Metaethics And Normative Ethics

The word ‘ethics’ signifies a moral ground, an existence based on morals and principles and values. It lays down the foundation for the basic code of conduct. There are two main branches of ethics, metaethics and normative ethics. When we talk about ‘being ethical’ or ‘he is an ethical person’, we talk about the rules he has laid down for himself, and how sincerely he follows them. This is the layman’s perspective.

It is a general viewpoint to follow certain regulations, to state some actions as good and some as bad, to live in a civilized society. But, ethics comprise further discussion about different reactions and beliefs in different situations, since a person changes as per circumstances.

Metaethics and normative ethics are two branches of ethics the philosophers usually study. Metaethics is the branch of ethics that focuses on the basic nature of ethics, its status, foundations, properties, etc. Normative ethics, on the other hand, focuses on what is morally right and wrong and analyses the moral behavior of people.

Metaethics – Metaethics, which is one of the three main branches of ethics, seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, principles, judgments, attitudes, etc. It also attempts to answer questions like “what is morality?”, “What is goodness?”, “how to identify if something is good or bad?”

In other words, it focuses on what morality itself is and questions the nature of morality; for example, some of these include questions like what is morality, what’s the nature of morality, is morality objective, etc.

Furthermore, Metaethics attempts to examine what people mean by words like good, bad, right, and wrong (moral semantics). It also questions the nature of the moral judgment, i.e., questions whether moral judgments are universal or relative, of one kind or many kinds, etc. Lastly, it also examines how we can know if something is right or wrong. However, unlike normative ethics, metaethics does not try to evaluate specific choices as better, worse, good, bad, or evil.

Normative Ethics – Normative ethics is the branch of ethics that studies ethical action. Basically, normative ethics attempts to determine which actions are right and wrong, or which character traits are good and bad.

There are four major normative theories:

  • Utilitarianism – According to this theory, the right action is the action that produces the greatest balance of overall happiness.
  • Kantianism – Derived from the work of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, this theory focuses on the categorical imperative, which is a moral principle that acts as the fundamental principle of morality, and from which all our duties may originate from.
  • Ethical Intuitionism – According to this theory, our intuitive awareness of the value, or intuitive knowledge of evaluative facts, forms the foundation of our ethical knowledge.
  • Virtue Ethics – This theory focuses on the inherent character of a person rather than on specific actions. In other words, it focuses on the role of character and virtue rather than doing one’s duty or acting in order to bring about good consequences.

Normative ethics helps decide the good and bad, thus, we have two types of normative, moral judgments. One of them can be made based on actions, behavior, and commitment, while the other can be made depending on your emotions, thoughts, hopes, and desires.

Teleological ethics and deontological ethics are also two concepts we encounter in normative ethics. In teleological ethics, the goodness or badness of action is determined by examining the consequences of that action, whereas, in deontological theories, the goodness or badness of action is determined by examining the action itself. Therefore, we can consider Kantianism and intuitionism as non-teleological theories, and utilitarianism and virtue ethics as teleological theories.

The Difference –

Metaethics is the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts while normative ethics is the study of ethical action, typically focusing on what is morally right and wrong. Thus, the key difference between metaethics and normative ethics is that metaethics focuses on what is morality whereas normative ethics focuses on what is moral.

  • Definition – Metaethics is the study of the nature of ethics, whereas normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
  • Content – While metaethics analyzes the meaning of moral language and metaphysics of moral facts, normative ethics evaluates standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions.
  • Nature – Metaethics is more philosophical in nature as it analyzes the nature of ethics and morality, while normative ethics is more practical in nature.

Moreover, metaethics has a connection to philosophy as it analyses fundamental ethical concepts whereas normative ethics is more practical as it applies to basic human behavior. Therefore, we can consider this as another difference between metaethics and normative ethics.


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Computer Philosophy

Computer Ethics

Ethics are the moral values that stop us from doing anything that is not legal and that does not harm or damage anyone else’s work, or interests. Ethics are something that are embittered in us from childhood. Ethics are unlike laws that legally mandate what is right or wrong.  Ethics illustrates society’s views about what is right and what is wrong.

Computer Ethics are a set of moral standards that govern the use of computers, and it is a part of practical philosophy concerned with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Margaret Anne Pierce, a professor in the Department of Mathematics and Computers at Georgia Southern University has categorized the ethical decisions related to computer technology and usage into three primary influences:

  • The individual’s own personal code.
  • Any informal code of ethical conduct that exists in the workplace.
  • Exposure to formal codes of ethics.

Computer ethics essentially protect individuals online from predation: they prevent the breach of privacy, identify theft, interference with work, and unlawful use of proprietary software, among other events. Computer ethics govern the behavior of users online and date back to 1992. These ethics govern the social, financial, and legal uses of computers worldwide.

The code of computer ethics also called the Ten Commandments, instructs users to not harass other users, use computers to spy or use computers to gain access to private information. Ethics prevent the taking of intellectual information without compensation and prevent users from using computing resources without compensation or authorization. The ethics also mandate the use of machines in a manner considerate and respectful of others.

The term computer ethics was first coined by Walter Maner, a professor at Bowling Green State University. Maner noticed ethical concerns that were brought up during his Medical Ethics course at Old Dominion University became more complex and difficult when the use of technology and computers became involved. The conceptual foundations of computer ethics are investigated by information ethics, a branch of philosophical ethics promoted, among others, by Luciano Floridi.

