapukuria and Phulbari respectively. The depth of the largest field at Jamalganj ranges from 900 – 1000 metres.  The area covered by coal fields is rather limited and is about 70 – 80 square kilometres. A total of 1.73 million tonnes of coal has been extracted by underground method from Barapukuria up to December 2008. The present value of coal per tonne in international market is for steam coal US$ 65-115, coking coal US$ 250, metallurgic coke coal US$ 525. The total value of coal will be more than US$ 500 billion.

 Barapukuria Coal Field
The Barapukuria coalfield is located at the Parbatipur Upazila of Dinajpur district, at a distance of about 50 km southeast of Dinajpur town. The coalfield has a proved area of about 5.25sq km. The estimated resource of the coalfield is 390 MT.
The government decided to establish an underground coal mine at Barapukuria. In 1993, the government entered into a contract with the Chinese government for technical and financial assistances for establishing the mine. The mine construction by the Chinese contractor started in 1996 and was originally scheduled to be completed by 2001. But this was delayed and finally commercial production started from September 2005.

However, the underground mining operation in Barapukuria has been facing many difficulties from the beginning of its development stage. In 1998, a sudden water inrush flooded the mine and forced to suspend mine development works for two years. The revised mine design reduced both mineable reserve and mine life. In fact, the existing geologic setup: the thick overlying water bearing Upper Dupi Tila  sequence, high jointed thick coal seam (36m) with numerous faults and joints made the situation difficult for smooth economic operation of the mine. The unfavorable underground mining environment with high temperature, very high humidity, and unidentified sources of hot water, spontaneous combustion and lethal gas emission made the situation dangerous and unhygienic for the mine workers. An incident of spontaneous combustion and emission of poisonous carbon monoxide gas led to suspend operation and sealing off a mining face with one of its longwall systems.

Phulbari Coal Field

The Phulbari coalfield was discovered in 1997 by BHP Minerals. The Phulbari coalfield is located about 10 km south of the Barapukuria coal field and in the vicinity of Phulbari township. The coalfield is conveniently located close to the new dual gauge rail line.
Subsequent to the discovery of Phulbari coalfield, BHP Minerals decided to withdraw from Bangladesh and transferred its Contract and existing licenses to another mining company Asia Energy Corporation (Bangladesh) Pty Ltd with the approval of the Government. In this regard, an Assignment Agreement was signed on 11 February 1998.  The pre feasibility study carried out in 2000 confirmed the economic viability of large scale open pit mine in Phulbari Basin. Asia Energy had undertaken a detailed feasibility study including extensive geological, hydro geological, environmental and social studies during the period 2004-05 and established an internationally accepted (JORC Standard) resource of 572 Mt of high quality thermal and metallurgical coal.
The mining area in the Phulbari Basin covers an area of eight kilometers (north-south) by three kilometers (east-west) with coal seam(s) varying between 15-70 meters thick at some 150-270 meters beneath the surface, with average combined thickness of 38 meters. The Phulbari coal is high volatile bituminous coal. It has low ash (average 15%) and low sulfur content (<1%) and therefore suitable for both power generation and for producing semi-soft coking coal.
Asia Energy submitted Scheme of Development on October 2005 to the Government with a plan to develop the Phulbari coal deposit by the open cut mining method. In 5 years three governments failed to either approve the scheme or reject it with technical justifications. Coal resources of Phulbari remains unexplored.
The mine is estimated to produce 15 million tonnes of coal per year over 35 years of mine life. Asia Energy has also submitted proposal to setup up to 1000 MW mine mouth coal-fired power plant based on Phulbari coal. In addition to coal, the open pit mining method will allow economic extraction of other co-products like kaolin, clay, glass sand rock and aggregate, which are in high demand.

Jamalganj Coal Field
The Jamalganj coalfield is located in Joypurhat district in the vicinity of Jamalganj town and to the west of the north-south broad-gauge railway line. The coalfield was discovered in 1962 by the Geological Survey (of the then Pakistan) under the UN sponsored coal exploration program. Under the program 10 wells were drilled in the Jamaganj-Paharpur area of Joypurhat district. Coal seams were encountered in 9 wells within depth range of 640 to 1158 meter below the surface in Permian Gondwana rocks. The 9 bore holes that penetrated the coal seams are spread over an area having a maximum east-west distance of 12.5 km and a north-south distance of 4.8 km. The coal field has an estimated resource of 1053 Mt bituminous coal.
Following the discovery of the coalfield, several international consultants, were invited to conduct mine feasibility study. These include Fried Krupp Rohstoff (1966), Polwell Daffryn Technical Services (1969) and Robertson Research International (1976). Although rated technically feasible, the economic feasibility of mining Jamalganj coal could not be shown because of the unfavorable depth of coal seams. Eventually, the idea of mining coal from Jamalganj field was abandoned when a large coal deposit was discovered at much shallower depth of about 120 meter below the surface at Barapukuria basin in Dinajpur district. However, developing coal bed methane (CBM) in the Jamalganj coalfield has since been considered a potentially viable option.

 Khalashpir Coal Field
Khalashpir coalfield is located in Pirganj Upazila of Rangpur district, about 13 km west of Pirganj town. Khalashpir coalfield was discovered in 1989 by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh. The coalfield was delineated and defined on the basis of the four drill holes done during 1989-90. The coal was encountered at depths ranging from 257 to 482 meter below the surface in a Gondwana basin. Occurrence of coal has been proved in an area of about 2.52 sq km and a further extension of the basin is estimated. The Khalashpir coalfield has an estimated resource varying from 143-450 Mt.
4.1.5 Dighipara Coal Field
Dighipara coalfield is located in Dighupara Upazila of Rangpur district, Dighipara coalfield was discovered in 1995 by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh. The coalfield was delineated and defined on the basis of the five drill holes. The coal was encountered at depths is 327meter below the surface. The Dighipara coalfield has an estimated resource of 200 Mt.

Coal mining methods

However, we failed to explore and exploit the natural resources to utilize these for economic development. We have miserably failed to cope up with the increasing energy demand of the country. We have age-old mining policy, mining act and mining regulations. We do not have any exploration and utilization strategy of gas reserve. We are yet to have a coal policy finalized. The Bureau of Mineral Development issued a license to BHP(Broken Hill Proprietary Company), Australia in 1994 for exploration of Phulbari Mine. The license was transferred to Asia Energy in 1997. Bangladesh media quoting responsible sources stated that Asia Energy is yet to obtain mining license. However, the mining could not proceed due to alleged lack of transparency in award of the license and unrest in the area triggered by a motivated group of left leaning intellectuals. The agitations lead to death of 6 protesters in police and paramilitary troops firing.Coal mining at Phulbari and other coal fields now hinges on the Coal Policy under consideration of the government. The Coal Policy is pending for quite some time due to disagreements on some issues, namely,

(a) Open pit versus underground mining
(b) Social environmental impact management
(c) Royalty etc. Government engaged committee having line professionals

Selection of mining methods depend on several things – geology of mine area, terrain condition, topography, soil condition and nature, depth, thickness and nature of coal seam, surface and subsurface soil condition.

One of the major challenges the energy sector is facing is to find out ways how to economically exploit its substantial high quality coal reserve .The predominantly mono fuel –Natural Gas dependent power generation is in limbo. The proven gas resource is widely believed to be exhausted in not too distant future. For confusion and panic set in by inexperienced ill motivated theoreticians and absence of strong political commitment government could not take decision of appropriate mining strategy to economically exploit coal resource. The deficit is widening. The ensuing summer will witness massive load shedding.

The just installed democratic government will face serious embarrassment for failures of incompetent last political and immediately past Care Taker Government. Of the 5 discovered ca coal mines the Jamalgonj coal is at greater depth which cannot be mined in traditional mining methods. Coal at Khalaspeer and Dighipara are also at relatively greater depth. Barapukuria and Phulbari coal are at relative shallower depth. The geology makes these ideal for open pit surface mining which is in practice in the following countries now.

Bangladesh which has limited capacity to purchase petroleum products from volatile world oil market cannot continue to keep its fortune buried underground forever. It cannot also remain confused triggered from myths and ill motivated propaganda of a vested group. The disadvantage is most of our innocent people as well as policy makers do not have much knowledge of mining. There is no scope of learning mining technology in Bangladesh also. During Pakistan days sons of well to do persons who could not get admissions in Ahshanullah Engineering College used to go to Lahore to study mining. This group of mining engineers worked in Gas sector in absence of mining activities in Bangladesh. They could neither become good miners nor good gas engineers. Rather for their control other professionals got frustrated and many left gas sectors. Many mining engineers created controversy in Gas Sector also. There were few outstanding mining engineers as well. But no all of them retired. But unfortunately none of them were included in drafting coal policy.

Bangladesh let a Chinese company start underground mining at Barapukuria. Many mining experts felt the existing geology can never make underground mining technically viable or economically feasible there. Still a vested group of BNP government from 1991-96 allowed to start Barapukuria mining under suppliers credit. Experts now feel that there were several juggleries in the project approval process. It now appears that proper risk assessments of Bapaukuria mining were not done. The possible and probable subsidence impacts were not anticipated and no actions were foreseen to address those impacts. Now after a more that one and a half decade of trouble tone mining with several major set backs at various stage mine subsidence impacts are now visible which may puts future of mining uncertain.

BHP Billiton, the leading Mining Company of the world was given mining lease at Phulabri where very thick seam bituminous coal is lying at shallow depth. At some stage of survey and assessment it transferred lease to Asia Energy Corporation. (AEC) UK.AEC carried out extensive survey, carried out some exploratory drillings, completed extensive Environment Impact Assessment studies. Then it submitted a comprehensive study to Government of Bangladesh in January 2005 after meeting all the contractual requirements. The development plan included surface mining methods. It included proper relocation and rehabilitation plan of the affected people. Bangladesh was due to approve to reject the development plan within the contractual time frame.

He engaged a  so called Energy Expert   to review the Phulbari mining matters. This gentleman stepped out of his assigned responsibility and agitated the people of Phulbari over AEC proposed open pit mining.BNP government should have done community consultations to pacify the situation. But a very arrogant Mahmud let situation go out of control .The local agitation led to unfortunate situation when some innocent misguided local people were killed.

The local situation was to be controlled by signing a compromise agreement by Mayor Rajshahi and MP. This irrelevant piece of paper was signed with a legally unrecognizable organisation. Now based on this the agitators are demanding to scrap AEC contract , banning open pit mining etc, etc & etc. Any sensible person will realize that such an agreement has no legal bearing in dealing with a contract signed between a sovereign government and an international company.

Any contract includes a termination clause. It requires one party to establish default of the other party with evidences. It also requires the party notifying default of the other party to give them to defend its position. If Bangladesh ventures to terminate the AEC contract then this will obviously go to arbitration. Bangladesh will invariably loose and will have to pay huge compensation.

Open pit mining
Open pit mining as defined in open encyclopaedia states, “Open pit mining, also known as opencast mining, open –cut mining, and strip mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Open –pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surfaces, that is where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunneling .For minerals that occur deep below the surface –where overburden is thick or minerals occurs as veins in hard rock – underground mining methods extract the valuable material.

Open pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resources are exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake.

Open Cut mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. These benches are usually on four meter to sixty meter intervals, depending on the size of the machinery that is being used. Many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow.

Most walls of the pit are generally dug on an angle less than vertical, to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. This depends on how weathered the rocks are, and the type of rock, and also how many structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a fault, shears, joints or foliations.

The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or perm. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and concrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause failures in the wall by itself.A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock.

Waste rock is piled up at the surface, near the edge of the open cut. This is known as the waste dump. The waste dump is also tiered and stepped, to minimize degradation. Ore which has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally a slurry. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates. Tailings dams can often be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, and often cyanide which is used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process.
After mining finishes, the mine area must undergo rehabilitation. Waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out, to further stabilize them. If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, which can oxidize the sulfides to produce sulfuric acid, a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage. This is then generally covered with soil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material. Eventually this layer will erode, but it is generally hoped that the rate of leaching or acid will be slowed by the cover such that the environment can handle the load of acid and associated heavy metals. There are no long term studies on the success of these covers due to the relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. It may take hundreds to thousands of years for some waste dumps to become “acid neutral” and stop leaching to the environment. The dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation. The open pit is then surrounded with a fence, to prevent access, and it generally eventually fills up with ground water. In arid areas it may not fill due to the deep groundwater levels.

Environmentalists in all countries oppose mining; oppose burning of coal. But nowhere they can ride over policy makers to keep mining suspended for years when the energy security is compromised by not adopting economic mining method as is the case in Bangladesh. In this context it will not be out of place to discuss almost a similar situation in Malaysia – a country having almost similar geographical, geological and environmental situation like Bangladesh.

Underground Coal mining
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process, which converts coal into product gas. UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface. The product gas could to be used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. The technique can be applied to resources that are otherwise unprofitable or technically complicated to extract by traditional mining methods and it also offers an alternative to conventional coal mining methods for some resources.
Underground coal gasification converts coal to gas while still in the coal seam (in-situ). Gas is produced and extracted through wells drilled into the un-mined coal seam. Injection wells are used to supply the oxidants (air, oxygen, or steam) to ignite and fuel the underground combustion process. Separate production wells are used to bring the product gas to surface. The high pressure combustion is conducted at temperature of 700–900 °C (1,290–1,650 °F), but it may reach up to 1,500 °C (2,730 °F). The process decomposes coal and generates carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (ḥ), carbon monoxide (CO) and small quantities of methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide(H2S). As the coal face burns and the immediate area is depleted, the oxidants injected are controlled by the operator
As coal varies considerably in its resistance to flow, depending on its age, composition and geological history, the natural permeability of the coal to transport the gas is generally not adequate. For high pressure break-up of the coal, hydro-fracturing, electric-linkage, and reverse combustion may be used in varying degrees.
Two methods are commercially available. One uses vertical wells and a method of reverse combustion to open internal pathways in the coal. The process was used in the Soviet Union and was later modified by Ergo Energy. It was tested in Chinchilla site in 1998–2003. Livermore developed another method that creates dedicated inseam boreholes, using drilling and completion technology adapted from oil and gas production. It has a movable injection point known as CRIP (controlled retraction injection point) and generally uses oxygen or enriched air for gasification.
According to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation the following coal seam characteristics are most suitable for the underground coal gasification:
Depth of 100–600 meters (330–2,000 ft)
Thickness more than 5 meters (16 ft)
Ash content less than 60%
Minimal discontinuities

There are a number of site specific technical factors which are important to the process. Coals with wide range of properties can be utilized, items of significance include
The geology of the coal seam must be continuous and preferably thicker than three meters.
The overburden should be more than 100m thick, relatively impermeable and with reasonable strength above the coal seam.
The water table preferably should be within 20m or from the ground surface to provide cavity water pressure to balance the oxidant injection pressure and limit product gas leak
While each of the above each of the above item is individually important, it is over an appraisal of many technical aspects of the site that govern sits suitability for development. Commercial matters like size of coal reserve and the market for the produced gas are also critical for the development of a project at a particular site.

