This is a Questionnaire format for Building Materials and Construction purpose. Here create various preliminary questions for Building Materials point of view. questions are focus on Gypsum, metamorphic rock, quartitze, Sandstone, granite, rubble masonry etc related. Also create questions about fire resisting characteristics, surface of stone, Spalling hammer, steel rolled structural beams and channels and tensile strength of structural mild steel.

# Month: September 2014

This article focus to Define and Discuss on Organic Farming. Organic farming is a type of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, vermicomposting and biological pest control. It also uses fertilizers and pesticides considered as natural but excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, grow growth regulators, genetically improved organisms, human sewage sludge and nanomaterials as a way to have sustainability, independence, safe practices. For adapting organic farming practices here explain some suggestions.

Primary purpose of this article is to Discuss on Perfect Office Renovation Contractor. Office renovations not just make your workspace more appealing for potential clients, these renovations could also have a significant affect working conditions and personnel efficiency. A well-organized living space improves productivity and satisfaction. Your office renovation is definitely an exciting project that has got the potential to change how you do business. Before an individual hire your renovation specialist, you should take some time to vet candidates carefully.

The aim of this article is to Discuss on Green Building for Better Lifestyle. Green building is a concept that’s been around for years but only recently has caught the attention of the masses. That promises a sustainable lifestyle that’s also cheaper. If this sounds like something you could stay with, read on to recognize more about the advantages. Green building design aims to blend structures while using the environment. The design, construction and end result doesn’t tax resources or compromise building safety. Here also explain on Better Lifestyle tips like, Energy efficiency, Improved quality of life, Water conservation, More moderate temperatures, Waste reduction, Recreational benefits and Aesthetically pleasing

Basic purpose of this article is to Discuss on Hydraulic Excavator for Maximum Efficiency. An elementary hydraulic excavator consists of a hydraulic canister, a bucket that is attached to the boom and finally, the arm. All the actual parts have different characteristics fitted for construction. Most contractors like the crawler type of hydraulic machine versus wheels and trucks. The crawler type is a great choice when you are coping with muddy grounds and uneven surfaces. A hydraulic excavator is indeed flexible in dealing with soft soils and steep areas.

This article focus to Discuss on types of Building Materials. Many kinds of building materials have been around in use since days immemorial. These materials are classified in two types. Natural constructing materials for instance clay and mud have been around in use since many decades. Even today, it is popular to build roofs and walls of homes. Mud is also a natural material that is used in between bricks for strength. Another form of material which is employed regularly includes bricks. Many special types of bricks that are used for construction requirements. The use of glazed bricks for decorative purpose is fairly common.

General purpose of this article is to Discuss on Introduction to Rainscreens. The function of rainscreens is always to offer protection to the external walls of virtually any building from rains along with climatic changes. A rainscreen diverts the direction of rainwater, and therefore saves the construction from moisture problems. Generally, rainscreens comprise of an external cladding. Cladding for rainscreens could be made from stone, a glass, wood, masonry or metallic. Cladding reduces the force with which rain punches the protected surface, as you move the cavity at its back goes to reduce the thrust of rainwater more than a support wall.

Major objective of this article is to Discuss on Modern Lean Construction Techniques. There are many different techniques that are used and categorized because lean. depending on the project and the dynamics in the team some techniques are often more effective than other intended for different organisations. This article also explain some Lean Construction Techniques like, Target Value Design, Last Planner, Pull Planning, Built in Quality and Error Proofing and Looking at Non value adding Tasks.

## Single Phase Transformer

**Transformer Tests**

** **The performance of a transformer can be calculated on the basis of equivalent circuit which contains four parameters, the equivalent resistance *R*01 as referred to primary (or secondary *R*02), the equivalent leakage reactance *X*01 as referred to primary (or reactance in secondary *X*02), the core loss conductance *G*0 (or resistance *R*0) and the magnetizing susceptance *B*0 (or reactance *X*0).