History of Computer ethics –

Computer Ethics is the branch of philosophy that analysis the nature and social impact of computer technology as well as the standards of conduct that pertain to the proper use of computers. It involves social issues, such as access rights, working place monitoring, censorship, and junk mail; professional issues such as professional responsibility and code of conduct; legal issues such as legal obligations, data protection, computer misuse, and software piracy.

Within a relatively short period of time, computer technology has created huge new possibilities and also the ethical and social implications on both business and individual’s life. However, ethical framework and laws lag behind all the new innovations, to fill the vacuum, it needs timely effort to make laws, to corporate with company policy, personal policy, and social conventions. Computer ethics is at its relatively young stages.

The concept of computer ethics originated in the 1940s with MIT professor Norbert Wiener, the American mathematician, and philosopher. While working on anti-aircraft artillery during World War II, Wiener and his fellow engineers developed a system of communication between the part of a cannon that tracked a warplane, the part that performed calculations to estimate a trajectory, and the part responsible for the firing. Wiener termed the science of such information feedback systems, “cybernetics,” and he discussed this new field with its related ethical concerns in his 1948 book, Cybernetics. In 1950, Wiener’s second book, “The Human Use of Human Beings”, delved deeper into the ethical issues surrounding information technology and laid out the basic foundations of computer ethics.

A bit later during the same year, the world’s first computer crime was committed. A programmer was able to use a bit of computer code to stop his banking account from being flagged as overdrawn. However, there were no laws in place at that time to stop him, and as a result, he was not charged. To make sure another person did not follow suit, an ethics code for computers was needed.

In the 1960s, Donn Parker, an author on computer crimes, pointed by ACM, led the creation of ethics code in computer technology fields. In 1966, MIT’s Joseph Weizenbaum writes a program called ELIZA that makes the computer act as a psychotherapist. In 1966 First computer crime, a programmer used computer code to prevent his banking account from being flagged as overdrawn. When late discovered, there was no law to charge this crime. In 1966 the adoption of Freedom of Information Act, which gave the individual and organizations the right to access data held by the federal government

The 1970s-1980s The young and exponential growth of computer technology, which features minicomputer, microcomputer, personal computer, and the beginning of networking. The attention turned to software and the issues are surrounding it, such as property rights, software piracy, liability, privacy, computer crime, hackers and more.

In 1973, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) adopted its first code of ethics. SRI International’s Donn Parker, an author on computer crimes, led the committee that developed the code.

In 1976, medical teacher and researcher Walter Maner noticed that ethical decisions are much harder to make when computers are added. He noticed a need for a different branch of ethics for when it came to dealing with computers. The term “computer ethics” was thus invented.

In 1976 Joseph Weizenbaum made his second significant addition to the field of computer ethics. He published a book titled Computer Power and Human Reason, which talked about how artificial intelligence is good for the world; however, it should never be allowed to make the most important decisions as it does not have human qualities such as wisdom. By far the most important point he makes in the book is the distinction between choosing and deciding. He argued that deciding is a computational activity while making choices is not and thus the ability to make choices is what makes us humans.

At a later time during the same year Abbe Mowshowitz, a professor of Computer Science at the City College of New York, published an article titled “On approaches to the study of social issues in computing.” This article identified and analyzed technical and non-technical biases in research on social issues present in computing.

In 1978 the adoption of the Right to Federal Privacy Act, which limited the government’s ability to search bank records. In 1979, Terrell Ward Bynum developed a curriculum for a university courses on computer ethics. He late launched an essay competition to generate interest in computer ethics. In 1984 The adoption of the Small Business Computer Security and Education Act, which advises Congress on matters relating to computer crime against small businesses.

In 1985, he published the widest-selling issue in the journal’s history “Entitled Computers and Ethics”. In 1985 James Moor classic essay, “What is Computer Ethics?” were published, in his view, computer ethics includes: (1) identification of computer-generated policy vacuums, (2) clarification of conceptual muddles, (3) formulation of policies for the use of computer technology and (4) ethical justification of such policies. (Terrell Ward Bynum)

In 1988, Robert Hauptman, a librarian at St. Cloud University, came up with “information ethics”, a term that was used to describe the storage, production, access, and dissemination of information. Near the same time, the Computer Matching and Privacy Act were adopted and this act restricted United States government programs identifying debtors.

In the year 1992, ACM adopted a new set of ethical rules called “ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct” which consisted of 24 statements of personal responsibility.

Three years later, in 1995, Krystyna Górniak-Kocikowska, a Professor of Philosophy at Southern Connecticut State University, Coordinator of the Religious Studies Program, as well as a Senior Research Associate in the Research Center on Computing and Society, came up with the idea that computer ethics will eventually become a global ethical system and soon after, computer ethics would replace ethics altogether as it would become the standard ethics of the information age.

In 1999, Deborah Johnson, opposite of Gorniak’s view, assumes computer ethical theories will not lead to a revolution in ethics, but only servers as the bedrock foundation of ethical thinking and analysis. Computer ethics is only the same old ethics questions with a new twist.

Post 20th century, as a result to much debate of ethical guidelines, many organizations such as ABET offer ethical accreditation to University or College applications such as “Applied and Natural Science, Computing, Engineering, and Engineering Technology at the associate, bachelor, and master levels” to try and promote quality works that follow sound ethical and moral guidelines.

In 2018 The Guardian and The New York Times reported that Facebook took data from 87 million Facebook users to sell to Cambridge Analytica. In 2019 Facebook started a fund to build an ethics center at the Technical University of Munich, located in Germany. This was the first time that Facebook-funded an academic institute for matters regarding computer ethics.