Comparison between the methods
Bangladeshi policy makers may carry out some research on UCG .It is not very difficult to locate the real pioneers of UCG. Whether or not UCG can be applicable in any Bangladesh coalmine is subjected to extensive feasibility study by truly professional company of proven track record. It is too early to comment on suitability of Bangladeshi coal mines for UCG. Let Government find the most appropriate company from among handful companies involved in UCG in Australia, South Africa and Pakistan. Let there be authentic feasibility study. Minor companies can tell stories but they can do nothing practically. UCG is a highly sophisticated and sensitive technology. One of the early generation UCG pioneer Russian Canadian Mr Blinderman is now living in Canada. Bangladesh must not try amateur attempt to extract UCG from its mines as they did with Barapukuria coalmine pursuing inappropriate underground mining. If any of our mine qualify for UCG that must be established by experts of proven technology. But this must not bring any impediments to mining of coal from reserves which are suitable for traditional mining.
Professionals already mentioned time and again about applicability of Strip Mining [Open Pit] at Barapukuria and Phulbari. Many thinks a combination of Open pit and underground mining can work in Khalaspeer and Dighipara. Unfortunately detail feasibility study could only be carried out at Phulbari by internationally accredited consultants. . Even then policy makers could not take decision on Phulbari after 5 years of receipt of professional mining proposal. The in appropriate mining at Barapukuria has triggered disaster. The most suitable mine for strip mining is an opportunity lost. Barapukuria is proved to be a failed project yet triggered massive subsidence at very early stage of mining. It experienced all impacts of an failed underground long wall mining .Luckily there has been not many causalities so far.

For example:
The existence of the open-pit mine, in Mukah have proven to be a blessing to the Iban community because:
They benefitted directly from the land compensation given by the said mining company for rights to mine on their land. Evidence can be seen from the fact that many of the long houses locating on the Mukah Coalfield have utilised the money to upgrade their longhouses and to purchase other necessities to enjoy comfort of modern living.
Through employment received from the said mining company , the community can supplement their shifting cultivation income by the more consistent monthly wages earned working as mining crew.
A As they are expose to the usage of modern equipment , they are able to accelerate their assimilation into modern world of 21st century and this will augur well for the Iban community in general specially for the younger generation.

The open cut mining project in Mukah have brought substantial benefits to the local community and the State of Srawak, through such contribution as Royalties to the sate for extraction of coal, a better standard of living for the local community through direct and indirect employment and a general increase in business for the local businesses in Mukah Division.
There seems to be lot of similarities of Mukah region of Malaysia with our Phulbari, Barapukuria region. We can definitely try to learn lessons and try to replicate the good works. Malaysia is not very far from Bangladesh. Government can organize sending its officials, mining professionals, environmentalists to eye witness the mining activities, and management of social and environmental impacts of open pit mining. It is not a rocket science. We talk about digital Bangladesh. We still do not know what open pit mining is. Silly and ridiculous to keep our fortune buried while nation continues to suffer from serious energy crisis

COAL IN PROUCTION OF ELECTRICITY

Modern life is unimaginable without electricity. It lights houses, buildings, streets, provides domestic and industrial heat, and powers most equipment used in homes, offices and machinery in factories. Improving access to electricity worldwide is critical to alleviating poverty.

How is Coal Converted to Electricity
Steam coal also known as thermal coal is used in power stations to generate electricity.
Coal is first milled to a fine powder which increases the surface area and allows it to burn more quickly. In these pulverized coal combustion (PCC) systems the powdered coal is blown into the combustion chamber of a boiler where it is burnt at high temperature (see diagram below). The hot gases and heat energy produced converts water – in tubes lining the boiler – into steam.

The high pressure steam is passed into a turbine containing thousands of propeller-like blades. The steam pushes these blades causing the turbine shaft to rotate at high speed. A generator is mounted at one end of the turbine shaft and consists of carefully wound wire coils. Electricity is generated when these are rapidly rotated in a strong magnetic field. After passing through the turbine the steam is condensed and returned to the boiler to be heated once again.
The electricity generated is transformed into the higher voltages (up to 400,000 volts) used for economic efficient transmission via power line grids. When it nears the point of consumption, such as our homes the electricity is transformed down to the safer 100-250 voltage systems used in the domestic market.

Electricity sector in Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s energy infrastructure is quite small insufficient and poorly managed. The per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (136 kWH) in the world. Noncommercial energy sources such as wood, animal wastes, and crop residues are estimated to account for over half of the country’s energy consumption. Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal but very large natural gas resources. Commercial energy consumption is mostly natural gas (around 66%) followed by oil, hydropower and coal.
Electricity is the major source of power for country’s most of the economic activities. Bangladesh’s installed electric generation capacity was 4.7 GW in 2009 only three-fourth of which is considered to be ‘available’. Only 40% of the population has access to electricity with a per capita availability of 136 kWh per annum. Problems in the Bangladesh’s electric power sector include corruption in administration, high system losses, delays in completion of new plants, low plant efficiencies, erratic power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and shortages of funds for power plant maintenance. Overall the country’s generation plants have been unable to meet system demand over the past decade.
In generating and distributing electricity the failure to adequately manage the load leads to extensive load shedding which results in severe disruption in the industrial production and other economic activities. A recent survey reveals that power outages result in a loss of industrial output worth $1 billion a year which reduces the GDP growth by about half a percentage point in Bangladesh. A major hurdle in efficiently delivering power is caused by the inefficient distribution system. It is estimated that the total transmission and distribution losses in Bangladesh amount to one-third of the total generation the value of which is equal to US $247 million per year.

Developing Thar Coal In Bangladesh
Coal is the cheapest source of energy consumed the world over playing a pivotal role in the generation of power for the smooth operation of industries. Thar coal is said to be one of the largest coal reserves in the world situated in Tharparkar Sindh. Coal is the most important source used for generating electricity in most of the developed and developing countries.
The authentic statistics of the World Coal Institute, London published in 2006 say that the share of the coal in the production of power in the United States is about 52.2 per cent while China produces 77.5 per cent of its total electricity by using coal.
The share of coal in the production of electricity is 92.2 per cent in South Africa. Our closest neighbor (India) meets approximately 70 per cent of its power needs through coal whereas we are using just five per cent of our coal for energy production.
Several MoUs were signed between the past government of the PPP and multinational exploration companies which even invested and began working on the infrastructural development of the area but after the removal of the PPP government Mian Nawaz Sharif scrapped those coal development projects on political grounds.
During the Musharraf regime a Chinese company was invited to invest in the project aimed at generating 600 MW of electricity but due to unfriendly attitude of Wapda and Nepra the Chinese company had to quit.
Now when we are facing the worst-ever energy crisis we must start developing Thar coalfields. The Sindh Coal and Energy Board has been established under the chairmanship of the Sindh Chief Minister which has still to show its performance. To end the energy crisis once for all development of Thar coal is the most feasible option available.

Power Generation In Bangladesh
In November 2010 Reuters reported that the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) had announced the aim of generate 9,000 megawatts of electricity by 2015. The country currently produces approximately 4,000 MW of electricity a day “against peak hourly demand of over 6,000 MW.
The BPDB called for tender bids on a number of new power plants including two coal-fired plants. One is a 300MW coal plant to be built near Chittagong port. The tender closes at the end of January 2011. The board has also sought tenders for a 650MW coal plant to be built near Mawa. Both projects are proposed to be constructed on a build own and operate basis for 25 years. Reuters reported that BPDB officials stated that in the near future thwy would call for bids for 10 new power plants to add another 4,000 megawatts of electricity to the national grid.

Local coal for power generation
THE Power Development Board (PDB) has reportedly proposed last week to form a public limited company to install coal-based power plants in future. According to PDB sources four mega coal-based power plants having capacity of producing 500 megawatt of electricity each would be established under the supervision of the proposed company by 2014. Several companies have already expressed interest to establish the plants under Public Private Partnership.
The country suffers from a serious shortage of electricity. According to sources the total generation comes to 3,200mw of electricity against the demand for 4,600mw. The crisis has reached a point of seriously hampering production in mills and factories. Several power plants are reportedly producing electricity less than their capacities. Some others have stopped production due to short supply of gas that fuels 80 percent of power generation. According to a projection, the country will need about 10,000mw and 14,000mw electricity by 2015 and 2020 respectively. But except for limited reserves of gas there is only coal to fuel power plants. So the proposal for installation of coal-based power plants is a step in the right direction.
It has been reported that PDB would use imported coal to run the proposed plants. Bangladesh has a proven reserve of 2,086 million tons of high quality coal. According to experts this coal is enough to generate 5,000mw of electricity for up to 90 years. It will also save about US$500 million that the country spends annually to import coal. Petrobangla had in June even proposed to export two lakh tons of coal from Barapukuria due to storage problem. Then what is the reason behind the idea of using imported coal instead of the local coal. The country should go for early extraction of its own coal resource.

New company to be set up to increase coal-based power generation
The government will form a new company styled ‘Bangladesh Coal Power Company’ to set up the planned coal-fired power plants and increase the country’s electricity generation by using the mineral officials. The power ministry has already decided to create the company after enlisting it with the Registrar of the Joint Stock Companies and Firms (RJSCF).
The proposed new company will boost electricity generation from coal which is abundant in northern Bangladesh. Immediately after formation of the company it will be engaged to facilitate setting up four coal-fired power plants to generate 2,000 megawatts (mw) of electricity each having generation capacity of 500 mw.
The power ministry has taken up the program for installing four coal-fired
power plants under the new concept of the private public partnership (PPP) where the government will own only a fraction of its shares for offering land and infrastructure. It will require around US$ 3.0 billion (Tk 210 billion) for setting up these coal plants. When contacted Chairman of Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) ASM Alamgir Kabir said the board is now working on the formation of the new company to augment electricity generation from the coal-fired power plants.
The company will be constituted with the efficient people where some BPDB officials will also get appointment. The BPDB has already initiated the groundbreaking work and is now selecting sites for setting up the plants. It has primarily selected – Karnaphuli river bank in Chittagong near Mongla seaport in Khulna, Jazira on the bank of Padma and at Meghnaghat on the bank of Meghna – for setting up the plants for smooth transportation of coal.
Initially the planned power plants will be run with the imported coal from the global markets including the key exporting countries like Indonesia, Australia and India. The existing infrastructure like drafting in waterways and expansion of railway tracks will be required for efficient coal transportation, said a power ministry official. All the four proposed coal-fired power plants along with some independent power producer (IPP) projects will be put on offer during the road shows in three key important locations – New York, London and Singapore – in December next.
The major task of the proposed company will be to arrange finance necessary coal supply and develop required infrastructure. Despite having enormous coal reserves of around 3.0 billion tones in five different mines the country’s coal-fired power generation is limited to only one plant at Barapukuria having the generation capacity of 250 mw. Even the Barapukuria plant is struggling to generate electricity to half of its installed capacity.
The country is waiting for adoption of a national coal policy to start coal extraction from the mineral-rich northern region. The country’s overall electricity generation is now hovering around 3,800mw against the peak hour demand for over 5,500mw.

Bangladesh seeks bids for 300 MW coal-fired plant
Bangladesh has invited bids for a 300-megawatt coal-fired power plant to be set up on a build, own and operate basis (BOO) for 25 years. The tender for the plant to be built near the country’s main Chittagong port 300 km (188 miles) southeast of the capital will close on Jan. 31, next year. The bids have been invited as part of a government initiative to generate 9,000 MW of electricity by 2015.The BPDB is the regulator for power generation and distribution in the country where the gap between demand and generation has been growing.
Bids for a short-list of viable firms have also been invited for another 650 MW coal-fired plant to be set up at Mawa 50 km (31 miles) east of the capital, Dhaka also on a BOO basis and for 25 years. The bids for the short-list will close on Dec. 30.Energy-starved Bangladesh which faces a deficit of 2,000 MW of power aims to set up a number of power plants to cover the shortfall as quick as possible.
BPDB awarded a $114 deal to a Chinese firm — China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation to set up a 150 MW power plant in northern Sirajganj by May 2012. BPDB in the recent months signed deals with several foreign and local firms to set up plants or to buy electricity from their rental plants. Britain’s Aggreko PLC and seven other local firms were given deals to supply some 870 megawatts of power to the national grid for five years starting later this year.
Aggreko has already started generating 200 MW from two fuel oil-fired rented generator from August at $0.21 per kilowatt-hour. The British firm also won another deal last month to supply more 150 MW to the Bangladesh national grid from its two small gas-fired plant from February for three years at $0.07 per kilowatt-hour. Bangladesh will soon seek bids for 10 new power plants to add another 4,000 megawatts of electricity to the national grid.

US firms keen to invest in coal sector
American companies are keen to invest in Bangladesh’s coal sector. The US envoy apprised him that American energy companies are interested to help Bangladesh in developing energy sector. They particularly want to invest in coal mining after finalization of the coal policy by the government.
Moriarty noted that the United States would provide necessary assistance for the victims if Bangladesh side seek any help.A number of US companies including oil major Chevron have been operating in the country’s energy and power sector. But this is the first time it was learned that US energy companies are also interested in the coal mines.
Bangladesh has about five coal mines in the country’s northern region, having a total coal deposit of 2.5 billion tons.

Coal In Electrical Power System
World coal fired power plant capacity will grow from 1,759,000 MW in 2010 to 2,384,000 MW in 2020.Some 80,000 MW will be replaced.So there will be 705,000 MW of new coal fired boilers sales will average 70,000 MW.
Coal fired power plants generate approximately 56% of the U.S electricity.A healthy economy requires the effective utilization of the existing infrastructure as new technologies are introduced.Coal plays a vital role in electricity generation worldwide.Coal fired power plant currently fuel 41% of global electricity.In some countries coal fuels a higher percentage of electricity.Germany is one of the major nation who converts coal in electricity generation.In 2008 the gross electric power generation in Germany totalled 639 billion KWH.A major proportion of the electricity supply is based on lignite (23.5%), nuclear energy (23.3%) and hard coal (20.1%).Natural gas has a share of 13% renewables (wind,water,biomass) account for 15.1%.

Coal In Electricity Generation Outside Bangladesh

Name Of The Country

  • Total Generation
  • South Africa 93%
  • Australia 77%
  • USA 49%
  • India 69%
  • Germany 46%

Kogan creek power station of Australia has a capacity of 7636 MW and it produces 2.46% of electricity.Hassyan power station of Arab Emirates has a capacity of 9000 MW and it produces 1.35% of electricity.Altbach power station of Germany has a capacity of 1200 MW and it produces 0.18% of electricity.Cottam power station of United Kingdom has a capacity of 2000 MW and it produces 3.5% of electricity.
Improvements continue to be made in conventional power station design and new combustion technologies are being developed.These allow more electricity to be produced from less coal known as improving the thermal efficiency of the electrical power station.Coal will continue to be a valued resource with over 100 GW of new coal plants projected by 2020.Advanced technology is required to meet economic and environmental goals.It also maintaining diversity manufacturing capabilities also mention environmental goals as its security concern.