** **These constants or parameters can be easily determined by two tests

(i) open-circuit test and

(ii) short-circuit test

**Open-Circuit or No-Load Test**

The purpose of this test is to determine no-load loss or core loss and no-load current I0 which is helpful in finding X0 and R0.

Low voltage side connected with normal voltage and frequency and high voltage side is left open.

A wattmeter W, voltmeter V and an ammeter A are connected in the low-voltage winding i.e. primary winding in the present case as shown in Fig. 32.43.

The voltage V1 is measured using the voltmeter (V). With normal voltage applied to the primary, normal flux will be set up in the core, hence normal iron losses will occur which are recorded by the wattmeter (W).

As the primary no-load current I0 (as measured by ammeter, A) is small, Cu loss is negligibly small in primary and null in secondary. Hence, the wattmeter reading represents practically the core loss under no-load condition (and which is the same for all loads). The no-load vector diagram is shown in Fig. 32.16. If W0 is the wattmeter reading as shown in Fig. 32.43, then

Since the current is practically all-exciting current when a transformer is on no-load (i.e. I0=I) and as the voltage drop in primary leakage impedance is small, hence the exciting admittance Y0(=1/Z0) of the transformer is given by I0=V1Y0 or Y0=I0/V1.

The exciting conductance G0 is given by *W*_{0}*=V*_{1}^{2}*G*_{0}** or ***G*_{0}**(=1/ R_{0})= W_{0} /V_{1}^{2}.**

**Separation of Core Losses**

** **The core loss of transformer depends upon the frequency and the maximum flux density when the volume and the thickness of the core lamination are given.

The core loss is made up of two parts:

(i) Hysteresis loss: *Wh*=*PB*max^{2}*f *and

(ii) Eddy current loss: *We*=*QB*max^{2}*f *^{2}

Where, *P *and *Q *are constant.

The total core loss is given by: *Wi*=*Wh*+*We*= *PB*max^{2}*f *+ *QB*max^{2}*f *^{2}.

If we carry out two experiments using two different frequencies but the same maximum flux density, we should be able to find the constants *P *and *Q *and hence calculate hysteresis and eddy current losses separately.

If the maximum flux can be kept same value then the iron or core losses can be written as follows:

*W**i*=*W**h*+*W**e*= *Af *+*Bf *^{2}; where, *A*= *PB*max^{2}; *B*= *QB*max^{2}.

From the measured the core loss in two different frequencies, the constant *A *and *B *can be calculated.

Example 32.31 In a test for determination of losses of a 440 V, 50 Hz transformer, the total iron losses were found 2500 W at normal voltage and frequency. When the applied voltage and frequency 220 V and 25 Hz, the iron losses were found 850 W. Calculate the eddy-current loss and hysteresis loss at normal voltage and frequency. [Ans:We = 1600WandWh = 900 W]

** **

**Short-Circuit or Impedance Test**

This is an economical method for determining the following:

(i) Equivalent impedance (*Z*01 or *Z*02), leakage reactance (*X*01 or *X*02) and total resistance (*R*01 or *R*02) of the transformer as referred to the winding in which the measuring instruments are placed.

(ii) Cu loss at full load. This loss is used in calculating the efficiency of the transformer.

(iii) Knowing *Z*01 or *Z*02, the total voltage drop in the transformer as referred to primary or secondary can be calculated and hence regulation of the transformer determined.

In this test, one winding, usually the low-voltage winding is solidly short-circuited by a thick conductor as shown in Fig. 32.45.

A low-voltage (usually 5 to 10% of normal primary voltage) at correct frequency is applied to the primary and is cautiously increased till full-load currents are flowing both in primary and secondary (as indicated by the respective ammeters).

Since the applied voltage is a small percentage of the normal voltage, the mutual flux F produced is also a small percentage of its normal value.