Privacy concerns, intellectual property rights, and effects on society are some of the common issues of computer ethics.

Privacy Concerns –

  • Hacking – is an unlawful intrusion into a computer or a network. A hacker can intrude through the security levels of a computer system or network and can acquire unauthorized access to other computers.
  • Malware – means malicious software that is created to impair a computer system. Common malware are viruses, spyware, worms, and trojan horses.  A virus can delete files from a hard drive while spyware can collect data from a computer.
  • Data Protection – also known as information privacy or data privacy is the process of safeguarding data that intends to influence a balance between individual privacy rights while still authorizing data to be used for business purposes.
  • Anonymity – is a way of keeping a user’s identity masked through various applications.

Intellectual Property Rights –

  • Copyright – is a form of intellectual property that gives proprietary publication, distribution, and usage rights for the author. This means that whatever idea the author created cannot be employed or disseminated by anyone else without the permission of the author.
  • Plagiarism – is an act of copying and publishing another person’s work without proper citation. It’s like stealing someone else’s work and releasing it as your own work.
  • Cracking – is a way of breaking into a system by getting past the security features of the system. It’s a way of skipping the registration and authentication steps when installing software.
  • Software License – allows the use of digital material by following the license agreement. Ownership remains with the original copyright owner, users are just granted licenses to use the material based on the agreement.

Effects on Society –

Jobs – Some jobs have been abolished while some jobs have become simpler as computers have taken over companies and businesses. Things can now be done in just one click whereas before it takes multiple steps to perform a task. This change may be considered unethical as it limits the skills of the employees.

There are also ethical concerns on the health and safety of employees getting sick from constant sitting, staring at computer screens and typing on the keyboard, or clicking on the mouse.

Environmental Impact – The environment has been affected by computers and the internet since so much time spent using computers increases energy usage which in turn increases the emission of greenhouse gases.

There are ways where we can save energy like limiting computer time and turning off the computer or putting on sleep mode when not in use. Buying energy-efficient computers with Energy Star labels can also help save the environment.

Social Impact – Computers and the internet help people stay in touch with family and friends. Social media has been very popular nowadays.

Computer gaming influenced society both positively and negatively. Positive effects are improved hand-eye coordination, stress relief, and improved strategic thinking. Negative effects are an addiction of gamers, isolation from the real world, and exposure to violence.

Computer technology helps the government in improving services to its citizens. An advanced database can hold huge data being collected and analyzed by the government.

Computer technology aids businesses by automating processes, reports, and analysis.

Computer ethics are something that cannot be imposed on us, it is rather something that should be followed out of our own will and desire. The way we use the computer to access information speaks a lot about us and our ethical values.

Identifying ethical issues as they arise, as well as defining how to deal with them, has traditionally been problematic. In solving problems relating to ethical issues, Michael Davis proposed a unique problem-solving method. In Davis’s model, the ethical problem is stated, facts are checked, and a list of options is generated by considering relevant factors relating to the problem. The actual action taken is influenced by specific ethical standards.


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  4. wikipedia

Importance Of Computer Ethics

Ethics are the moral values that stop you from doing anything that is not legal and that does not harm or damage anyone else’s work, or interests. Ethics are something that are embittered in us from childhood. Actually, Computer ethics are nothing but how we use our personal morals and ethics while using the computer for various purposes.

They consist of all the rules that we would apply to not misuse any information that is not ours to use or to access any data that is not owned by us. With issues like cyber crimes, plagiarism, hacking, and password thefts, it has become important to know the importance of computer ethics to be able to create a safe computer-based environment.

Computer ethics essentially protect individuals online from predation: they prevent the breach of privacy, identify theft, interference with work, and unlawful use of proprietary software, among other events. Computer ethics govern the behavior of users online and date back to 1992. These ethics govern the social, financial, and legal uses of computers worldwide.

New computing technology is very powerful and malleable and computers can be programmed to perform a wide range of functions that can carry out various and diverse applications in our society. Communication that depends on computer technology has grown radically through well-known use of the internet, cell phones, and positioning systems. Computer ethics has grown dramatically to issues in most activities within society including military, government, law, education, and business because computing has become united in society. Through its extensive growing computer ethics is the acreage of activated ethics that affects and intersects around all added branches of applied ethics.

Prevents Misuse of Personal Information – Computers have made the world come closer, be it personally or professionally! Most of us find it more convenient to shop online rather than going out. For this, we are asked to give out our personal information like name, date of birth, and most importantly, our ‘credit card information’! Ask yourself, if we know that people don’t follow computer ethics everywhere, would we feel safe to give out all this information? On the contrary, if we have read their privacy policies and know that they abide by the cyber laws and computer ethics, we know for a fact that our personal information will not be misused.

Prevents Theft of Intellectual Property – What is intellectual property? Well, unlike physical forms of properties like a car or house, intellectual property refers to the property created by the mind! The internet consists of various intellectual properties which include works of various researchers, writers, song artists, and so on. Without the presence of computer ethics, the work created by the intellect of one person can be easily copied and plagiarized by someone else. Imagine how we would feel if our poetry has been copied and publicized under someone else’s name? Now, do we know what following computer ethics and privacy policies is important?

Prevents Loss of Various Jobs in the field of Software Development – There are thousands of people globally that are working in companies that develop computer programs and software. However, if we find out a way to get this software without having to pay the price, most of us would prefer piracy overpaying, right? Have you ever wondered how this can cost the employees working in these companies their job? The general mentality of most of the people downloading software illegally is that these companies are very rich and it really wouldn’t affect them, even if it does, who cares? However, the point to be kept in mind is, what if the one who had to pay the price is someone close to us. Imagine, there are thousands of people getting involved in unethical downloads and distribution. In fact, a report reveals that a significant number of people prefer never to pay for software and get involved in piracy!