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors For Coal Across The World
Coal is an important source of energy across the world and the whole world depends on this fossil fuel for electricity generation is growing.The combustion of coal also adds a significant amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere per unit of heat energy.In modern days a growing concern over the possible consequences of global warming which may be caused in part by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (a major greenhouse gas) and also because of the need for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide emissions .The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has a developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted as a result of coal consumption. EIA’s emission factors will improve the accuracy of estimates of carbon dioxide emissions because they reflect the difference in the ratio of carbon to heat content by rank of coal and state of origin.
Two types of carbon dioxide emission factors have been developed. First are basic emission factors covering the various coal ranks by State of origin. These basic emission factors are considered as “fixed” for the foreseeable future until better data become available. Second are emission factors for use in estimating carbon dioxide emissions from coal consumption by State with consuming-sector detail. These emission factors are based on the mix of coal consumed and the basic emission factors by coal rank and State of origin. These emission factors are subject to change over time, reflecting changes in the mix of coal consumed.
EIA’s emission factors will not only enable coal-generated carbon dioxide emissions to be estimated more accurately than before but they will also provide consistency in estimates. Energy and environmental analysts will find EIA’s emission factors useful for analyzing and monitoring carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion, whether they are estimated by the State of origin of the coal, consuming State, or consuming sector.

West of the Mississippi River the emission factors for bituminous coal range from more than 201 pounds of carbon dioxide per million Btu in Missouri, Iowa, and Nevada to more than 209 in Arizona, Arkansas, and Montana. About 16 percent of the 1992 coal output west of the Mississippi was bituminous coal with production chiefly from Utah, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico.
Sub bituminous coal is the predominant rank of coal produced west of the Mississippi River accounting for 62 percent of the region’s total coal output in 1992. Sub bituminous coal in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin the principal source of this rank of coal, has an emission factor of 212.7 pounds of carbon dioxide per million Btu. This is the same as for sub bituminous coal in Colorado, but slightly below that in Montana. The lowest emission factor for sub bituminous coal is in Utah (207.1) and the highest is in Alaska (214.0).

Coal Costs
On the heels of President Obama’s speech supporting clean coal it doesn’t seem that this energy source is leaving anytime soon. But while advocates often tout the inexpensiveness of coal a new study reveals that the substance may be costing the U.S. up to $500 billion per year.
Harvard professor and Huffington Post contributor Paul Epstein( M.D., M.P.H.) has just announced the release of a new study in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences entitled “Full Cost Accounting For the Life Cycle Of Coal.”
According to Tree Hugger Epstein’s study is considered one of the first to examine the costs of coal in its entirety – from extraction to combustion. So how did Epstein reach the astronomical number of $500 billion/yr.
First, public health costs. In Appalachian communities alone health care, deaths, and injuries from coal mining and transporting cost $74 billion per year. Beyond Appalachia, the health costs of cancer, lung disease, and respiratory illnesses related to pollutant emissions totals $187.5 billion per year. According to Climate Progress, processing coal releases heavy metal toxins and carcinogens which in turn may lead to long-term health problems. The American Lung Association reports on a study finding that coal-powered electricity caused over 13,000 premature deaths in 2010.
Beyond health problems add the cost of coal’s effect on land use energy consumption and food prices plus the cost of toxic waste spills and cleanup… $500 billion. The public is unfairly paying for the impacts of coal use. Accounting for these ‘hidden costs’ doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh, making wind, solar, and other renewable very economically competitive.
According to Epstein, we must focus more on green city planning. Most importantly, “We need to phase out coal rapidly.”

Tapping Coal For Clean And Low-cost electricity In Bangladesh
Australian firm proposes to generate 400MW power from Bangladesh’s unmineable coal by 2015. An Australian company with expertise in underground coal gasification (UCG) technology has proposed to produce 400 megawatts of clean coal power from Bangladesh’s unmineable coal within five years at a very low cost.
Making a presentation to Petrobangla Mitchell Group of Australia said it could undertake a pilot project at its own cost in the deeper part of Barapukuria coal mine or in Jamalganj.
The first phase delivery of 10 to 40 MW power from the pilot project is possible within two years — 2011-12. By 2015, the company will be able to deliver 400 MW power.
Sources present at the presentation said it is very lucrative as power generated from such a plant will be as cheap as that produced by using gas. A part of Barapukuria is presently unmineable by using open pit or underground mining methods as coal rests at a depth of 500 metres.
On the other hand the coal deposit in Jamalganj is by far the biggest one discovered in the country. Jamalganj has more than one billion tones of coal. Unfortunately the deposit rests between 600 and 1,100 metres below the surface making it inaccessible using conventional mining methods.

 The Costs of Generating Electricity
• Coal plant
• Pulverized fuel (PF) steam plant.
• Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) plant.
• Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant.
• Gas plant.
• Open-cycle gas turbine (OCGT) plant.
• Combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant.
• Nuclear fission plant.
• Biomass (poultry litter)
• Bubbling fluidized-bed combustion (BFBC) plant;
• Wind turbines

The cost of generating electricity, as defined within the scope of this study, is expressed in terms of a unit cost (pence per kWh) delivered at the boundary of the power station site. This cost value, therefore, includes the capital cost1 of the generating plant and equipment; the cost of fuel burned (if applicable); and the cost of operating and maintaining the plant in keeping with UK best practices. Within the study, however, the ‘cost of generating electricity’ is deemed to refer to that of providing a dependable (or ‘firm’) supply. For intermittent2 sources of generation, such as wind, an additional amount has been included for the provision of adequate standby generation.

Hydroelectric is the most cost effective at $0.03 per kWh. Hydroelectric production is naturally limited by the number of feasible geographic locations and the huge environmental infringement caused by the construction of a dam. Nuclear and coal are tied at $0.04 per kWh. This comes as a bit of a surprise because coal is typically regarded as the cheapest form of energy production. Another surprise is that wind power ($0.08 per kWh) came in slightly cheaper than natural gas ($0.10 per kWh). Solar power was by far the most expensive at $0.22 per kWh—and that only represents construction costs because I could not find reliable data on production costs. Also, there is a higher degree of uncertainty in cost with wind and solar energy due to poor and varying
data regarding the useful life of the facilities and their capacity factors. For this analysis the average of the data points are used in the calculations.

Extrapolation of Results

  • Energy Source % of Total Cost per kWh Weighted Avg Cost
  • Nuclear 19.7% $0.04 $0.008
  • Hydro 6.1% $0.03 $0.002
  • Coal 48.7% $0.04 $0.022
  • Natural Gas 21.4% $0.10 $0.022
  • Petroleum 1.1% $0.10 $0.001
  • Other Renewables 3.0% $0.15 $0.005
  • 100% $0.059

Least-Cost Analysis of Bangladesh

About 85% of electricity in Bangladesh is produced from gas-based power plants. Coal,
Hydropower, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel are the other sources of energy for power generation. Inadequate investment in upstream gas field development in recent years has resulted in a shortage of gas for the industrial sector and for electricity generation. This has constrained power generation with electricity utilities resorting to load shedding while industrial consumers have been using captive generation facilities that require diesel. As an immediate measure to reduce gas shortage the government has decided not to provide assured gas supply to a number of new power projects and has asked promoters to develop these projects on a dual fuel model (to be run on diesel or HFO).

Indicates the cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh:

Fuel Source Economic Generation Cost Per Unit Tk/kWh
Gas 4.2
Coal (local) 3.7
Coal (Imported) 5.4
HFO 12.1
Diesel 25.2
Hydropower 1.4

Bangladesh has sizable coal reserves in the north-west region, currently only one coal-based power plant is operating and it has been facing fuel shortages given constraints in coal production. The development of domestic coalfields will take time and will require significant investment. Imported coal-based power generally costs about Tk 5.4/kwh ($0.077) at current coal prices. In the current situation, power imports fromIndia3 are expected to be the most feasible least-cost way of overcoming existing power shortages in Bangladesh.

Cost of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project

Total Cost : US$ 197million
US$: 172 million in F.C.
US$: 25 million in L.C.
Expected annual production: 1.2 million tons
Market price: US$ 90 million
Annual production cost: US$ 40.8 million
Foreign currency worth: US$ 45 million will be saved per annum
64 years will be required to extract 300 million tons of coal at the above rate
The discovery of such huge deposits of coal and hard rock is a blessing for Bangladesh and proper development of these resources will open a new era for the country to enter the industrial world. In the modern world the sustainable economic conditions of any nation depend on how developed that country’s industrial is especially in the field of mineral resources. So minerals based industries are an important factor for accelerating the economic growth of a country. Now Bangladesh has an opportunity to build up mineral-based industries as she has sufficient mineral resources on which industries can develop. Full-capacity exploitation of these resources will create thousands of new jobs at the mine sites and later on at industrial sites which will help to alleviate the country’s poverty by providing jobs. All these together will accelerate the country’s economic development. It may be concluded that proper development and utilization of these resources will help us to save a considerable amount of foreign currency and will contribute a great deal to the national economy and reshape our socio-economic infrastructure.

MERITS & DEMERITS OF COAL BASED POWER PLANT

Merits of coal fired power plant

1. Coal is a stable energy source
2. Coal is a key source of power generation
3. High efficiency
4. Low cost
5. Low maintenance

Looking at other countries, coal makes up 50% of power generation in the USA, the largest consumer of energy, and 80% in China, where rapid growth in energy consumption is forecast. As coal accounts for 41% of the world’s power generation, it will continue to play a major role for the foreseeable future.

Emissions to air
The principal emissions from burning coal are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and particulates (dust). Our generating units have all been retrofitted with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) equipment which removes at least 90% of SO2 and HCl emissions before the flue gas is released via the chimney into the atmosphere.
We maintain investment in our emissions abatement equipment and consider this to be a high priority. Our FGD plant already complies with known future SO2 emissions limits to 2016. In 2008 we completed a programme to retrofit all units with low NOX technology – Boosted Over Fire Air systems – in order to ensure compliance with the NOX requirements of the Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD) which were strengthened in 2008.
6.1.2 Discharges to water
Procedures are in place to ensure that all discharges and drainage to water are monitored and treated where necessary to meet our discharge consent limits. There are a number of sources of discharge and drainage as part of the electricity generation process, including the cooling water used to cool the condensers, which as part of the steam cycle condense steam to water after it leaves the turbines and before returning to the boilers. Cooling water is abstracted mainly from the River Ouse and boiler feed water originates from two boreholes on site. Approximately half of the water is returned to the River Ouse at a few degrees warmer than the river water.
The FGD process produces effluent water which is treated in a specially designed plant before it is discharged to the river, and there is also drainage from the main plant, coal plant and roads.

Disposals to land
When coal is burnt, ash is left as a residue. The finer particles of ash, pulverised fuel ash (PFA,) are collected from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators; the heavier ash, furnace bottom ash (FBA) falls to the bottom of the boiler. The majority of ash is sold to the construction industry with the remainder sent for landfill at the power station’s adjacent Barlow Mound ash disposal site, which over time has been developed into farmland, woodland and wetland features providing a haven to many species of wildlife and birdlife.
We pay landfill tax on the PFA disposed of to the Barlow Mound. Through the Landfill Tax Credit Scheme, we are able to claim a tax credit against our donations to recognised Environmental Bodies. We have worked with Groundwork Selby since 2001 on projects designed to help mitigate the effects of landfill upon our local community.

Environmental impacts of coal power

Burning coal is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxics. In an average year, a typical coal plant generates:
3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary human cause of global warming–as much carbon dioxide as cutting down 161 million trees.
10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), which causes acid rain that damages forests, lakes, and buildings, and forms small airborne particles that can penetrate deep into lungs.
500 tons of small airborne particles, which can cause chronic bronchitis, aggravated asthma, and premature death, as well as haze obstructing visibility.
10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx), as much as would be emitted by half a million late-model cars. NOx leads to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning through lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.
5. 720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), which causes headaches and place additional stress on people with heart disease.
6. 220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.
7. 170 pounds of mercury, where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can make the fish unsafe to eat.
8. 225 pounds of arsenic, which will cause cancer in one out of 100 people who drink water

A CASE STUDY — THE BARAPUKURIA COAL MINE

Background
Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) discovered presence of extensive coal reserve at relatively shallow depth in April 1985 in Barapukuria under Parbatipur-Upazilla of Dinajpur. GSB undertook further investigation in 1986 and 1987, involving more detailed gravimetric, magnetic and geophysical surveys to confirm the presence of approximately 303 million tones of high quality coal in six horizons over an area of 6.68 square kilometers. Subsequently, Bangladesh oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation (Petrobangla) with the assistance of Overseas Development Administration (ODA), UK concluded a detailed Techno- economic feasibility study by engaging M/S War dell Armstrong, UK in May 1991. The Major findings were as under
Reserve of Coal                          : 390 Million tones
Depth of coal                              : 118-509 meter.
Nos. of coal layer                        : 6
Average thickness of coal Seam : 36 m (6th Seam)
Composition of coal                    : Ash12.4%, Sulphur 0.53%, Noisture 10%
Rank of coal                                : Bituminous (high volatile).
Calorific value of coal                  : 25.68 MJ/KG (11040 BTU/Ib.)
Yearly Production                        : 1 million tones.
Coal extraction method              : Multi- Slice Long wall.
During development of Barapukuria Coal Mine as well as load testing/trial run, coal as obtained from the mine, on Chemical Analysis, confirmed composition of coal, Rank of coal and Calorific value of coal as predicted.

Objective
The Mine would produce 1 million tones of coal per annum when commercial production will commence out of which 65% will be used in 250 MW coal fired power station and remaining 35% will be used in brick fields and other domestic purposes.

Project implementation
M/s China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC) as lead partner of Consortium proposed supplier’s credit for the implementation of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project. The Project Concept Paper (PCP) was approved by ECNEC on 11th March 1992 and Project Proforma was approve by DPEC on 21st April 1993 at a total estimated cost of Tk.8873.55 Million including foreign exchange component of Tk.4868.76 million .The contract between M/S China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC) as lead partner of Consortium and Petrobangla was signed at the total lump-sum amount of US $ 194.91 million including supplier’s credit amounting to US$ 109.235 million on 7th February 1994. CMC commenced physical works on 1st June 1996 for the implementation of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project. As per contract the scheduled completion date was June 2001. On completion of installation works of two shafts, when development works of Pit Bottom were in progress underground mine inundated due to on rush of water. Consequently underground development works on mine was suspended for about 30(thirty) months.

This was necessitated to carry out additional geological & hydro-geological investigation in order to acquire additional date based on which CMC had to modify earlier approved mine design/layout. The underground mine development works restarted from October 2000. The PP was revised on the basis of modified mine design/layout and approved by ECNEC on 15th August 2004 at the estimated cost of Tk. 14311.27 million (Equivalent to US $ 251.08 Million). The project was scheduled for completion by December 2004 as per revised PP. The original Contract was amended by contract amendment keeping the original contract value unchanged with re- appropriation of item – wise costs. As per the revised schedule the completion period was fixed at 20th October 2004.