Hence, core losses are very small with the result that the wattmeter reading represents the full-load Cu loss or *I*2*R* loss for the whole transformer i.e. both primary Cu loss and secondary Cu loss.

The equivalent circuit of the transformer under short circuit condition is shown in Fig. 32.46.

If *V**SC *is the voltage required to circulate rated load currents.

Then *Z*01=*V**SC*/*I*1. Also *W=I*1^{2}*R*01. \ *R*01=*W*/*I*1^{2} and

If *R*1 and *X*1 can be measured, then knowing *R*01 and

*X*01, we can find *R*2’=*R*01-*R*1 and *X*2’=*X*01-*X*1.

Hence, the secondary resistance and reactance can be calculated by using the following equation: *R*2= *R*2’*K*2;

*X*2= *X*2’*K*2 .

Example 32.36 Obtain the equivalent circuit of a 200/400 V, 50 Hz, 1-phase transformer from the following data:

O.C (Open Circuit) test: 200V, 0.7A, 70W on l. v (low voltage) side

S.C (Short Circuit) test: 15V, 10A, 85W on h. v (high voltage) side

Calculate the secondary voltage when delivering 5kW at 0.8 pf (power factor) lagging, the primary voltage being 200V.

Solution: From O.C Test: *V*1*I*0cosf0=*W*0.200×0.7×cosf0=70.

cosf0=70/(200×0.7)=0.5 and sinf0=0.866.

*I**w*=*I*0cosf0*= *0.7×0.5=0.35 A. *I*m=*I*0sinf0*=*0.7×0.866=0.606 A.

*R*0=*V*1/*I**w**=*200/0.35=571.4W. *X*0=*V*1/*I*m*=*200/0.606=330W.

From S.C Test: It may be noted that in this test, instruments have been placed in the secondary *i.e *high-voltage winding whereas the low voltage side *i.e *primary has been short circuited. Where *K*=400/200=2;

*Z*02=*V**SC*/*I*2=15/10=1.5W. *Z*01=*Z*02/*K*^{2}=1.5/4=0.375W.

Also, *I*2^{2}*R*02=*W*; *R*02=85/100=0.85 W. *R*01=*R*02/*K*2=0.85/4=0.21 W.

The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 32.49.

The values of parameters are referred to primary i.e. low voltage side.

Output kVA=5/0.8=6.25; Output current, *I*2=6.25×1000/400=15.6 A

Total transformer drop as referred to secondary

=*I*2(*R*02cosf2+*X*02sinf2)

=15.6× (0.85×0.8+1.24×0.6)=22.2 V

*V*2= 400-22.2=377.8 V

**Why Transformer Rating in kVA?**

As seen, Cu loss of transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage.

Hence, total transformer loss depends on volt-ampere (VA) and not on phase angle between voltage and current i.e. it is independent of load power factor.

This is why rating of transformers is in kVA and not in kW.

**Percentage Resistance [%R]**

Percentage resistance is *the resistance drop in volts at rated current and frequency as a percentage of the rated voltage i.e. *[if *I *is rated current, *V *is rated voltage then]

**Percentage Reactance [%X]**

Percentage reactance is the reactance drop in volts at rated current and frequency as a percentage of the rated voltage i.e. [if I is rated current, V is rated voltage then]

**Percentage Impedance [%Z]**

Percentage impedance is the impedance drop in volts at rated current and frequency as a percentage of the rated voltage i.e. [if I is rated current, V is rated voltage then]

**Percentage Resistance of Transformer at Full-Load**

**Percentage Reactance of Transformer at Full-Load**

**Percentage Impedance of Transformer at Full-Load**

The advantage of expressing resistance and reactance of a transformer in percentage is that the percentage resistance and reactance have the same values whether determined referred to primary or secondary whereas when expressed in ohms they have different values when referred to the primary and secondary.

**Per Unit Values**

The per unit values are equal to the percentage values divided by 100.