Keeps us from being Unethical! – It’s not that we need to follow computer ethics to show others. However, by following these ethics, we would know what we need to do to be a responsible user and keep ourselves from getting into trouble by being unethical. Trouble? Well, yes, there are various laws that can put us behind bars if we are caught violating the privacy policies and norms of individual websites.

Makes our Computer a Better and Safe place to be At – Our computer is not just an electronic device for communication, it is our data store, our photo album, our work recorder, our social network, our calculator and what not…, it is what we are! If we get involved in downloading information or accessing portals that we are not allowed to, we are opening the doors of various issues and threats like viruses and Trojans that can illegally enter our system and crash it completely! On the other hand, if our system is used in the way it is supposed to, we are creating a safer and a better atmosphere wherein we can rest assured that our work and our personal information is absolutely safe and secure.

The code of computer ethics also called the Ten Commandments, instructs users to not harass other users, use computers to spy or use computers to gain access to private information. It is a part of practical philosophy concerned with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Ethics prevent the taking of intellectual information without compensation and prevent users from using computing resources without compensation or authorization. The ethics also mandate the use of machines in a manner considerate and respectful of others.

Actually, Computer ethics are something that cannot be imposed on us, it is rather something that should be followed out of our own will and desire. The way we use the computer to access information speaks a lot about us and our ethical values. What would we do if we get our colleague’s password? Would we ask him or her to change it since we accidentally found out, or would we try to get some information that we are not supposed to? There are two kinds of people in this world, one who follow the rules and respect them at the same time, and the others who don’t really care. Should we care about the ethics involved in becoming a responsible citizen? We decide! Nevertheless, if we are caught, rest assured the authorities won’t care about us as well!


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Social Ethics

Social Ethics is the collection of values and behaviors of a given culture or people group. It is a blend of different aspects of how society(s) are structured and managed by their participants. These levels and scales are important as the intent is to minimize overall harm or damage to society and its members.

Human activities in space present us with novel philosophical, cultural, and ethical challenges. Moreover, space acts as a different lens through which we can explore many of our oldest and deepest social and philosophical issues. Indeed, the broad issue of whether significant resources should be devoted to space activities at all can be considered a social ethics question. Many people suggest that resources devoted to space activities detract from solving problems on Earth that desperately need more attention. Others counter that space activities can help address those problems. This broad question can have direct relevance to the motivations for space activities because the answer could determine the extent to which space will be used primarily to address Earth-based problems directly as opposed to exploratory pursuits that may or may not have direct terrestrial relevance.

The religious beliefs of culture play a huge part in forming its social ethics. When God created a people for Himself, He had to redefine their social ethics. When the social ethics of our communities follow God’s moral laws, we are free to adopt them. But often they are in conflict. For example, an unmarried couple living together as though married was once in conflict with the social ethics of the United States. Now, however, such immorality is celebrated and even expected. Simply because the social ethics of culture have changed does not make a wrong action right. There are times when we must refuse to follow the world’s cues and follow Christ.

Misunderstanding in the interactions of humans within/among/between differing expectations can result in a range of harms; psychological and even physical- occasionally resulting in violent death(s).

Manners are when shared/properly communicated and defined, what keep folks from offending others unintentionally in daily interactions both public and private and try to prevent subsequent ‘harm’. Essential minimums of Please, Thank you, Excuse me, etc., cover many matters of the interactive sort.

Social ethics is not an option, it is the only option when by the ethical judgment one means to refer to decisions, whether individual or collective, affecting real (as opposed to ideal) common goods. Or, come at from the other angle: The world today is postcolonial. In the absence of a well-organized colonial system, the cultural accords by which the very idea of foundational goods, and truths, advanced the forward progress of modernity are left to defend themselves.

Without the effective enforcement of, say, the entrepreneurs of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century, the British administrators in the 19th, or the American pilots in the 20th, the prospect of One World falters before the different tastes of customers and other subjects who are more likely to take their ethical leads from the sources they relied upon before the rise of the West: from the faiths of their mothers and fathers.

Ethics is just that an intellectual discourse on whether and action is ethical or not. It doesn’t matter whether it is society or the individual undertaking the action. If one considers the ethical principle of justice then the problem may be looked at from a couple of perspectives a) how society treats the individual or b) how the individual treats society.

The social ethics of any society cannot be our ultimate guide. Whether humans are naturally evil or good is a question they both derived from a classical philosophical culture in which Being was, at worst, doubted or, more commonly, merely respected, but certainly not avowed. Without Being, History must pay the piper. Its promise that inequality will be overcome in the temporal future when those who are well behaved are admitted to the this-worldly kingdom of the good must eventually come to pass, at least to a statistically significant extent. When, as today, the difference between the good and the poor, measured in real social and economic terms, is greater, not lesser (as it had been promised), then this line of social logic fails for all except the privileged, whose day is yet to come.

Social ethics, today, must be ethics that accounts for social death. Whenever power and differences are hidden behind the good and the true, nothing is good, and death is the final truth. The last systematic, modernist ethical work was Paul Tillich’s “The Courage To Be” in which he set the ideal of being on its head. Ethical courage, he said, is the courage to be, but being, he continued, is anxiety ‘‘experienced as one’s own finitude.’’ Death, including social death, is that one occurrence in a person’s here and now during which the solitary individual experiences the only purely Durkheimian social fact: that the social is born upon the finitude of the isolated individual. Conversely, as Durkheim also taught in Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, the social, though deadly, is the only prospect whereby the true or the good can possibly tame the powerful.