Management and production contract
After completion of construction of Barapukuria coal mine on 31st may 2005, a Production Management and Maintenance (M&P) contract was signed with China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC) led consortium with Xuzhou Coal Mining Group Company Limited (XMC) on 4th June, 2005 for a period of 71 months to produce 4.75 million metric ton of coal from the 1st slice of underground mine at a total cost of USD 82.30 million. As per the terms of contract, CMC already paid Performance Security Guarantee (10% of total contract price) and Down Payment Guarantee (10% of total contract) for effecting the Contract, BCMCL paid Down Payment of local currency portion (10%) on 08-09-2005 and foreign currency portion (10%) on 15-11-2005. Since the M&P contract is fully effective, CMC-XMC produced coal from the Long Wall Face No. 1106 and 1101.

Present status
Two Long wall Faces were constructed and two sets of Face Equipment were provided under the Construction Contract. One Long wall Face (1110) with incomplete production along with a set of Face Equipment had to be sealed off due to gas emission. To reopen 1110 Long wall Face, preparation work for Nitrogen Injection has been taken by CMC.

With only one set of Long wall Face Equipment available, the mine started its production from 1109 Long wall Face since March 2007. Production from this face started on 7 March 2007 after a gap of 6 months due to the following reasons:

I. 1109 Long wall Face development work delayed due to the fact of encountering unexpected geological and environmental problems. 176 meters excavated roadway had to be abandoned due to large roof fall and hot strata water ingress. 1109 Face required a redesign.

II. Installation and commissioning of Long wall equipment were delayed due to non availability of materials and spares needed importing from China.

Production from this Face is adversely affected by the following reasons:

a) Due to geological condition of the coal seam, Long wall Face open off cut developed inclined at an angle of 220-230. Equipment like heavy Hydraulic Powered Roof Support (HPRS) set on this inclined floor has great tendency to slip and tilt downward.

b) Adverse strata condition. Coal is friable and prone to caving.

c) Adverse environmental conditions. High temperature (390 Celsius) and humidity (100%) made the working condition difficult.

d) Relatively high strata water inflow washing down the floor of Long wall Face and causing instability to the HPRS.

e) Miners are getting fainted, heat stroke, and sick due to adverse environment.
Having adverse condition and lot of constrains, CMC successfully started the recovery work of 1110 Longwall Face from 18 August 2007.

Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI)
Coal grind ability indicates the ease for grinding coal to power.The bigger of grind ability index, the easier to be grinded. Hard grove Grind ability Indices indicate that the coal is moderately hard, but not unusually so for Gondwana coal .

Coal Sale
Up to June 2006, a total of 4, 81,196.53 metric ton of coal has been produced, which includes the production of 3, 03,015.93 metric ton in the fiscal year of 2005-06. The production resulting from the coal produced during roadway development, during the Acceptance Tests of two Long wall and four Road header systems and commercial production from Long wall face. Up to June 2006, 1,89,919.58 metric ton of coal has been sold to the coal-fired industries. This includes the sale of 45,020.44 metric ton of coal during the fiscal year of 2005-06. Total revenue earned from the sale of coal for domestic uses up to June 2006 was Taka 75.85 crore. Up to June 2006, a total of 2, 09,234.57 metric ton of coal has been delivered to Power Development Board at the rate of US Dollar 60.00 Per MT as fixed by the Government.

 Applying for purchasing coal
For purchasing coal, an application will have to be made addressed to the Managing Director of Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited. Application can be made on a plain paper or on a form available at Markrting Section, Head Office, Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited, Chowhati, Parbatipur, Dinajpur. For any assistance regarding this, personnel of the Marketing Section can be contacted.

Payment Method
Payment is accepted in the form of bank draft payable to BARAPUKURIA COAL MINE PROJECT and no cash money is accepted. Bank draft made at Sonali Bank, Barapukuria Coal Mine Project Branch, Parbatipur, Dinajpur or Janata Bank, Phulbari Branch, Dinajpur is preferred to that made at other different banks for quick issuance of delivery order for sale of coal. Delivery order for sale of coal against bank draft made at other than above-mentioned two branches is issued after the confirmation of transfer of money to the the company account, which sometimes may delay up to 48 hours the issuance of delivery order. Payment in the form of bank draft will have to be submitted to the Accounts Section of the Company. For any query regarding this, personnel of the Marketing Section can be contacted.

Measuring Method
At the delivery point, that is, at the mine site, coal is measured by using Computer Controlled and BSTI certified UK made Avery weighing scale.

Coal Loading
Coal can be loaded on the trucks/vehicle by using mechanized pay loading facility provided at the delivery point by Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited. Using of the company’s loading facility will cost Taka15.00 (fifteen only) per ton. Coal can also be loaded on the trucks/vehicle by using different facilities provided by other than Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited, which may cost approximately Taka 27.00(twenty seven only) per ton.

 Transport Facility
For transporting coal, trucks may be available on hire at Phulbari, about 7 km away from the delivery point. Rate of transportation will vary depending up on the destination, route and season of use of coal. As a rough estimate, transportation cost from the delivery point to Dhaka for per tonne of coal may be around Taka500.00.

CONCLUSION

Power Crisis has been a long clamor in Bangladesh and this seems to persist for the coming decade or so. Beyond optimistic illusions, facts and realities are too fierce to be accepted. Energy infrastructure of Bangladesh is quite small and insufficient but the demand is very high. The per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (136 kWH) in the world. Electricity is the major source of power for country’s most of the economic activities. In our country, only 40% of the population has access to electricity because of the shortage of our power generation and this lacking can be filled by using some coal based power plant. From the research we have seen that the environment and transportation system of Bangladesh is positive to establish a coal based power plant. In our country we have few coal pits and the quality of our coal is quite rich and it can be used easily to produce Electricity. In a coal based power plant the Major equipments are 3 units of steam generator, 3 units of steam turbine generator and other associated systems in line with specific tender document taken as reference and as per the scope of work. Besides, fuel details, water arrangements, layout, pollution standards, logistics planning, power evacuation arrangements, water requirements, plant layout, pollution, logistics arrangements and land are required. Now if we focus on our transportation system we will find that most of our transportation route is on plain land. So if any electric power company doesn’t have their own coal manufacture plant then it can easily be transported by road, rail or water transport. Though this transportation costs are a little expensive. Proposals have been made to build a few coal based power plants in our country. Because of some difficulties yet it is not implemented. Growing economies always need a proportional need for power. Considering the recent condition of our country it may be seen that the lack of electricity has been increased day by day. Country like Bangladesh has a required growth in power sector close to 15 %. In order to match the accelerated need of country, there is urgent need to take the challenge to squeeze the time and cost required to complete a coal based power project. It would be a great relief to fund hungry power projects.

Electricity in Bangladesh

Categories
EEE

SOLAR POWER SATELLITE

 Scope of human life in the coming hundred years

 Mankind has recently enhanced its living standard and its population in an explosive way. In fact, the human population quadrupled and primary power consumption increased 16-fold [1] during the 20th century. The consumption of energy, food, and material resources is predicted to increase 2.5 fold in the coming 50 years. As a result of our efforts for better life, we have come to face, in this 21st century, serious global issues threatening our safe life or even our existence itself on our mother planet Earth. These are issues such as global warming, environmental degradation, declining nutrition on land and sea from rising CO2, and rapid decrease of fossil reservoir. Since the living standard and the population of developing countries are increasing continuously, the demand of energy will be several times larger than that of today’s requirement by 2050.

  1.2       Energy demands in the next 50 years

One primary power source at present comes from fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas. However, the fossil fuels have two serious factors that prevent them from being used for as a long-term primary power source. One is their limited amount; they will not last long if used at the same or higher pace than that of today. The other is that they emit carbon dioxide, a green house gas, which causes global warming. [9]

 Global production of oil. Lighter lines are predictions

Fig.1.1. Global production of oil. Lighter lines are predictions. [2]

 

 On Nov. 9, 2004, Forbes reported that Russian oil exports may decrease within two years.[3] “Further growth is possible only if price trends are good,” a Russian expert said. Arabicnews.com reported that a sharp decrease in Syria’s light crude oil exports is expected [4] on Nov. 17. Such decrease of oil production is not surprising. M. K. Hubbert predicted in 1956 that crude oil production from U.S. (except Alaska) would crest in 1969. Figure 1.1 depicts the annual oil productions. The lighter lines are predictions according to Campbell and Laherrere’s model, based in part on multiple Hubbert curves. [2] US and Canadian oil indicated by the brown line peaked in 1972 as predicted by Hubbert. Global annual oil production shown in the redline, recovered after falling in 1973 and 1979, but a more permanent decline is seen in recent years. Production in the former Soviet Union (yellow) has fallen 45 percent since 1987. A crest in the oil produced outside the Persian Gulf region (purple) now appears imminent. Figure1.2 illustrates recent trends of the production that supports the prediction.

  Global production of oil. Lighter lines are predictions

      Fig.1.2. Oil and gas liquids 2004 scenario. [5]

A solar power satellite, or SPS or Power sat, as originally proposed would be a satellite built in high Earth orbit that uses microwave power transmission to beam solar power to a very large antenna on Earth. Advantages of placing the solar collectors in space include the unobstructed view of the Sun, unaffected by the day/night cycle, weather, or seasons [5]. It is a renewable energy source, zero emission after putting the solar cells in orbit, and only generates waste as a product of manufacture and maintenance. However, the costs of construction are very high, and SPS will not be able to compete with conventional sources (at current energy prices) unless at least one of the following conditions is needed. Sufficiently low launch costs can be achieved A determination (by governments, industry, …) is made that the disadvantages of fossil fuel use are so large they must be substantially replaced. Conventional energy costs increase sufficiently to provoke serious search for alternative energy

1.3      An SPS essentially consists of three parts:

 

*  a means of collecting solar power in space, for example via solar cells or a heat engine

*  a means of transmitting power to earth, for example via microwave or laser

*  a means of receiving power on earth, for example via a microwave antennas (rectenna)

The space-based portion will be in a freefall, vacuum environment and will not need to support itself against gravity other than relatively weak tidal stresses. It needs no protection from terrestrial wind or weather, but will have to cope with space-based hazards such as micrometeorites and solar storms.

1.4 Sustainable energy Sources

In spite of environmental issues and depletion of their resources, it is an undeniable fact that modern society heavily relies on the fossil fuels. According to International Energy Agency, fossil fuels provide about 80% of the total primary energy supply, as depicted in

for our children, we need to establish science and technology for a sustainable society. Such science and technology can be called Green Science and Technology (GST). Technology for stabilization of the carbon dioxide emissions is one of the key elements of the GST and requires development of primary energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or that are renewable. Such sustainable energy technologies include terrestrial solar energy, hydropower energy, wind energy, and other energy systems based on natural resources.

Solar energy conversion (solar photons to DC current)

Two basic methods of converting photons to electricity have been studied, solar dynamic (SD) and photovoltaic (PV). SD uses a heat engine to drive a piston or a turbine which connects to a generator or dynamo. Two heat cycles for solar dynamic are thought to be reasonable for this: the Brayton cycle or the Stirling cycle. Terrestrial solar dynamic systems typically use a large reflector to focus sunlight to a high concentration to achieve a high temperature so the heat engine can operate at high thermodynamic efficiencies; an SPS implementation will be similar. A major advantage of space solar is the ease with which huge mirrors can be supported and pointed in the freefall and vacuum conditions of space. They can be constructed from very thin aluminum or other metal sheets with very light frames, or from materials available in space (eg, on the Moon’s surface). PV uses semiconductor cells (e.g., silicon or gallium arsenide) to directly convert sunlight photons into voltage via a quantum mechanical mechanism which evades the thermodynamic limitations on heat engines. Photovoltaic cells are not perfect in practice as material purity and processing issues during production affect performance; each has been progressively reduced for some decades. These are commonly known as “solar cells”, and will likely be rather different from the glass pane protected solar cell panels familiar to many which are in current terrestrial use. They will, for reasons of weight, probably be built in a membrane form not suitable to terrestrial use where the considerable gravity loading imposes structural requirements on terrestrial implementations. It is also possible to use Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems, which like SD are a form of existing terrestrial Concentrating Solar Energy approaches which convert concentrated light into electricity by PV, again avoiding the thermodynamic constraints which apply to heat engines. On Earth, these approaches use solar tracking systems, mirrors, lenses, etc to achieve high radiation concentration ratios and are able to reach efficiencies above 40% Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology. Because their PV area is rather smaller than in conventional PV, the majority of the deployed collecting area in CPV systems is mirrors, as with most SD systems. They share the advantages of building and pointing large (simple) mirror arrays in space as opposed to more complex PV panels.

2.1 Comparison of PV, CPV, and SD

The main problems with non-concentrating PV are that PV cells continue to be more expensive relative to the other approaches, and require a relatively large area to be acceptable for a significantly sized power station. In addition, semiconductor PV panels will require a relatively large amount of energy to manufacture; amorphous-silicon designs require much less energy to produce but have been substantially less efficient. CPV designs with a small area of 40%+ efficient cells and large reflector area are expected to be less expensive to produce. As well, the materials used in some PV cells (eg, gallium and arsenic) seem to be less common in lunar materials than is silicon; this may be significant if lunar manufacturing is involved. SD is a more mature technology, having been in widespread use on Earth in many contexts for centuries. Both CPV and SD systems have more severe pointing requirements than PV, because most proposed designs require accurate and stable optical focus. If a PV array orientation drifts a few degrees, the power being produced will drop a few percent. If an SD or CPV array orientation drifts a few degrees, the power produced will drop very quickly, perhaps to near zero. Aiming reflector arrays requires much less energy in space than on Earth, being without terrestrial wind, weather, and gravitation loads, but it has its own problems of gyroscopic action, vibration, limits on usable reaction mass (though electrically powered gyros would avoid that problem), solar wind, and meteorite strikes on control mechanisms. Currently, PV cells weigh between 0.5kg/kW and 10kg/kW depending on design. SD designs also vary but most seem to be heavier per kW produced than PV cells and thus have higher launch costs, all other things being equal. CPV should be lighter; since it replaces the thermal power plant (except for a radiator for waste heat) with a much lighter PV array.