**Regulation of a Transformer Or Transformer Regulation**

Regulation of a transformer is defined as the difference between the full-load and no-load secondary terminal voltages expressed as a percentage of the full-load voltage.

When a transformer is loaded with a constant primary voltage, the secondary voltage decreases because of its internal resistance and leakage reactance.

Let, 0V2 = secondary terminal voltage at no-load = E2 = E1K=KV1 because at no-load the impedance drop is negligible.

V2 = secondary terminal voltage on full load

The change in secondary terminal voltage from no-load to full load is=0V2-V2.

This change divided by 0V2 is known as regulation ‘down’.

If this change is divided by V2 i.e. full-load secondary terminal voltage, then it is called regulation ‘up’.

Regulation is usually to be taken as regulation ‘down’.

The lesser this value, the better the transformer, because a good transformer should be kept secondary terminal voltage as constant as possible under all conditions of load.

**Losses in Transformer**

Since a transformer is a static device, there are no friction and windage losses.

Hence, the only losses occurring are:

(a) Core or Iron Loss

(b) Copper Loss

**Core or Iron Loss**

It includes both hysteresis loss and eddy current loss.

Because the core flux in transformer remains practically constant for all loads the core loss is practically the same at all loads.

Hysteresis loss: *W**h*=h*B*max^{1.6}*fV *watt; Eddy current loss: *W**e*=*PB*max^{2}*f *^{2}*t*^{2} watt

Where, *V*=volume of the core in m^{3}; h=Steinmetz hysteresis coefficient;

*t*=thikness.

These losses are minimized by using steel of high silicon content for the core and by using very thin laminations.

Iron or core loss is found from the O.C. test.

*The input of the transformer when on no-load measures the core loss*.

**Copper Loss**

This loss is due to the ohmic resistance of the transformer windings.

Total Cu loss=*I*1^{2}*R*1+*I*2^{2}*R*2= *I*1^{2}*R*01=*I*2^{2}*R*02.

It is clear that Cu loss is proportional to (current)^{2} or kVA^{2}.

So, Cu loss at half-load is one-fourth [(1/2)^{2}=1/4] of that at full load.

Cu loss at one-quarter-load is one-sixteen [(1/4)^{2}=1/16] of that at full load.

Cu loss at five-fourths -load is twenty five by-sixteen [(5/4)^{2}=25/16] of that at full load.

The value of copper loss is found from the short-circuit test.

**Auto Transformer**

The transformer with one winding only, part of this being common to both primary and secondary, is called auto transformer.

In this transformer the primary and secondary are not electrically isolated from each other as is the case with a 2-winding transformer.

But its theory and operation are similar to those of a two winding transformer.

Because of one winding, it uses less copper and hence is cheaper.

Fig. 32.60 shows both step-down and step-up auto- transformer.

As shown in Fig. 32.60(a), AB is primary winding having N1 turns and BC is secondary winding having N2 turns.

Neglecting iron losses and no-load current:

The current in section CB is vector difference of I2 and I1.

But as the two currents are practically in phase opposition, the resultant current is (I2-I1) where I2 is greater than I1.

As compared to an ordinary 2-winding transformer of same output, an auto transformer has higher efficiency but smaller size.

Moreover, its voltage regulation is also superior.

Merits of an Auto-Transformer Over a Two-Winding Transformer

(i) Smaller in size, (ii) Lower cost, (iii) Better efficiency, (iv) Less exciting current, and (v) Better voltage regulation.

Demerits of an Auto-Transformer Over a Two-Winding Transformer

(i) No electrical isolation. There is a direct connection between the HV and LV sides. (ii) Should an open circuit occur in common part the fully primary voltage would be applied to the load on the secondary side causing series damage if K<<1. (iii) The short circuit current is larger than that for the two-winding transformer.

**Saving of Copper**

Volume and hence weight of Cu, is proportional to the length and area of cross section of the conductors.

Length of conductor is proportional to the number of turns and cross section depends on current.

Hence, weight is proportional to the product of the current and number of turns.

