Categories
EEE

Neural Networks

General purpose of this lecture is to explain on Neural Networks. A neural network can be defined as a model of reasoning based on the human brain. The brain consists of a densely interconnected set of nerve cells, or basic information-processing units, called neurons. Here also briefly discuss on Artificial Neural Networks, A Neuron Model, Binary threshold neurons and Sigmoid neurons. This lecture also present some theory of Neural Networks: Rosenblatt’s Perceptrons, Back-propagation Algorithm and Hopfield Network.

Categories
EEE

Exterior Routing Protocols And Multicasting

This lecture brifly describe on Exterior Routing Protocols and Multicasting. Multicasting means sending message to multicast address. Multicast address refers to a group of hosts. Here also focus on the problems with Distance-Vector and Link-State Routing and Path Vector Routing. Finally explain Boarder Gateway Protocol, which allows routers (gateways) in different ASs to exchange routing information, Inter-Domain Routing Protocol (IDRP), Multicasting within LAN, Requirements for Multicasting and Internet Group Management Protocol.

Categories
EEE

Routing Information Protocol

Main purpose of this lecture is to explain on Routing Information Protocol. Routing Information Protocol or RIP are suitable for small internet, widely used and uses distance vector routing. Here also briefly discuss on Distance Vector Routing, RIP Packet Format, RIP Limitations and Link State Routing. Finally focus on Router Database Graph, Sample Autonomous System, Resultant Directed Graph and Inter-Area Routing.

Categories
EEE

Interior Routing Protocols

This lecture focus to describe on interior routing protocols. Interior Routing Protocol passes routing information between routers within AS, does not need to be implemented outside AS and allows IRP to be tailored. Interior Routing Protocols may be different algorithms and routing information in different connected AS. Here aslo briefly explain why routing protocols essential to operation of an internet. Finally discus on Exterior Routing Protocol .

Categories
EEE

Routing Algorithms

General objective of this lecture is to explain Routing Algorithms. Here briefly describe on the Optimality Principle, Shortest Path Routing, Flooding, Distance Vector Routing, Link State Routing, Hierarchical Routing, Broadcast Routing, Multicast Routing, Routing for Mobile Hosts and Routing in Ad Hoc Networks. Finally discuss on Store-and-Forward Packet Switching and Implementation of Connection-Oriented Service in terms of Routing Algorithms.

Categories
EEE

ATM Networks

Major objective of this lecture is to explain on ATM Networks. ATM networks are packet-switched, but still create a (virtual) circuit through the network. Before transfer can occur, the network must create a path (called a virtual circuit) between the two machines. Here also focus on ATM Protocol Architecture, ATM Switches, ATM Messaging etc. Finally discuss on Virtual Circuits, ATM Service Model, TCP/IP Tunneling and IP Switching.

Categories
EEE

Frame Relay and Packet-Switching Networks

Principle purpose of this lecture is to describe on Frame Relay and Packet-Switching Networks. Packet-Switching Networks includes: Switching Technique, Routing and X.25. Frame Relay Networks includes:  Architecture, User Data Transfer and Call Control. Packet-Switching Networks are one of the few effective technologies for long distance data communications. Frame Relay Networks are designed to eliminate much of the overhead in X.25.

Categories
EEE

Multiple Access Strategies

Basic objective of this lecture is to describe on Multiple Access Strategies for Sharing a Communication Medium. Most networks are shared medium, this means that a single medium (radio frequency) is shared by all of a network’s hosts. here also briefly describe on Carrier Sensing Hardware and Carrier Sensing (CSMA), to reduce the number of collisions, the medium is tested for a signal before each transmission. Finally discuss on Data Link Addressing, MAC Addresses, Data Link Flow Control, Sliding Window Techniques, Error Control etc.

Categories
EEE

Data Link Layer Issues

This lecture briefly describe on data link layer issues. Network hardware can be categorized into two types: Circuit-switched (telephone) and Packet-switched (Ethernet, ATM etc.). Here also explain advantages and disadvantages of Data Link Layer Issues. Disadvantages are: Circuit-switched, Packet-switched and Advantages are: after the first message, routing is faster, Messages do not arrive out of order etc. Finally explain Circuit-Switching, Datagram Packet-Switching and types of Packet-Switching.

Categories
EEE

Connecting Devices

Major objective of this lecture is to describe on Connecting Devices. Here explain some Connecting Devices like Layer 1 (Physical) Devices: Repeater and Hub, Layer 2 (Data Link) Devices: Layer 2 switch and Layer 2 bridge; Layer 2/3 Devices: Broadband (Cable/DSL) or Wireless Router and Layer 3 Switch and Layer 3 (Network) Devices: Layer 3 Bridge and Router. Finally explain on Routers: Network Interfaces, Input Buffers, Routing Processors, Switching Fabric etc.