2.2 Working lifetime

The lifetime of a PV based SPS is limited mainly by the ionizing radiation from the radiation belts and the Sun. Without a protection method, this is likely to cause the cells to degrade by about a percent or two per year. Deterioration is likely to be more rapid during periods of high exposure to energetic protons from solar particle outburst events . If some practical protection can be designed, this also might be reducible (eg, for a CPV station, radiation and particle shields for the PV cells — out of the energy path from the mirrors, of course). Lifetimes for SD based SPS designs will be similarly limited, though largely for structural or mechanical considerations, such as micrometeorite impact, metal fatigue of turbine blades, wear of sliding surfaces (although this might be avoidable by hydrostatic bearings or magnetic bearings), degradation or loss of lubricants and working fluids in vacuum, from loss of structural integrity leading to impaired optical focus amongst components, and from temperature variation extremes. As well, most mirror surfaces will degrade from both radiation and particle impact, but such mirrors can be designed simply (and so to be light and cheap), and replacement may be practical. In either case, another advantage of the SPS design is that waste heat developed at collection points is re-radiated back into space, instead of warming the adjacent local biosphere as with conventional sources, though some care will likely be required to provide for the radiation of this waste heat. Thus thermal efficiency will not be in itself an important design parameter except insofar as it affects the power/weight ratio via operational efficiency and hence pushes up launch costs. (For example SD may require larger waste heat radiators when operating at a lower efficiency). Earth based power handling systems must always be carefully designed, for both economic and purely engineering reasons, with operational thermal efficiency in mind. One useful aspect of the SPS approach is that, at the end of life, the material does not need to be launched a second time, at least in principle. In theory, it would be possible to recycle much of the satellite ‘on-site’, potentially at a significantly lower cost than launching an SPS as new. This might allow a very expensive launch cost to be paid for over multiple satellite lifetimes, but does require an in orbit re-processing facility which doesn’t currently exist.

2.3 Energy payback

Clearly, for an SPS system (including manufacture, launch and deployment) to provide net power it must repay the energy needed to construct it. Solar satellites can pay back the lift energy in a remarkably short time. It takes 14.75 kWh/kg for a 100% efficiency system to lift a kg from the surface of the earth to GEO; no such launch system exists and so energy costs are always higher. If the satellite generated a kW with 2kg of mass, the payback time would be 29.5 hours. Assuming a much less efficient (and more realistic) 3% efficient rockets, the energy payback time is only extended to about 6 weeks for such an SPS. For current silicon PV panels, production energy requirements are relatively high, and typically three-four years of deployment in a terrestrial environment is needed to recover this energy. With SPS, net energy received on the ground is higher (more or less necessarily so, if the system to be worth deploying), so this energy payback period would be reduced to about a year. Thermal systems, being made of conventional materials, are more similar to conventional power stations and are likely to be less energy intensive during manufacture. They would be expected to give quicker energy break even, depending on construction technology. The relative merits of PV vs SD is still an open question. Clearly, for a system (including manufacture, launch and deployment) to provide net power it must repay the energy needed to construct it. For current silicon PV panels this is relatively high. With an SPS, the net energy received on the ground is higher so this energy payback period would be somewhat reduced; however an SD based SPS, being made of conventional materials, are more similar to conventional power stations and are likely to be less energy intensive during production and would be expected to give a quicker energy break even, depending on construction technology and other variations.

2.4 Wireless power transmission to the Earth

Wireless power transmission was early proposed to transfer energy from collection to the Earth’s surface. The power could be transmitted as either microwave or laser radiation at a variety of frequencies depending on system design. Whatever choice is made, the transmitting radiation would have to be non-ionizing to avoid potential disturbances either ecologically or biologically if it is to reach the Earth’s surface. This established an upper bound for the frequency used, as energy per photon, and so the ability to cause ionization, increases with frequency. Ionization of biological materials doesn’t begin until ultraviolet or higher frequencies so most radio frequencies will be acceptable for this. William C. Brown demonstrated in 1964 (on air — Walter Cronkite’s CBS News program), a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power it needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975, Bill Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW of power over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency. To minimize the sizes of the antennas used, the wavelength should be small (and frequency correspondingly high) since antenna efficiency increases as antenna size increases relative to the wavelength used. More precisely, both for the transmitting and receiving antennas, the angular beam width is inversely proportional to the aperture of the antenna, measured in units of the transmission wavelength. The highest frequencies that can be used are limited by atmospheric absorption (chiefly water vapor and CO2) at higher microwave frequencies. For these reasons, 2.45 GHz has been proposed as being a reasonable compromise. However, that frequency results in large antenna sizes at the GEO distance. A loitering stratospheric airship has been proposed to receive higher frequencies (or even laser beams), converting them to something like 2.45 GHz for retransmission to the ground. This proposal has not been as carefully evaluated for engineering plausibility as have other aspects of SPS design; it will likely present problems for continuous coverage

 

2.5 Spacecraft sizing

The size of an SPS will be dominated by two factors. The size of the collecting apparatus (eg, panels, mirrors, etc) and the size of the transmitting antenna which in part depends on the distance to the receiving antenna. The distance from Earth to geostationary orbit (22,300 miles, 35,700 km), the chosen wavelength of the microwaves, and the laws of physics, specifically the Rayleigh Criterion or Diffraction limit, used in standard RF (Radio Frequency) antenna design will all be factors. For best efficiency, the satellite antenna should be circular and for the probable microwave wavelength, about 1 kilometers in diameter or larger; the ground antenna (rectenna) should be elliptical, 10km wide, and a length that makes the rectenna appear circular from GSO. (Typically, 14km at some North American latitudes.) Smaller antennas would result in increased losses to diffraction/sidelobes. For the desired (23mW/cm²) microwave intensitythese antennas could transfer between 5 and 10 gigawatts of power. To be most cost effective, the system should operate at maximum capacity. And, to collect and convert that much power, the satellite would require between 50 and 100 square kilometers of collector area (if readily available ~14% efficient monocrystalline silicon solar cells were deployed). State of the art (currently, quite expensive, triple junction gallium arsenide) solar cells with a maximum efficiency of 40.7% reduce the necessary collector area by two thirds, but would not necessarily give overall lower costs for various reasons. For instance, these very recently demonstrated variants may prove to have unacceptably short lifetimes. In either cases, the SPS’s structure would be essentially kilometers across, making it larger than most man-made structures here on Earth. While almost certainly not beyond current engineering capabilities, building structures of this size in orbit has not yet been attempted.

 

2.5.1 LEO/MEO instead of GEO

A collection of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) space power stations has been proposed as a precursor to GEO (Geostationary Orbit) space power beaming system(s). There would be advantages, such as much shorter energy transmission path lengths allowing smaller antenna sizes, lower cost to orbit, energy delivery to much of the Earth’s surface (assuming appropriate antennas are available), etc. And disadvantages, including constantly changing antenna geometries, increased debris collision difficulties, many more power stations to provide continuous power delivery at any particular point on the Earth’s surface, etc. It might be possible to deploy LEO systems sooner than GEO because the antenna development would take less time, but it would certainly take longer to prepare and launch the number of required satellites. Ultimately, because full engineering feasibility studies have not been conducted, it is not known whether this approach would be an improvement over a GEO installation.

2.6 Medium Earth Orbit Satellite (MEO)

Most of the satellites in this orbital altitude circle the earth at approximately 6,000 to 12,000 miles above the earth in an elliptical orbit around the poles of the earth. As the earth rotates, these satellites cover the entire surface of the earth. Fewer satellites are required to create coverage for the entire earth, as these satellites have a larger footprint.

 

2.6.1 Important features of MEO satellites

.  MEO’S distance from the earth’s surface around 10,000 Km

.  MEO round trip propagation delay is about 200 ms.

. They avoid the large signal attenuation and delay of GEO orbits and still allow a          global coverage with few satellites (10-15 satellites).

 

2.6.1.1 Advantages of MEO satellites

The system requires only a dozen of satellites which is less than LEO system These satellites move more slowly compared to LEO and hence allows a simpler system design Depending on the inclination, a MEO satellite can cover larger area and thus requires fewer handoff

2.6.1.2 Disadvantage of MEO satellites

  • The MEO satellites need higher transmit power compared to LEO satellite
  • Require special antennas for moderate footprint
  • Full-duplex round trip delay increases about 100 ms than LEO

2.7 Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEO)

Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites Orbit the earth at roughly 100-500 miles altitude and orbit the earth in roughly 90 to 120 minute’s periods. This means that they are fast moving (>17,000mph), and sophisticated ground equipment must be used to track the satellite that increases its cost satellites in this in this orbital range have a very small footprint so that lots of them are required to enable world wide communication (35 or more).

2.7.1 Important features of LEO satellites

.  LEO’S distance from the earth’s surface is approximately 500-1400 km. Thus, 50-             200 satellites are required, depending on the degree to which the orbits are controlled

Lower (160 km) bound dictated by the atmospheric drag for lower altitudes which    reduces the satellite lifetime

.  Upper bound (1400 km) due to the van Allen radiation belt entails protection of the on-board equipment against excessive radiation

.  LEO round trip propagation delay about 100 ms

.  Since LEO satellites are closer than GEO and MEO satellites to the earth’s surface, the antenna size and the transmission power level are generally smaller.

.  Footprints too are smaller.

.  A constellation of a large number of satellites is necessary for global coverage.

.  As satellites travel at high speeds relative to the earth’s surface, a user connection may need to be handed-off from satellite, as they pass rapidly overhead.

2.8 Earth based infrastructure

The Earth-based receiver antenna (or rectenna) is a critical part of the original SPS concept. It would probably consist of many short dipole antennas, connected via diodes. Microwaves broadcast from the SPS will be received in the dipoles with about 85% efficiency. With a conventional microwave antenna, the reception efficiency is still better, but the cost and complexity is also considerably greater, almost certainly prohibitively so. Rectennas would be multiple kilometers across. Crops and farm animals may be raised underneath a rectenna, as the thin wires used for support and for the dipoles will only slightly reduce sunlight, so such a rectenna would not be as expensive in terms of land use as might be supposed. The SPS concept is attractive because space has several major advantages over the Earth’s surface for the collection of solar power. There is no air in space, so the collecting surfaces would receive much more intense sunlight, unaffected by weather. In geostationary orbit, an SPS would be illuminated over 99% of the time.

The SPS would be in Earth’s shadow on only a few days at the spring and fall equinoxes; and even then for a maximum of 75 minutes late at night when power demands are at their lowest. This characteristic of SPS based power generation systems to avoid the expensive storage facilities (eg, lakes behind dams, oil storage tanks, coal dumps, etc) necessary in many Earth-based power generation systems. Additionally, an SPS will have none of the polluting consequences of fossil fuel systems, nor the ecological problems resulting from many renewable or low impact power generation systems (eg, dam retention lakes). Economically, an SPS deployment project would create many new jobs and contract opportunities for industry, which may have political implications in the country or region which undertakes the project. Certainly the energy from an SPS would reduce political tension resulting from unequal distribution of energy supplies (eg, oil, gas, etc). For nations on the equator, SPS provides an incentive to stabilize and a sustained opportunity to lease land for launch sites. An SPS would also be applicable on a global scale. Nuclear power especially is something many governments would be reluctant to sell to developing nations in which political pressures might lead to proliferation. Whether bio-fuels can support the western world, let alone the developed world, is currently a matter of debate. SPS poses no such problems. Developing the industrial capacity needed to construct and maintain one or more SPS systems would significantly reduce the cost of other space endeavours. For example, a manned Mars mission might only cost hundreds of millions, instead of tens of billions, if it can rely on an already existing capability. More long-term, the potential power production possible is enormous. If power stations can be placed outside Earth orbit, the upper limit is vastly higher still. In the extreme, such arrangements are called Dyson spheres.

3.2.1 Launch costs

Without doubt, the most obvious problem for the SPS concept is the current cost of space launches. Current rates on the Space Shuttle run between $3,000 and $5,000 per pound ($6,600/kg and $11,000/kg) to low Earth orbit, depending on whose numbers are used. Calculations show that launch costs of less than about $180-225 per pound ($400-500/kg) to LEO (Low Earth orbit) seem to be necessary.

However, economies of scale for expendable vehicles could give rather large reductions in launch cost for this kind of launched mass. Thousands of rocket launches could very well reduce the costs by ten to twenty times, using standard costing models. This puts the economics of an SPS design into the practicable range. Reusable vehicles could quite conceivably attack the launch problem as well, but are not a well-developed technology.

Much of the material launched need not be delivered to its eventual orbit immediately, which raises the possibility that high efficiency (but slower) engines could move SPS material from LEO to GEO at acceptable cost. Examples include ion thrusters or nuclear propulsion. They might even be designed to be reusable. Power beaming from geostationary orbit by microwaves has the difficulty that the required ‘optical aperture’ sizes are very large. For example, the 1978 NASA SPS study required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna, and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna, for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz. These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths, although they have increased atmospheric absorption and even potential beam blockage by rain or water droplets. Because of the thinned array curse, it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites. The large size of the transmitting and receiving antennas means that the minimum practical power level for an SPS will necessarily be high; small SPS systems will be possible, but uneconomic. To give an idea of the scale of the problem, assuming an (arbitrary, as no space-ready design has been adequately tested) solar panel mass of 20 kg per kilowatt (without considering the mass of the supporting structure, antenna, or any significant mass reduction of any focusing mirrors) a 4 GW power station would weigh about 80,000 metric tons, all of which would, in current circumstances, be launched from the Earth. Very lightweight designs could likely achieve 1 kg/kW, meaning 4,000 metric tons for the solar panels for the same 4 GW capacity station. This would be the equivalent of between 40 and 80 heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) launches to send the material to low earth orbit, where it would likely be converted into subassembly solar arrays, which then could use high-efficiency ion-engine style rockets to (slowly) reach GEO (Geostationary orbit). With an estimated serial launch cost for shuttle-based HLLVs of $500 million to $800 million, total launch costs would range between $20 billion (low cost HLLV, low weight panels) and $320 billion (‘expensive’ HLLV, heavier panels). Economies of scale on such a large launch program could be as high as 90% (if a learning factor of 30% could be achieved for each doubling of production) over the cost of a single launch today. In addition, there would be the cost of an assembly area in LEO (which could be spread over several power satellites), and probably one or more smaller one(s) in GEO. The costs of these supporting efforts would also contribute to total costs. So how much money could an SPS is expected to make? For every one gigawatt rating, current SPS designs will generate 8.75 terawatt-hours of electricity per year, or 175 TW•h over a twenty-year lifetime. With current market prices of $0.22 per kW•h (UK, January 2006) and an SPS’s ability to send its energy to places of greatest demand (depending on rectenna siting issues), this would equate to $1.93 billion per year or $38.6 billion over its lifetime. The example 4 GW ‘economy’ SPS above could therefore generate in excess of $154 billion over its lifetime. Assuming facilities are available, it may turn out to be substantially cheaper to recast on-site steel in GEO, than to launch it from Earth. If true, then the initial launch cost could be spread over multiple SPS life spans.

3.2.2 Extraterrestrial materials

Gerard O’Neill, noting the problem of high launch costs in the early 1970s, proposed building the SPS’s in orbit with materials from the Moon.Launch costs from the Moon are about 100 times lower than from Earth, due to the lower gravity. This 1970s proposal assumed the then-advertised future launch costing of NASA’s space shuttle. This approach would require substantial up front capital investment to establish mass drivers on the Moon.