With reference to Fig. 32.60

Weight of Cu in section AC(N1- N2)I1;

Weight of Cu in section BC(I2- I1)N2;

So, total weight of Cu in auto-transformer (Wa) (N1- N2)I1+(I2- I1)N2;

If a two winding transformer were to perform the same duty, then

Weight of Cu in primaryN1I1;

Weight of Cu in secondaryN2I2;

Total weight of Cu (Wo) N1I1+N2I2;

Hence, saving will increase as K approaches unity.

It can be proved that power transform inductively is= input(1-K)

The rest of the power= (K x input) is conducted directly from the source to the load i.e. it is transferred conductively to the load.

**Uses of Auto Transformer**

Auto transformers are used:

1. To give small boost to a distribution cable for the voltage drop.

2. As auto-starter transformers to give up to 50 to 60% of full voltage to an induction motor during starting.

3. As furnace transformers for getting a convenient supply to suit the furnace winding from a 230 V supply.

4. As interconnecting transformer in 132 kV/330 kV system.

5. In control equipment for 1-phase and 3-phase electrical locomotives.

**Conversion of 2-winding Transformer ****into Auto-Transformer**

Any two-winding transformer can be converted into an auto transformer either step-down or step-up. Fig. 32.62(a) shows such a transformer with its polarity marking.

If we employ additive polarity between the high-voltage and low voltage sides, we get a step-up transformer.

If, however, we use the subtractive polarity, we get a step-down auto-transformer.

**Additive Polarity**

Connections for such a polarity are shown in Fig. 32.62(b).

The circuit is re-drawn in Fig. 32.62(c) showing common terminal at the bottom.

Because of additive polarity, V2=2400+240=2640 V and V1 is 2400 V.

As shown in Fig. 32.62(d), common current flows towards the common terminal. The transformer acts as a step-up transformer.

**Subtracting Polarity**

Such a connection is shown in Fig. 32.63(a).

The circuit has been re-drawn with common polarity at top in Fig. 32.63(b) and in Fig. 32.63(c).

In this case, the transformer acts as a step-down auto-transformer.

The common current flows away from the common terminal.

Here V2= 2400-240= 2160 V.

**Parallel Operation of Single Phase Transformer**

For supplying a load in excess of the rating of an existing transformer, a second transformer may be connected in parallel with it as shown in Fig. 32.75.

The primary windings are connected to the supply bus bars and secondary winding are connected to the load bus-bars.

In connecting two or more than two transformers in parallel, it is essential that their terminals of similar polarities are joined to the same

bus bars.

If this is not done, the two emfs induced in the secondaries which are paralleled with incorrect polarities, will act together in the local secondary circuit even when supplying no load and will hence produce the equivalent of a dead short-circuit.

There are certain definite conditions which must be satisfied in order to avoid any local circulating currents and to ensure that the transformers

share the common load in proportion to their kVA ratings.

The conditions are:

1. Primary winding of the transformers should be suitable for the supply system voltage and frequency.

2. The transformer should be properly connected with regard to polarity.

3. The voltage ratings of both primaries and secondaries should be identical. In other words, the transformer should have the same turn ratio i.e. transformation ratio.

4. The percentage impedance should be equal in magnitude and have the same X/R ratio in order to avoid circulating currents and operation at different power factors.

5. With transformers having different kVA ratings, the equivalent impedance should be inversely proportional to the individual kVA rating if circulating currents are to be avoided.

## Discuss on Law of Sines

Broad objective of this article is to Discuss on Law of Sines. Here explain Law of Sines with examples. You can use the Law of Cosines discussed within the last section to solve standard triangles, but only within certain conditions. The formulas which is to be developed in this part provide more flexibility within solving these general triangles. Law of Sines is appropriate for obtuse triangles as well as acute and right triangles, considering that the value of the sine is positive in both first and second quadrant—that will be, for angles less as compared to 180°.