Social ethics amounts to how society determines the values that operate as the objective moral law within that society. Ironically, any statement regarding right and wrong to include those denying their existence essentially operate as objective truth within a society that embraces it. This world is not our home. While we live here, we should do whatever possible to honor the ethics of the region where we abide, if that’s what it takes to reach others with the gospel.


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Differences Between Morals And Values

Morals and Values are similar and often used interchangeably. But Morals are our ideas of right and wrong. Values are the degree to which those morals are entrenched and work themselves out in how we live our life. Ethics shows how deeply we value a moral code. An ethical problem is one where a person believes in a moral code but deliberately violates his own belief system or the prevailing morals of the culture.

Morals and values are guiding forces in the lives of individuals as they give them a sense of direction as also a code of conduct when interacting with others in society. We are always looking for the moral of a story or the deeper message the author wants to convey to society. On the other hand, we want our kids to undergo a value-based education to be able to stand firmly in their lives as adults. We think of morals as proper or right behavior code while values are our beliefs about what is right and wrong.

Morals – Morals are principles of right behavior inculcated in children by the society they grew up in, used as a standard of personal accountability, upon which law is loosely based. People who adhere to those principles avoid offending and betraying others, avoid breaking laws based on moral principles and thus avoid trouble. Morality is essentially the difference between civilized behavior and barbarism, a civilization, and chaotic social order. There is a right answer.

Most of the morals come from religion though there are also morals that are imposed by a particular political system as in a communist society; hoarding is considered a sin against fellow people. We consider someone or something immoral on the basis of our values. Morals are like unwritten laws and meant to be followed like commandments in a religion. Morals are mandatory, and all individuals are expected to follow them. Moral is also an adjective that means good or right.

Values – Values are belief systems that an individual builds up as he grows about things, people, and social issues and concepts as to what is right and what is wrong.

Values are mostly built gradually, but the foundation is provided by our parents, teachers, textbooks, and our religion. We are greatly influenced by the deeds of great men and women from the past and decide to stick to the values they held in their lives. Values are fundamental beliefs that tell us what is right and wrong and what is just and fair. If someone believes honesty is the best policy, it tells others that he holds the value of honesty very high in his life. Talking of values, there are many concepts that are dear to our hearts such as the values of democracy, honesty, justice, liberty, patriotism, respect, love, compassion, etc.

The difference between Morals and Values –

Morals and values are a part of the behavioral aspect of a person. There is not much difference between morals and values but both are correlated to each other. Morals are formed from the inborn values. The moral is a system of beliefs that is taught for deciding good or bad whereas values are personal beliefs or something that comes from within. These are emotionally related for deciding right or wrong. Morals have more social value and acceptance than values, therefore a person is judged more for his moral character than the values. One is said to be immoral for a person without morals but no such term is there for the person without values.

  • Morals and values are concepts very close in meaning and meant to keep us on the right path while live and interact with others in society.
  • Morals are codes of conduct that tell us what is right and what is wrong, and they mostly come from religion and society.
  • Values are internal belief systems held by individuals that guide their behavior.
  • Values are personal and subjective while morals are universal and objective.
  • Values can change while morals remain the same.

Another difference between morals and values is that moral is a motivation or a key for leading a good life in the right direction whereas value is imbibed within a person, it can be bad or good depending on the person’s choice. It can also be called as intuition or the call of the heart. Morals do not determine the values but are formed because of the values. Morals contribute to the system of beliefs and are the values that we get from society.

Lastly, the difference between morals and values is that morals are like commandments set by the elders and to be followed by the descendants. They can be set by one’s elders or religious teachers or leaders of society who want to lead people away from immoral thoughts. One always treasures the morals throughout his life and they never change with time or conditions. While on the other hand values are not set by the society or teachers but are governed by an individual. Values do not mean that it is always right to do so. Whatever is valuable for one person may not be the same for the other. Hence it is a personal aspect and changes according to different situations with time and needs.

Actually, there is no difference both are nature and character of a thing. Morality is character and value is nature. They can only exist together. If they were separate then it will be like a rock and solidity existing separate from each other. But the rock is hard (morality) because of its value (solidity).


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Difference Between Metaethics And Normative Ethics

The word ‘ethics’ signifies a moral ground, an existence based on morals and principles and values. It lays down the foundation for the basic code of conduct. There are two main branches of ethics, metaethics and normative ethics. When we talk about ‘being ethical’ or ‘he is an ethical person’, we talk about the rules he has laid down for himself, and how sincerely he follows them. This is the layman’s perspective.

It is a general viewpoint to follow certain regulations, to state some actions as good and some as bad, to live in a civilized society. But, ethics comprise further discussion about different reactions and beliefs in different situations, since a person changes as per circumstances.

Metaethics Vs. Normative Ethics –

Metaethics –

Metaethics talks about the nature of ethics and moral reasoning. Discussions about whether ethics is relative and whether we always act from self-interest are examples of meta-ethical discussions. In fact, drawing the conceptual distinction between Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics is itself a “metaethical analysis.”