Nevertheless, on 30 April 1979, the Final Report (“Lunar Resources Utilization for Space Construction”) by General Dynamics’ Convair Division, under NASA contract NAS9-15560, concluded that use of lunar resources would be cheaper than terrestrial materials for a system of as few as thirty Solar Power Satellites of 10GW capacity each.In 1980, when it became obvious NASA’s launch cost estimates for the space shuttle were grossly optimistic, O’Neill et al published another route to manufacturing using lunar materials with much lower startup costs This 1980s SPS concept relied less on human presence in space and more on partially self-replicating systems on the lunar surface under telepresence control of workers stationed on Earth. Again, this proposal suffers from the current lack of such automated systems on Earth, much less on the Moon. Asteroid mining has also been seriously considered. A NASA design study evaluated a 10,000 ton mining vehicle (to be assembled in orbit) that would return a 500,000 ton asteroid ‘fragment’ to geostationary orbit. Only about 3000 tons of the mining ship would be traditional aerospace-grade payload. The rest would be reaction mass for the mass-driver engine; which could be arranged to be the spent rocket stages used to launch the payload. Assuming, likely unrealistically, that 100% of the returned asteroid was useful, and that the asteroid miner itself couldn’t be reused, that represents nearly a 95% reduction in launch costs. However, the true merits of such a method would depend on a thorough mineral survey of the candidate asteroids; thus far, we have only estimates of their composition. There has been no such survey. Once built, NASA’s CEV should be capable of beginning such a survey, Congressional money and imagination permitting.

3.2.2.1 Space elevators

More recently the SPS concept has been suggested as a use for a space elevator. The elevator would make construction of an SPS considerably less expensive, possibly making them competitive with conventional sources. However it appears unlikely that even recent advances in materials science, namely carbon nanotubes, can make possible such an elevator, nor to reduce the short term cost of construction of the elevator enough, if an Earth-GSO space elevator is ever practical. A variant to the Earth-GSO elevator concept is the Lunar space elevator, first described by Jerome Pearson  in 1979. Because of the ~20 times shallower (than Earth’s) gravitational well for the lunar elevator, this concept would not rely on materials technology beyond the current state of the art, but it would require establishing silicon mining and solar cell manufacturing facilities on the Moon, similar to O’Neill’s lunar material proposal, discussed above.

Lofstrom Launch Loop

A Lofstrom loop could conceivably provide the launch capacity needed to make a solar power satellite practical. This is a high capacity launch system capable of reaching a geosynchronous transfer orbit at low cost (Lofstrom estimates a large system could go as low as $3/kg to LEO for example). The Lofstrom loop is expected to cost less than a conventional space elevator to develop and construct, and to provide lower launch costs. Unlike the conventional space elevator, it is believed that a launch loop could be built with today’s materials

4.1 Introduction

Rapid economic growth and population growth in the 20th and 21st centuries involves rapid increase in demand for energy. On the other hand, fossil fuels heavily lead to the carbon dioxide emission and their exhaustion will increasingly pose a severe problem to human life. Nuclear energy also has a serious problem in disposal of nuclear fuel wastes and nuclear accidents although it is Cox and NOx emission-free. Sustainable energy resources such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro-energy, biomass energy etc. have therefore been a focus of constant attention as alternatives to fossil fuels. They however have a disadvantage for a stable supply of energy because the amount of their energy varies seasonally, or daily, or even momentarily. A Solar Power Station/Satellite (SPS) [26] is expected to become one of the sustainable energy sources for the next generation. A conceptual image of a SPS is shown in Fig.4.1 The SPS is launched into space and it generates an enormous electric power by solar cells. The electric power is converted into microwave power in the transmitting system, and the microwave power is transmitted from the transmitting system to the receiving site on the Earth. The received microwave power is converted into commercial power. The SPS is clean and exhaustless since it is a power station whose resource is solar energy. Furthermore, the SPS supplies a stable electric power almost all through the year except that it is eclipsed by the Earth, because the power generated in space, in other words, there is no seasonal and daily variation by clouds, rain, and nights. One of the most important technologies for realization of a SPS is Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) [24, 25] from space to the Earth. A WPT system is mainly divided into three sections, as shown in Fig.4.2 a transmitting section, a receiving section and a beam forming section. The transmitting section consists of DC-RF converters and transmitting antennas. The DC-RF converters mainly include electric tubes such as magnetrons, klystrons, TWTs etc., or solid state devices. The receiving section consists of receiving antennas and RF-DC rectifiers, called “rectennas”.

The beam forming section is the intermediate section between the transmitting section and the receiving section. In order to prevent the power dissipation through the beam forming section, the transmitting section usually involves a high-gain transmitting antenna or a phased array system.

4.2 A conceptual diagram of WPT

A conceptual image of a Solar Power Station

Fig.4.2. A conceptual diagram of Wireless Power Transmission (WPT)

The objective of the present study is to develop high-efficiency and low-noise WPT. A SPS requires high overall WPT efficiency, and a high-efficiency WPT system also contributes to cost reduction and lightness in weight of the SPS from the viewpoint of thermal management. Low-noise WPT is also important since a SPS is necessary to ensure electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with other radio applications. Our recent research activities on the WPT transmitting systems are introduced in this paper.

4.3 WPT TRANSMITTING SYSTEMS

In our research group, a magnetron, which is well-known as a microwave heating source in a microwave oven, is used for a microwave power source of a WPT system, because its DC-RF conversion efficiency is higher, it costs less, and it has smaller weight/power ratio than solid state devices. However, a magnetron has a wide oscillation bandwidth and it generates spurious noises in various frequency bands. Thus, we have been studying on a low-noise transmitting system with a magnetron.

4.4 Magnetron noise reduction

Drawbacks of a free-running magnetron are its wideband oscillation and spurious noise generation in various frequency bands. The wideband oscillation will lead to great fluctuation of a microwave beam from a WPT transmitting system, because of degradation of its frequency and phase stability. The spurious noise will interfere in the other communication systems when it is radiated from the WPT transmitting system. Therefore, narrowband oscillation and spurious noise reduction of a magnetron are essential for a low noise WPT system. With regard to the narrowband oscillation, Brown mentioned that the “internal feedback mechanism” [26] contributed to a quiet magnetron operation. The internal feedback mechanism most effectively takes place by turning off the filament current during the oscillation. Additionally, we found that the narrowband oscillation and the spurious noise reduction were effectively realized when a magnetron was operated by a dc stabilized power supply and the filament current was turned off during the operation [30]. Our experimental results showed that this operating method worked well in reducing sideband noise up to 60dB as well as the narrowband oscillation, shown in Fig.4.3 (a), spurious noise up to 50dB in high frequency bands (4GHz~10GHz), shown in Fig.4.3 (b), and line conductive noise up to 40dB in low frequency bands (~1GHz), shown in Fig.4.3 (c), although the method resulted in some degradation of dc-RF efficiency.

 Fundamental bands

         (a) Fundamental bands (2.43GHz~2.47GHz)

 Spurious noise

           (b) Spurious noise (4GHz~10GHz)

 Line conductive noise

             

4.5 Phase-controlled magnetron 

The operating method for the magnetron noise reduction also contributes to development of a phase-controlled magnetron (PCM). The PCM is basically implemented in a phase locking of a magnetron in a phase of a reference signal. Our developed PCM consists of an injection locking method and an anode current control system with phase-locked loop (PLL) [27], in order to realize both the frequency locking and the phase locking. First, the reference signal is injected into a magnetron. Then, the anode current control system automatically locks frequency and phase of the magnetron to those of the reference signal. Owing to the accomplishment of the PCM, the experimental equipments with a phased array using PCMs at 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz, which are named SPORTS (Space Power Radio Transmission System)2.45 and SPORTS5.8 respectively, were developed [28]. The SPORTS 2.45, shown in Fig.4.4, has 12 PCMs, and each PCM has a 5-bit phase shifter. The total microwave output is about 3.6kW. There are two choices for the transmitting antenna section. One is the 4 by 3 horn antenna array. The horn antenna array system has low energy loss, but a broad beam pattern. The other is the 96 dipole antenna array with additional 2-bit phase shifter. Then microwave power from a PCM is divided into 8 and connected to 8 dipole antennas. Each dipole antenna has a 2-bit phase shifter to get the microwave beam focused more precisely. The dipole antenna system has a sharp beam pattern but large energy loss. The rectenna array receives and converts microwave power to dc. The SPORTS 5.8, shown in Fig.4.5, has a choice of two transmitting systems. One consists of 9 PCMs and 288 antenna elements. Its total microwave output is more than 1.26kW. The other consists of a solid-state amplifier and 144 antenna elements. Its microwave output is more than 7.2W. Although the solid-state amplifier system has low efficiency and low microwave output, it can control microwave beam with high resolution.

 SPORTS

Fig.4.4 SPORTS 2.45

A light microwave power transmitter at 5.8GHz named COMET (COmpact Microwave Energy Transmitter), shown in Fig.4.6 was also developed by our research group [7]. The size of the COMET is 310mm in diameter and 99mm in thickness. It provides 270W microwave output and its weight is 7kg. So the weight per power ratio is less than 26g/W.

Moreover, we succeeded to develop a Phase-and-Amplitude-Controlled Magnetron (PACM) by tuning both the anode current and the external magnetic field simultaneously [29, 30].

 COMET

Fig.4. 6 COMET

4.6 5.8GHz CW magnetron

 

5.8GHz CW magnetrons, shown in Fig4.7, were developed by Panasonic Semiconductor Discrete Devices Co. Ltd. in 2000. The development of 5.8GHz CW magnetrons contributes to reduction in size and weight of the SPS transmitting system, compared to the conventional 2.45GHz magnetron. Our research group experimentally measured and evaluated fundamental performance of the 5.8GHz magnetrons, such as DC-RF conversion efficiency, a curve of anode current vs. free-running frequency, a Q value, etc.

From experimental results, DC-RF conversion efficiency of 5.8GHz CW magnetrons was measured to be about 40%; on the contrary, 2.45GHz cooker-type magnetrons have around 70% DC-RF conversion efficiency, when a magnetron is operated by a DC stabilized power supply. The Q value of 5.8GHz magnetrons degraded more than 10 times compared to that of 2.45GHz magnetrons. The results come from overheat of the cathode filament due to excessive back bombardment energy. The back bombardment energy in 5.8GHz CW magnetrons was estimated to be generated twice more than that in cooker-type 2.45GHz magnetrons.

This chapter describes the SPS interaction with space and the atmosphere, compatibility with communications and radio astronomy, and influence of the SPS and MPT on human health and bio-effects. To assure environmental safety and health, the proposed limit of the maximum power at the center of the microwave transmission beam should be controlled by tightly tuned phased-array techniques and by automatic beam defocusing.

5.1 Interaction with space and the atmosphere

5.1.1 Atmospheric effects

Very few groups have worked on possible effects of microwaves on the atmosphere. Studies presently available refer to potential effects via heating of the ionospheric electrons or via ionization of the air. Observations of transient luminous events (sprites, blue jets, elves, …) in the upper atmosphere set basic questions on the electrical processes that develop in the Earth environment. It is clear that new studies are needed on all phenomena that may influence the atmospheric electrical conductivity and thus the global electric circuit. Heating of the ionospheric electron population may affect the ionospheric plasma and the atmosphere in different ways (see section 5.1.2). The effects are probably more important between 100 and 250 km where the main chemical process controlling the ionospheric plasma concentration is the electronic recombination of O2 + and NO+. They obviously depend on the level of enhancement in the electron temperature. Of the average year (Rec. ITU-R P.837-4). [38] The rain attenuation can be calculated based on ITU-R PN618.[36] In case of Tokyo, the specific attenuation γR = 0.2dB at 5.8GHz since its rain rate is 50mm/h for 0.01% of the time (about 52.5 minutes per year). Rain rates for a part of Europe are shown in Fig. 5.1.1. Since the effective path length Le = 4.5km, the value of attenuation A=0.9 dB (81%). However, γR = 0.1dB and A= 0.45 dB (90%) at 5 GHz. These values are smaller in Europe due to less rain as shown in the figure. The microwave SPS beam is scattered by rainor hail. [35] for a rain rate, R = 50 (mm/hour), frequency of 2.45 GHz, and the elevation angle of 47 degrees, the attenuation is about 0.015 dB/km. Furthermore, the maximum interference intensity P (W) received by an antenna for terrestrial radio relay links near the rectenna site for a power density of 23 mW/cm2 is P = 6.7×10-11R1.4h, where h (m) is the scatterer length. If R = 50~150 mm/hour and h = 3~10 km, then P = 0.1~1 mw. This level, however, would not cause nonlinear problems and interference can be removed by filters. Batanov et al[4] studied the effects of powerful microwaves on the atmosphere have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest are the experimental studies devoted to cleaning the troposphere of ozone. The idea involves artificially ionizing the air using high power electromagnetic waves. The necessary threshold field strength and intensity are 680 kV/m and 6 x 104 W/cm2 at 15 km, corresponding to a 6 GHz continuous wave. Since microwave pulses are used for the excitation of discharges, this breakdown electric field level can be several times higher. Although both levels are much higher than the values that will be achieved from the SPS, one sees that microwave radiation may have positive effects on the Earth environment. We also need to study and monitor potential negative consequences.

 Rain rate

Fig.5.1.1. Rain rate (mm/h) exceeded for 0.01%

5.1.2 Ionospheric effects

 

Although much more published works are available, there are no conclusive observations or propagation models to provide a definitive view about the effects of microwave radiations on the ionosphere.

(1)   Ohmic heating

The first obvious effect of high power microwaves on the ionosphere is resistive or Ohmic heating. The absorption of the radio waves can be calculated from the electron density and electron-neutral collision frequency profile. The effect is largest in the lower ionosphere (D and E regions) where the collision frequency is highest. Although the effect is expected to be small with increasing frequency, it could still be significant. Several authors [5] have calculated the heating effect of 3 GHz waves. They estimate that, for a power density of about 16 mW/cm2, the electron temperature could increase from about 200 K in the E region to about 1000 K. A temperature increase would result in a decrease of electron density because of a decrease in the temperature-dependent recombination rate of O2+ and NO2+. In the D region an increase in the attachment rate to O2+  also reduces electron density. To our knowledge no measurements of electron heating from high power microwaves in the ionosphere exist. The reason is probably two-fold: the difficulty of measuring electron temperatures on short time scales in the D region, and the lack of microwave heating experiments. Even if VHF and UHF radars of sufficient power-aperture produce heating effects, it is difficult to use them as both heating and measuring devices. It should also be noted that the heating effects may not be well represented by Maxwellian electron distribution function analysis[39] that is often assumed in analysis of incoherent scatter radar data, so that standard analysis techniques may not be applicable. Microwave injections from a rocket have been tried [35] (and presented in a poster review8), but Ohmic heating effects could not be observed. The lack of measured microwave heating in the ionosphere should not caste doubt on the reality of Ohmic heating caused by powerful microwaves, but only points out the shortcomings of the attempts made so far to measure it. On this rocket flight, the expected heating effect was less than 100K, which was below the detection limit of the Langmuir probe. However, the illuminated plasma volume was very small. [40] because the ionospheric heating efficiency varies as the inverse square of the radio frequency, heating effects equivalent to those from high-power microwaves can be achieved at much lower powers by heating at a lower frequency. This is done using ionospheric modification or heating facilities that are simply high-power (~1MW) short-wave (2 to 10 MHz) transmitters radiating upwards using high gain (16 to 30 dB) antenna arrays. D-region Ohmic heating effects are clearly observable indirectly through the conductivity and current modulation experiments9 and the sometimes dramatic heating effects on polar mesospheric summer radar echoes. [31, 32] direct measurements of the temperature enhancement using incoherent scatter radar are, however, difficult and rate. [33]

(2)   Self-focusing effects

Thermal self-focusing takes place as a result of a positive feedback loop. Small natural density fluctuations give rise to a spatial variation in the refractive index, resulting in slight focusing and defocusing of the microwave. This slight differential heating of the ionospheric plasma results in a temperature gradient driving the plasma from the focused region and thereby amplifying the initial perturbation. Such effects are well known and have been studied from HF-heating experiments, but it is unclear how important this is for an under dense plasma where the microwave frequency is much greater than the plasma frequency.