A philosophical study of morality is very different from a sociological or anthropological study, or a study from the perspective of biology or psychology. One important difference is that in moral philosophy we do not distance ourselves from our own moral views in the way we would if we were engaged in a study of one of these other kinds. We do not take the fact that people, including ourselves, have moral views as merely a datum to be explained. Our goal is not merely to explain data of this kind, whether it be the distribution of moral beliefs and attitudes or the occurrence of selfish or altruistic actions. Rather, in moral philosophy, the correctness or cogency or defensibility of moral claims, convictions, and attitudes, and the probity of various behaviors, are among the things at issue. Normative ethics makes moral claims in its own right. Metaethics does not do this, yet, despite this, it is morally engaged. For among its central questions are the questions whether any moral claims are true, and whether it is rational to commit oneself to acting morally. One cannot answer such questions without taking a position on the correctness or cogency of people’s moral convictions.

  • Metaethics discusses ethical claims, it seeks the answers to the nature of ethics, judgments, and moral statements.
  • An ethical claim may have been made while keeping certain factors in mind. It may or may not be correct.
  • At the end of the day, it is to be remembered that every individual has a different perspective, therefore, an ethical claim may or may not justify an action. It may not be appropriate to form judgments based on such statements.
  • An example of metaethics would be a statement, like “Abortion is wrong.”
  • Metaethics digs deeper into why this claim has been made, why it is wrong, what were the circumstances that led to this statement, etc.
  • Furthermore, it delves into the meaning of the moral term and the evidence in its favor or against it.

Sub-categories of Metaethics:

  • Emotivism (Ethical non-cognitivism) – It depends on emotions and intuitions. When an ethical statement is made, devoid of facts, you can see what they really mean, what they are. In such a case, every individual may have been right in that situation.
  • Ethical Naturalism – The theory states that one can analyze the judgment by holding ethical and non-ethical statements on the same pedestal. That means the ethical statements here are factual and are established based on hard evidence.
  • Ethical Non-naturalism (Intuitionism) – It completely focuses on feelings and expressions. It is non-universal and based on strong personal instincts.

Consideration Factors of Metaethics: Metaethics helps analyze a judgment, thus, there are three types of questions you can pose. Firstly, question the meaning of ethical terms. Secondly, question the nature of morality, and thirdly, question the motive behind ethical behavior.

Normative Ethics –

Normative ethics is interested in determining the content of our moral behavior. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides; procedures for answering the Practical Question (“What ought I to do?”). The moral theories of Kant and Bentham are examples of normative theories that seek to provide guidelines for determining a specific course of moral action. Think of the Categorical Imperative in the case of the former and the Principle of Utility in the case of the latter.

  • The word ‘normative’ signifies ‘norms’ or ‘rules’ to be followed. The definition of normative ethics can be stated as laying certain rules about good and bad and following them diligently.
  • That is to say, a person may analyze his actions and classify them as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ based on the norms.
  • It may not be necessary that the good actions indicate a good person or bad actions indicate that the person is bad. However, many of us who lay down the norms tend to follow the same.
  • It is to be remembered that norms may be regularized as per situations.
  • An example of normative ethics would be when a person questions, “Is it correct to abort my child?”
  • Someone who religiously makes anti-abortion claims may state that it is wrong. The woman herself may have been taught that it is a wrong action. Therefore, in her own opinion, if she goes ahead with the task, she would classify herself as a bad person.
  • The question is, however, what if she is a teenager? Or she is an unwed mother? Would it be fair to the child to be raised in unpleasant circumstances? This is a case where metaethical claims may help question the norms.

Sub-categories of Normative Ethics:

  • Teleological theory – The good or bad judgment depends on the effects manifested by the action.
  • Deontological theory – The good or bad judgment depends, to quite an extent, on other factors besides consequences, like intention, desire, etc.

Consideration Factors of Normative Ethics: Normative ethics helps decide the good and bad, thus, we have two types of normative, moral judgments. One of them can be made based on actions, behavior, and commitment, while the other can be made depending on your emotions, thoughts, hopes, and desires.

Moral philosophy can have an immediate significance for our lives that many other abstract areas of philosophy do not have. Normative theories have implications for how we are to live. And while metaethical theories may not have such implications, they can have implications for how we are to understand the implications of normative theory, so they can affect our understanding of claims about how we are to live. It is appropriate, therefore, to inquire into the relationship between the theories we have examined and moral practice.

Applied Ethics attempts to deal with specific realms of human action and to craft criteria for discussing issues that might arise within those realms. The contemporary field of Applied Ethics arouse in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Today, it is a thriving part of the field of ethics. Numerous books and websites are devoted to topics such as Business Ethics, Computer Ethics, and Engineering Ethics.


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Difference Between Personal And Professional Ethics

The difference between personal and professional ethics is that they should have a completely different orientation. When we make moral judgments, decisions, and act as a person, our personal ethics guide our own behavior and show what kind of behavior we expect in return from other people. Our own personal ethic could be anything, even “Everyone in the world should always do only what’s best for me.”

On the other hand, although there’s no strict definition of a profession, nobody should be expected to pay us for doing only what’s best for our self. We are getting paid as a professional for acting ‘In their interest, not ours.’ In the case of the higher-end professions, they are granted the exclusive right to practice in their domain on condition that they act in the interests of those that they serve.

Personal Ethics refer to a person’s personal or self-created values and codes of conduct. From the very beginning, these ethics are instilled in an individual, with a large part having been played by their parents, friends, and family. Common examples may include honesty, openness, commitment, unbiased behavior, and sense of responsibility. What a person develops regarding fairness or learns during childhood remains with him all through his life and is reflected by his actions and words. No matter if he is talking to a friend or his relatives or an elderly, his ethics would be clear from what he says and how he says it. A person’s personal ethics are revealed in a professional situation through his behavior.

Personal Ethics –

  • These involve our morals and values.
  • They are instilled generally, during childhood, by our parents, family, and friends.
  • They relate to our deep-rooted principles, and how religiously we follow them determines the kind of person we are.
  • The nature of our personal ethics depend on whether our principles have an optimistic effect on the people surrounding us, i.e., our strict adherence to our principles must not spoil someone else’s life; a negative impact on society due to our principles violates the very reason we are following them.

Examples –

  • I will always speak the truth. This is something that we would have been taught by our parents and teachers since the time we first began to understand the world. By the time we grow up, this thought would have been ingrained in our system. Following this principle will make we feel satisfied and happy, and in case we face a dilemma wherein we need to compromise on our honesty, the result might make us feel sick and remorseful.
  • I will respect all those who are elder to me. Following this will invariably make us a patient and dutiful human being; yet, we might have to compromise on it if someone is taking advantage of our sincerity and humility.
  • I will never hurt anyone purposely. This will help hone the way we speak and behave with our family and friends. We will think twice before unnecessarily hurting someone with either our words or actions. If we do so, we will not hesitate to apologize thereafter. Following this principle will make us humble, which is an essential quality that we need in our lives.
  • I will maintain a caring attitude toward everyone. This will evoke our compassion. It might sometimes be difficult to care for people who have been rude to us in the past, but if we start reacting in the same way, just to be vengeful, what is the use of we laying down this principle for our self? Thus, this ethic is a stringent test of our patience. Our caring attitude even towards our opponents will win them over one day.

Professional Ethics are those values and principles that are introduced to an individual in a professional organization. Each employee is meant to strictly follow these principles. They do not have a choice. Also, this approach is imperative in professional settings as it brings a sense of discipline in people as well as helps maintain decorum in offices. Some examples may include confidentiality, fairness, transparency, and proficiency. These ethics make the employees responsible.

Professional Ethics –

  • These involve a strict code of conduct laid down at the workplace.
  • Our ethics here involve adherence to rules and regulations.
  • Non-compliance to such rules may risk our reputation, as our behavior will immediately be reported as brash and unprofessional.
  • Our personal views and concerns about any topic will not be of much help in a corporate setting, how well we follow the protocol of the company is what will matter here.

Examples –

Since this is something the organization will layout, the principles vary from one another. Some generalized examples can be essayed as follows:

  • Punctuality – No company will tolerate employees who aren’t punctual as regards to arriving at work, submitting our work, meeting deadlines, etc. We cannot enter and leave as we wish, we need to comply to the rules. This is one quality that can be included as a personal ethic too, and people who follow this in their personal lives will find it convenient to follow at the workplace too.
  • Time Management – Do not whine if we are assigned extra work, time management is crucial for rising up the corporate ladder. Learn the art of managing work in less time, and we will be a shining example for your colleagues. Our capability will be determined by the quality of work, not the quantity. Before calling it a day, plan for the next day. Learn efficient time management techniques.
  • No Gossip – This is an important rule that all must follow. Our workplace is not a place (they too have rules against gossiping, by the way) to gossip, especially about our boss or colleagues or even ex-colleagues. If we are caught doing the same, it will reflect very badly on our personality. None of our past goodwill will be taken into account, we will immediately be branded as a gossip-monger or a maverick who can’t keep his/her mouth shut. Learn to communicate appropriately and effectively, one small mistake can take us down the drain, and if we work in a highly regulated organization, we might as well be cleaning out our desk.
  • Safeguard Company Privacy – Some companies even ask their prospective employees to sign a legal document preventing them from discussing work outside the company premises. So, preferably, maintain this policy, do not discuss our projects or contracts (unless we are meant to discuss them at meetings or social gatherings) outside the office, and if we do, make sure we have prior permission and do not reveal too much in any case. This rule is even more stringent with lawyers and psychiatrists since they are not supposed to discuss or divulge any details about their clients.

The biggest difference between personal and professional codes of conduct is perhaps the strictness with which people conform to them. The values that we define for our self are up to us to be followed or not to be followed. However, those defined in a company or by a profession must be followed by us, since the breach of these principles or rules may harm our reputation and status. But if we do not adhere to our personal ethics, it might hardly make a difference, depending on the circumstances. Even then, we must keep in mind that violation of our own rules may harm others around us.

Now when our personal ethic and our professional ethic are in harmony we might want to say there’s no difference between them. But when our personal ethic differs from the ethics of our chosen profession, that’s when things start to get interesting. Some difference is helpful to both, as everyone sharpens their moral perception. Professional codes of ethics and judgments in discipline cases are not written in stone. But in the case of the more fundamental types of difference where we feel personally that we have no choice but to disagree, we have to remember that our profession was a choice. If we are a pacifist we shouldn’t choose a military career. If we find some things unforgivable we shouldn’t choose to be a priest. Nor should we choose to be a lawyer if we can’t set our personal beliefs aside to defend people who’ve committed horrible crimes. Or a doctor if we don’t want to treat people whose moral beliefs, religion, gender, race or behavior differ from our own. So to sum up, there’s not just one kind of difference between personal and professional ethics, but two kinds, one that is helpful, and another that is not. But in the end, they should have a completely different orientation. The personal ethic is all about us, and the professional ethic is supposed to be only about those our profession serves.