 

(3)   Three-wave interactions

 

The heating effects discussed above are the result of non-resonant interactions with the plasma. Another effect of high power microwaves is the production of plasma waves through resonant interactions, in particular through parametric instabilities. There have been several theoretical predictions that microwaves at high power may produce instabilities in the ionosphere. Matsumoto [44] and Matsumoto et al. [30] demonstrated that the microwaves may decay into forward-traveling electron plasma waves (Raman scattering) or ion acoustic waves (Brillouin scattering) and a backward-traveling secondary microwave. The electron plasma waves could be Langmuir waves when the excitation is parallel to the geomagnetic field, or electron cyclotron waves for excitation perpendicular to the field. Dysthe et al.[45] and Cerisier et al.[38] examined the case of two powerful microwaves having a frequency difference equal to the local ionospheric plasma frequency, typically 2 to 10 MHz. The ponder motive force, which is proportional to the product of the two electric fields, can be strong enough to excite a parametric instability that results in Langmuir waves being produced. One result of a ground-based radar experiment near 1 GHz16 shows that such effects may indeed take place in the ionosphere. The three-wave interactions are expected to be most effective in the F region, above about 170 km. Apart from the radar experiment of Lavergnat et al.[36] there is, to our knowledge, only one other report of plasma waves being caused in the ionosphere by powerful microwave transmissions. This was from a 830W, 2.45 GHz transmitter on a mother-daughter Japanese rocket experiment (MINIX) where electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves at 3/2 the local electron gyro frequency and electron plasma waves above the local plasma frequency were observed[48,40] and presented in a poster review.[49] It was found that the excited waves differed from the initial theoretical expectations18 in that the line spectrum expected from a simple three-wave coupling theory was in fact a broad spectrum, and the electron cyclotron harmonics were stronger than the Langmuir waves. Both these features could be successfully modeled using a more realistic computer simulation [39] where the nonlinear feedback processes were fully incorporated. From these simulation results, it was estimated that 0.01 percent of the microwave beam energy from the SPS would be converted to electrostatic waves. In conclusion, there have not been enough experiments with powerful microwaves in the ionosphere to determine with confidence the importance of instabilities as a loss mechanism for the beam and as a source of plasma waves and heating of the ionosphere. In the neighborhood of the satellite the power density will be high and its effects on the ionosphere will be examined experimentally. Care must be taken in the choice of frequency separations if multiple frequencies are used to beam down the power. Effects on the atmosphere are not expected.

5.1.3 Effects of electric propulsion on the magnetosphere

 

In the process of SPS construction, large high-power electric propulsion systems are needed. The electric propulsion systems inject heavy ions accelerated by electrodes powered by the photovoltaic cells. For transformation of orbits around the equator, the heavy ions are injected perpendicular to the Earth’s magnetic field. The injection can strongly disturb the electromagnetic environment surrounding the ion engine in the plasma sphere and the magnetosphere through interaction between the heavy-ion beam and the magnetosheric plasmas. The interaction between the heavy-ion beam and the magnetic field has been studied theoretically.[ 50 , 51] Based on an MHD analysis, Chiu[51] predicted that Argon ion injection could excite Alfven waves propagating along the magnetic field down to the ionosphere and being reflected back. He also predicted that injected Argon ions can accumulate in the magnetosphere, significantly changing the plasma environment. Curtis and Grebowsky[49] showed that the bulk of the injected ion beam is not stopped in the magnetosphere. However, the relatively small fraction of the beam that is not stopped may give rise to a large distortion in the magnetospheric plasma population. They also evaluated possible loss mechanisms from the magnetosphere for this artificial ion component. The interaction of the heavy ions and the surrounding magnetized plasma field has been studied by particle simulations using hybrid code, where motions of ions are solved as particles while electrons are treated as a neutralizing fluid. As an initial response to the injection, a shock structure can be formed in the ambient plasma along with generation of magneto-hydro-magnetic waves and associated heating of the background plasmas.[48] It has to be noted that heating processes and parametric instabilities may also take place within the plasma sphere, in the neighborhood of the satellite. The plasma is less dense but there is a high level of wave activity. The artificial generation or loss of extremely low (ELF) and ultra low (ULF) frequency waves in that region may have consequences on the dynamics of the radiation belts.

5.2 Compatibility with other radio services and applications

Undesired emissions, such as grating lobes, sidelobes, carrier noise, harmonics, spurious, and out-of-band emissions of any Space Solar Power System must be suppressed sufficiently to avoid interference with other radio services and applications, in accordance with the provisions of the ITU-R Radio Regulations (RR). This applies not only to any eventual full power operational systems, but also to all developmental, test and intermediate power prototype systems, both in space and on the ground. Hence this is a near term issue, even though it may take decades before full systems become operational.

Most SPS microwave systems are assumed to use frequency bands around 2.5 GHz or 5.8 GHz. These are allocated in the ITU-R Radio Regulations to a number of radio services and are also designated for Industry, Science and Medical (ISM) applications. The ITU Radio Regulations define ISM applications as follows. RR 1.15 Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) applications (of radio frequency energy): Operation of equipment or appliances designed to generate and use locally radio frequency energy for industrial, scientific, medical, domestic or similar purposes, excluding applications in the field of telecommunications. Note that as presently defined the ISM bands are for local use only. The following Radio Regulations govern the use of the ISM applications. RR 5.150 The following bands: 13,553-13,567 kHz, 26,957-27,283 kHz, 40.66-40.70 MHz, 902-928 MHz in Region 2, 2,400-2,500 MHz, 5,725-5,875 MHz, and 24-24.25 GHz are also designated for industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) applications. Radiocommunication services operating within these bands must accept harmful interference which may be caused by these applications. ISM equipment operating in these bands is subject to the provisions of No. 15.13. RR 15.13 Administrations shall take all practicable and necessary steps to ensure that radiation from equipment used for industrial, scientific and medical applications is minimal and that, outside the bands designated for use by this equipment, radiation from such equipment is at a level that does not cause harmful interference to a radiocommunication service and, in particular, to a radio navigation or any other safety service operating in accordance with the provisions of these Regulations.

The intended bandwidth of SPS emissions is quite narrow, as an essentially monochromatic wave without modulation will be used. As noted in Section 5.1.2, care must be taken in the choice of frequency separations if multiple frequencies are used to beam down the power.

5.2.1 Compatibility with other services such as Radio Astronomy

An interference assessment on mainly 2.45 GHz was published in IEEE Microwave Magazine. [47] The following is a partial list of mechanisms by which an SPS could cause interference. [46]

1) The power transmission signal, its harmonics, and any sidebands that might be present in the fundamental frequency reference, which will appear coherently at all power amplifiers of the system.

2) Noise generated in the power output stages. This will not be coherent at individual power amplifiers and so will not be beamed like the power signal but spread much more widely in angle. The spectrum might only be a few tens of MHz wide if the transmitter elements are highly tuned (e.g. klystrons) and could be broader for solid-state devices.

3) Thermal noise emitted by the solar collector arrays. This may represent a significant

broadband component of radiated power in the microwave spectrum.

4) Reflection by the collector arrays of high-powered transmitters in space or on the ground. This can occur over a wide range of frequencies.

5) Spurious emission at unwanted frequencies or in unwanted directions from the power

transmitters associated with component failure of the amplifiers themselves or of parts of the antenna system. It is not certain whether failing transmitters might become unlocked in frequency, generate spurious modes or just die quietly.

6) Harmonics and noise generated in the rectenna.

7) Inter modulation between the power signal and other radio signals generated in a rectenna or in nonlinear elements in the high field areas near a rectenna. Carrier noise, harmonics, and spurious emissions of the WPT signal must be quite small to avoid interference with other radio services in operation around the world. Grating lobes and sidelobes of the WPT beam should be low enough to make the affected region as small as possible. Also, grating lobes should be mitigated because they are a direct loss of transmitter power. It is important that compatibility be evaluated for full systems, not just single units. Many units of 1 GW will be required if satellite solar power is to represent a significant contribution to future energy needs. The 2.45 and 5.8 GHz ISM bands share a common frequency allocation worldwide. Familiar applications include radio controllers, microwave ovens, RF-ID (radio tags) and drying of cut lumber. To date they have been used for WPT applications for demonstration and experimental purposes.25 The 2.45 GHz ISM band (2400-2500MHz) and the 5.8 GHz ISM band (5725-5875 MHz), however, have already been allocated to various other services as well. Recently, the 2.45 GHz ISM band has been widely used for Radio LAN (IEEE 802.11b and g) applications. The frequency allocation of the 2.45 GHz Radio LANs occupies almost the whole band. The 5.8 GHz ISM band is also heavily used for various applications. The 5725-5850 MHz band is allocated to the Radiolocation service. DSRC (Dedicated Short-Range Communications), described in Recommendation ITU-R M.1543, is also expected to use the band. The 5850-5925 MHz band is allocated to Fixed/Mobile services and is used for terrestrial Electronic News Gathering (ENG) in some countries. The second, the sixth, ninth and 20th harmonics of the 2.45 GHz ISM band overlap with radio astronomy bands (4.9-5.0, 22.1-22.5 and 48.96-49.06 GHz). It is expected that the interference level near 4.9 GHz would be very much higher (40 dB or more, depending on the system) than the harmful interference threshold. Hence the upper half, 2.45-2.5 GHz, cannot be used for SSPS. The harmonic situation is better for the 5.8 GHz band. However, many harmonics of the 2.45 GHz and the 5.8 GHz band overlap the 76 – 116 GHz radio astronomy band. The spurious and out-of-band (OOB) emission from high-power\ transmitters is likely to interfere with adjacent radio astronomy bands. Frequency allocation for SPS must avoid harmful interference with radio astronomy applications, which use very sensitive passive receivers. Spurious emissions must be suppressed sufficiently to protect the Radio Astronomy Service, and rectennas must be located far from radio astronomy observing sites. As radio astronomy is fully passive and celestial objects have no lower limit in intensity of emission, its observing systems have been advanced to become extremely sensitive.

 

5.2.2 Reflection and Thermal Emission from Solar Cells [45, 47]

 

 In the radio region, solar cells reflect solar radio emission in a continuous frequency region of 100 MHz through 100GHz and beyond. The power flux densities are 0.1 – 1  M×10-26 W/m2 /Hz (quiet Sun) and 100 – 1000 M×10-26 W/m2 /Hz (burst). These values are six to ten orders of magnitude higher than those from typical cosmic radio sources. This means that radio astronomical observations may be affected by these reflections, depending on the telescope location on the Earth. The apparent angular size of the solar cell array with a diameter of about 13 km is close to 1 arcminute, which is 1/30 of those of the Sun and the Moon, and a little larger than Jupiter (about 40 arc seconds), the largest planet of the solar system. Because the SPS systems are always seen at the same locations, they would prevent astronomical observations of those regions of the sky. Even the JAXA 2002 Model, for example, whose diameter of the primary mirror is about 3km (about 15 arc seconds in angular diameter), would obscure many celestial objects forever. This model system does not represent a large addition to the terrestrial power capability. The effect grows as multiple such systems are added to make an operational system. Optical and infrared astronomy will suffer from reflection by the solar cells. This was studied extensively for the earlier US system. The National Research Council panel concluded: 27 “The diffuse night-sky brightness produced by the reference SPS would interfere seriously with optical astronomical measurements from the Earth. This interference would be concentrated in an area on either side of the satellite arc and would prevent the measurement of weak astronomical objects in those areas.” An important effect of the SPS on radio astronomy arises from the passive thermal radiation of the solar cells. There will be zones centered on the geostationary orbit in which observations over a wide range of frequencies will be precluded, not just at harmonics of the power transmission. For example, in the studies of the US reference system proposed in 1978, the thermal radiation from the collectors of one satellite were estimated to produce a level about 10 dB below the detrimental threshold levels of Recommendation ITU-R RA.769 assuming a unity gain antenna over a wide range of frequencies. The interference is detrimental if one points a radio telescope so that receiving sidelobes above 10 dBi lie on the orbit. For 32-25log(φ) sidelobes, that means pointing closer than about ±7.5 degrees to the orbit. There will also be noise generated in the transmitting tubes or power transistors, which could be rather wide in bandwidth if these power amplifiers are not narrow-band devices. This could be stronger than the thermal noise, but will depend on the characteristics of the particular devices used. With a full system of satellites in orbit, satellites would be distributed fairly continuously around the GEO, so that at any radio or optical observatory a band of sky centered on the orbit would be permanently blocked from certain observations at essentially all frequencies. The substantial loss of observable sky resulting from such wideband noise emission would be severely harmful. Such effects are, however, expected to be smaller. For example, in the case of the JAXA 2003 model, the reflected light by the huge mirror is specific and directed to the solar cell panels and the light reflected by the cells is directed perpendicular to the direction of the Earth.

 

5.3 MPT on Human health and bio-effects

The concept of solar-power satellites (SPS) and wireless-power transmission (WPT)envisions the generation of electric power by solar energy in space for use on Earth.[28,29] The system would involve placing a constellation of solar power satellites in geostationary Earth orbits. Each satellite would provide between 1 and 6 GW of power to the ground, using a 2.45 or 5.8-GHz microwave beam. The power-receiving rectenna on the ground would be a structure measuring 1.0 to 3.4 km in diameter. The higher (5.8 GHz) frequency has been proposed since it has a similar atmospheric transparency. Although, in principle, the higher frequency could involve a reduced size for the transmitting and receiving antennas, it can be seen from the table that current designs have opted for larger transmitting antennas and smaller rectenna sites, but a larger power density on the ground to conserve land use, especially in Japan. A joint effort between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aerospace Administration (NASA) in the US extensively investigated the feasibility of SPS-WPT during 1976-1980. The effort generated a Reference System Concept for Solar Power Satellites. The DOE–NASA Reference System involved placing a constellation of solar power satellites (5 x 10 x 0.5 km deep) in geostationary Earth orbits, each of which would provide 5-GW of power to major cities on the ground, using a 2.45-GHz microwave beam. The Reference System’s sixty satellites were contemplated to deliver a total of 300 GW of generating capacity. The transmitting antenna was about 1 km in diameter. The power-receiving rectenna on the ground was a 10 x 13-km structure. Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) had announced plans to launch research for a solar-power-generation satellite and to begin operating a giant solar-power station by 2040. This program is expected to design and operate an SPS-WPT system that would ensure the microwaves would not interrupt cellular mobile telephone and other wireless telecommunications services. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has proposed and evaluated various system configurations for operation at 5.8 GHz. For example, the JAXA2 model would have a maximum power density of 100 mW/cm2 (1000 W/m2) on the ground. A smaller transmitting system would have a density of 26 mW/cm2 (260 W/m2) at the rectenna site on the ground. A variety of environmental considerations and safety-related factors continue to receive consideration, albeit at a low priority level. The biological effects and health implications of microwave radiation have been a subject of study for many years.[30,31,32] In fact, the cumulative data have allowed the establishment of recommendations for safety levels for humans under a variety of exposure conditions. For example, the ICNIRP (and Japanese) guideline is 5 or 1 mW/cm2 for occupationally exposed vs. the general public, at either 2.45 or 5.8 GHz.33 The corresponding limits for IEEE standards for maximum permissible human exposure to microwave radiation, at 2.45 or 5.8 GHz, are 8.16 or 10 mW/cm2 averaged over six min, and 1.63 or 3.87 mW/cm2 averaged over 30 min, respectively, for controlled and uncontrolled environments.34 The controlled and uncontrolled situations are distinguished by whether the exposure takes place with or without knowledge of the exposed individual, and is normally interpreted to mean individuals who are occupationally exposed to the microwave radiation, as contrasted with the general public. As can be seen from the Table, the proposed power densities range from 23 to 180 mW/cm2 above the rectenna at the center of the microwave beam, where power densities would be maximum. At 2.45 GHz, the power density is projected to be 1 mW/cm2 at the perimeter of the rectenna. Beyond the perimeter of the rectenna or 15 km, the side lobe peaks would be less than 0.01 mW/cm2. Clearly, beyond the perimeter of the rectenna, the potential exposure would be well below that currently permissible for the general public. The danger of loss of control of highly focused beams may be minimized by tightly tuned phased-array techniques and by automatic beam defocusing to disperse the power if loss of contril occurs. Defocusing would degrade the beam toward a more isotropic radiation pattern, which would give rise to even lower power density on the ground. [51] Near the center of the microwave beam, power densities would be greater than the permissible level of exposure for controlled situations. Except for maintenance personnel, human exposure would normally not be allowed at this location. In the case of occupationally required presence, protective measures, such as glasses, gloves and garments could be used to reduce the exposure to a permissible level.

However, at 25 mW/cm2, research has shown that some birds exhibit evidence of detecting the microwave radiation. This suggests that migratory birds, flying above the rectenna, might suffer disruption of their flying paths. Moreover, at higher ambient temperatures, larger birds tend to experience more heat stress than smaller ones, during 30 min of exposure. [49] This result is consistent with the knowledge that the larger birds, having a larger body mass, absorb a relatively greater quantity of microwave radiation than do the smaller birds. The additional heat, from microwave energy deposited inside the body, could be stressing the thermal regulatory capacity of the larger birds. Thus to assure environmental health and safety, the proposed limit for the “center-of-beam” power densities is approximately 25 mW/cm2 for microwave transmission. Note that the average absorption remains fairly stable for frequencies above 2 GHz,30, 37 except when the frequency becomes much higher, i.e., 10 GHz, where the skin effect takes over, the maximum tolerable exposure at 5.8 GHz would be essentially the same as for 2.45 GHz. We have to discuss the microwave (over GHz) effect on human health imposed by the SPS system. There is a long history concerning the safety of microwave energy.38 Contemporary RF/microwave standards are based on the results of critical evaluations and interpretations of the relevant scientific literature. The specific absorption rate (SAR) threshold for the most sensitive effect considered potentially harmful to humans, regardless of the nature of the interaction mechanism, is used as the basis of the standard. The SAR is only related to a heating problem, which is regarded as the only microwave effect on human health. Discussions about the maximum microwave power density inside the rectenna site are necessary. The maximum power density depends on the antenna size and the frequency, which directly affect the total cost. In the present JAXA2 model, the microwave power density is 100 mW/cm2 at the center of the rectenna site, which is above the safe level. This area should be strictly controlled. Outside of the rectenna area, the intensities are kept below the safe level. A possible change of the safe level in the future could cause changes of the SPS design.

6.1 Comparison with fossil fuels

The relatively low price of energy today is entirely dominated by the historically low cost of carbon based fossil fuels (e.g., petroleum, coal and natural gas).

There are several problems with existing energy delivery systems. They are subject to (among other problems) political instability for various reasons in various locations — so that there are large hidden costs in maintaining military or other presence so as to continue supplies depletion (some well regarded estimates suggest that oil and gas reserves have been in net decline for some time and that price increases and supply decreases are inevitable) oil prices rose from around $20/bbl in the early 2000s to over $130/bbl in early 2008, despite no major disruptions in supply, suggesting to some industry observers (e.g., Matthew Simmons) that the days of cheap oil are over greenhouse pollution — fossil fuel combustion emits enormous quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming and climate change[44]. Following the Kyoto Treaty, 141 countries introduced the first system of mandatory emissions control via carbon credits. The ultimate direction of such policies is to increase efficiency of fossil fuel use, perhaps to the point of elimination in some countries or even globally. But, the energy requirements of Third World or developing countries (e.g., China and India) are increasing steadily. Because of the net increase in demand, energy prices will continue to increase, though how fast and how high are less easily predicted.

6.2 Comparison with nuclear power (fission)

Detailed analyses of the problems with nuclear power specifically (nuclear fission) are published elsewhere[43]. Some are given below, with some comparative comments:

  • nuclear proliferation — not a problem with SPS
  • disposal and storage of radioactive waste — not a problem with SPS
  • preventing fissile material from being obtained by terrorists or their sponsors — not a problem with SPS
  • public perception of danger — problem with both SPS and nuclear power
  • consequences of major accident, e.g., Chernobyl — effectively zero with SPS, save on launch (during construction or for maintenance)
  • military and police cost of protecting the public and loss of democratic freedoms — control of SPS would be a power/influence center, perhaps sufficient to translate into political power. However, this has not yet happened in the developed world with nuclear power.
  • installation delays. These have been notoriously long with nuclear power plants (at least in the US), and may be reduced with SPS. With sufficient commitment from SPS backers, the difference may be substantial.

On balance, SPS avoids nearly all of the problems with current nuclear power schemes, and does not have larger problems in any respect, although public perception of microwave power transfer (i.e. in the beams produced by an SPS and received on Earth) dangers could become an issue.

6.3 Comparison with nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion is a process used in stars, thermonuclear bombs (e.g., the H-bomb), and in a very small way some laboratory experiments. Projected nuclear fusion power plants would not be explosive, and will likely be inherently failsafe as the conditions for fusion on Earth are extremely hard to maintain and the reaction will promptly stop if any of them is changed (eg, via component or control system maladjustment or failure). However, sustained nuclear fusion generators have only just been demonstrated experimentally, despite extensive research over a period of several decades (since approximately 1952. There is still no credible estimate of how long it will be before a nuclear fusion reactor could become commercially possible; fusion research continues on a significant scale, including an internationally supported large scale project — the  facility currently under construction has been funded at about €10 billion.There has been much criticism of the value of continued funding of fusion research given the continued failure to produce even small amount of net power in any of the varied attempted schemes. Nevertheless, proponents have successfully argued in favor of ITER funding

In contrast, SPS does not require any fundamental engineering breakthroughs, has already been extensively reviewed from an engineering feasibility perspective over some decades, and needs only incremental improvements of existing technology to be deployable. Despite these advantages, SPS has received minimal research funding to date in comparison.

6.4 Comparison with terrestrial photovoltaic solar power

Per-kilowatt-hour photovoltaic costs have been in exponential decline for decades, with a 20-fold decrease from 1975 to 2001. Let us consider a ground-based solar power system versus an SPS generating an equivalent amount of power. An SPS requires much less ground area per kilowatt (approx 1/5th), depending on the location of the ground-based system. A ground-based system intercepts an absolute maximum of only one third of the solar energy an array of equal size could intercept in space, since no power is generated at night and less light strikes the panels when the Sun is low in the sky or weather interferes. The rectenna of an SPS would have a smaller footprint than the equivalent solar array, as it receives more power per unit area. A solar panel in the contiguous United States on average delivers 19 to 56 W/m² An SPS rectenna would deliver about 23mW/cm² (230 W/m²) continuously, hence the size of rectenna required per collected watt would be about 8.2% to 24% that of a terrestrial solar panel. A ground-based solar array is considerably cheaper to construct. A ground-based solar array requires no new technology. An SPS rectenna can be made transparent and thus would not impact land use. For example, crops could be grown beneath it. An SPS provides continuous power, whilst a ground-based system would require some form of energy storage if it were to provide power at night. Ground-based systems are more vulnerable to terrorist attack. A ground based system requires continual maintenance. Wear and tear on orbital installations can be reduced by care in design and fabrication. An SPS can deliver power where needed by redirecting its microwave beam, whilst a ground-based system must rely on the grid to distribute its power. However ground-base systems may be deployed in a distributed manner (say to rooftops). Both SPS and ground-based solar power could be used to produce chemical fuels for transportation and storage, as in the proposed hydrogen economy. Or they could both be used to run an energy storage scheme (such as pumping water uphill at a hydropower generation station). Advances in solar cell efficiency (eg, improved construction techniques) that make an SPS more economically feasible make a ground-based system more economic as well. Also, many  SPS designs assume the framework will be built with automated machinery supplied with raw materials, typicallyaluminium. Such a system could be (more or less easily) adapted for operation on Earth, no launching required. However, Earth-based construction already has access to inexpensive human labor that would not be available in space, so such construction techniques would have to be extremely competitive to be significant on Earth.

6.4.1 Solar panel mass production

Currently the costs of solar panels are too high to use them to produce bulk domestic electricity in most situations. However, mass production of the solar panels necessary to build an SPS system would be likely to reduce those costs sufficiently to change this — perhaps substantially — especially as fossil fuel costs have been increasing rapidly. But, any panel design suited to SPS use is likely to be quite different than earth suitable panels, so not all such improvements will have this effect. This may benefit earth based array designs as costs may be lower (see the cost analysis above), but will not be able to take advantage of maximum economies of scale, and so piggyback on production of Earth based panels. It should be noted, however, that there are also frequent developments in the production of solar panels. Thin film solar panels and so-called “nanosolar” might increase collection efficiency, reduce production costs as well as weight, and therefore reduce the total cost of an SPS installation. In addition, private space corporations could become interested in transporting goods (such as satellites, supplies and parts of commercial space hotels) to LEO (Low Earth orbit), since they already are developing spacecraft to transport space tourists . If they can reduce costs, this will also increase the economic feasibility of an SPS.

  

6.5 Comparison with other renewables (wind, tidal, hydro, geothermal)

 

Most renewable energy sources (for example, tidal energy, hydro-electric, geothermal, ethanol), have the capacity to supply only a tiny fraction of the global energy requirement, now or in the foreseeable future. For most, the limitation is geography as there simply are very few sites in the world where generating systems can be built, and for hydro-electric projects in particular, there are few sites still open. For 2005, in the US, hydro-electric power accounted for 6.5% of electricity generation, and other renewables 2.3%. The U.S. Govt. Energy Information Administration projects that in 2030 hydro-power will decline to 3.4% and other renewables will increase to 2.9%.

  

6.5.1 Comparison with biofuels

Ethanol power production depends on farming in the case of corn or sugar cane, currently the two leading sources of ethanol fuel. There is insufficient farming capacity for both significant energy production and food production. Corn prices have risen substantially in 2006 and 2007, partly as a result of nascent ethanol production demand. Due to the high energy cost of industrial agriculture as well as the azeotropic distillation necessary to refine ethanol, serious questions remain about the EROEI of ethanol from corn. Ethanol from cellulose (eg, agricultural waste or purpose collected non-cultivated plants, eg, switchgrass) is not practicable as of 2007, though pilot plants are in development. Processing improvements (eg, a breakthrough in enzyme processing) may change this relative disadvantage.

  

6.5.2 Comparison with wind power

 

Wind power is somewhat unique among the renewables as having emerged as competitive with fossil fuels on cost (similar to hydro), but unlike hydro has significant potential for expansion. Wind power has been the fastest-growing form of renewable energy throughout the 2000s, growing at an annual rate of approximately 30% . As of 2008, wind power’s share of global energy output remained small, but wind power accounted for a large share of new power generation capacity in several countries including the United States and the United Kingdom. Improvements in technology, especially the trend toward largerwind turbines mounted on taller towers, has reduced the cost of wind power to be competitive with fossil fuel. The potential for wind power appears to be very large. For example, just the four windiest states in the United States (North Dakota, Texas, Kansas, and South Dakota), have wind resources that could equal the current electricity consumption of the entire country. Offshore wind resources appear to be even larger than on-shore wind resources. One advantage ofwind farms is their ability to expand incrementally; individual wind turbines can be assembled on site at a typical rate of approximately one per week, and begin generating electricity (and thus revenue) as soon as they connect to the transmission grid. This gives wind power a lower capital risk compared to large-scale power generation schemes that require heavy investment for years before they become operational (e.g., hydroelectric power, nuclear power). Ocean-based windpower offers access to very large wind resources (there being large areas for potential installations, and winds tend to blow stronger and steadier over water than over land due to reduced surface friction), but it is strongly affected by two factors: the difficulty of long distance power transmission as many regions of high demand are not near the sea, and by the very large difficulty of coping with corrosion, contamination, and survivability problems faced by all seaborne installations. Some potential locations for offshore wind turbines suffer less from these problems, such as the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada, which are surrounded by well-developed power grids and large populations of electricity consumers. The lakes, being fresh water, would pose fewer corrosion problems, and construction in these environments is well-understood.

 

In Sum If we concentrate at the last chapter then we can say that the solar power satellite is the better performer than that of any sorts of power mainly from the point of cost. If we develop a satellite and launch it for gather solar cells then it is very much expensive for the first time. Wireless power transmission is also an important factor here. But it isn’t creating for the only one time. In Japan, many of their industries are using solar system which is obtained from the satellite. America and a very few number of rich countries are also using this technology. We didn’t use the solar power for the maximization. So the world’s are investigate how it would be used for the maximization. If I would get more time then my objective of the present study is to develop high-efficiency and low-noise Wireless Power Transmission.

SOLAR POWER SATELLITE