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Accident Fallacy

The Accident Fallacy, which is also called destroying the exception or a dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid, is an error in reasoning caused by sweeping generalizations. It occurs when we assume that a rule-of-thumb applies to everyone or every situation, including obvious exceptions. While generalizing helps make the world easier to understand, often generalizations do not apply to every situation. An accident fallacy is using such a generalization to draw an incorrect conclusion about an obvious exception.

The Accident fallacy is a deductively valid but unsound argument occurring in a statistical syllogism (an argument based on a generalization) when an exception to a rule of thumb is ignored. It is one of the thirteen fallacies originally identified by Aristotle in Sophistical Refutations. The fallacy occurs when one attempts to apply a general rule to an irrelevant situation.

For Example:

  • Cutting people with knives is a crime.
  • Surgeons cut people with knives.
  • Surgeons are criminals.

A good example of an accident fallacy could be assuming that ‘birds can fly’ applies to all birds, and therefore arguing, or even just believing, that a penguin can fly. While the statement that birds can fly is not false because most birds can fly penguins are an exception. Penguins are among the limited number of flightless birds and it would be logically fallacious to conclude otherwise based on the premise ‘birds can fly.’

It is easy to construct fallacious arguments by applying general statements to specific incidents that are obviously exceptions. Generalizations that are weak generally have more exceptions (the number of exceptions to the generalization need not be a minority of cases) and vice versa.

This fallacy may occur when we confuse particulars (“some”) for categorical statements (“always and everywhere”). It may be encouraged when no qualifying words like “some”, “many”, “rarely” etc. are used to mark the generalization.

Related inductive fallacies include: overwhelming exception, hasty generalization. See faulty generalization.

Examples of Accident Fallacy –

Example in Law: Many of us would not disagree that it is wrong to cut people with knives, and this is supported by the law. However, surgeons use scalpels to cut people open every day, and that’s both legal and, most of us would say, moral. In this case, it would be illogical to argue that surgery is wrong or should be illegal based on the statement that it’s wrong to cut people with knives. Surgery is an obvious exception, and almost all of us know that.

Example in Health: Another statement that could fall victim to the accident fallacy is that exercise is good for you. In most cases, that’s true. People benefit from staying active and regularly exercising. However, if we are very sick, say we have pneumonia, we shouldn’t be exercising. In this case, we should be resting and allowing our bodies to recover. It would be an accident of fallacy if we were told it would be good for us to go exercise while suffering from pneumonia.

Explanation and Exception: To assume any law, even divine, applies to every person, in every time, in every situation, even though not explicitly stated, is an assumption not grounded in evidence, and fallacious reasoning.

Stating the general rule when a good argument can be made that the action in question is a violation of the rule, would not be considered fallacious.

Converse Accident Fallacy –

The Converse accident fallacy is similar to the accident fallacy, except, in reverse. The exception is used to justify a generalization.

Example 1

Speeding on the roads is illegal

The police can legally speed in an emergency

I can legally speed if it’s an emergency

Example 2

God did evil things in pursuit of doing good, and still, be good

I’m trying to do good

I can do evil things while still being good

Avoid an Accident Fallacy: Avoiding an accident of fallacy requires that you think critically about generalized statements. Do not accept them at face value; be sure to really think about whether they apply to the situation we are evaluating. Most, even perhaps all, generalized statements have exceptions.  Don’t assume a general statement is always true unless we have proved it.


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  3. wikipedia

Human Understanding In Different Area

Human understands new things, referring to any memory that could provide a clue due to its understanding of power. A good understanding is a key to success and to meet the difficult circumstances. Human applies his understanding of power in all area of life. Without understanding, a human cannot progress. Understandings can be categorized into several groups as a positive understanding and negative understanding. Another one can be called a neutral understanding.

Human Understanding in Science –

Since starting human are inventing and discovering new things and till now human has done numerous inventions in the world. Human understanding works differently and innovatively in the field of science.

That was the human understanding or intellectual capability which encouraged them to do these inventions which will be going on till the existence of human.

Human understanding of power or intelligence is pushed on a height. People have cognitive skills in model recognition, planning, innovation, problem-solving, and decision making, and communication, language recognition used in broadcasting, learning, concept formation, understanding, logic, and reasoning.

Human Understanding in Psychology –

Human understanding is deeply observed in psychology. Humans claim that they are intelligent and intelligent creatures that can take a step back and evaluate their behavior through an analytical lens.

However, like any other biological entity, human interact and respond to the environment in countless ways that go beyond our conscious perception. Usually, they take these mental and autonomous aspects of our being for granted.

Still, they are naturally necessary both for our assessment of the world around us and, very importantly, for our daily survival.

Human Understanding in Religion –

Human involves and follows the rules and rituals according to their understanding only. In daily life, it can be observed that different people like different religions. Some people of the same faith do not like few rituals of their religion. All this happens and depends upon human understanding. The understanding all human are not 100% the same.

Human asks questions about God and religious rules and customs. This is human nature to check and research everything and then understand.

In the area of religion, the human does new thing daily in life. Sometimes social change the customs and ritual as per their understanding because all human being has a different approach and understating.


The Difference Between Values, Morals And Ethics

Values –

Values are something inherent inside us, what we believe to be real, and how we approach it and reflect our belief in life. It’s our ‘procedures and checklists’ that we follow in making our daily decisions. There are three key types of values that humans may have: dominant, instrumental, and intrinsic. Everyone plays an important role in our lives, but not all of them play equal roles in defining moral values and social norms.

According to the dictionary, values are “things that have an intrinsic worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor,” or “principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.” However, it is important to note that, although we may tend to think of a value as something good, virtually all values are morally relative neutral, really until they are qualified by asking, “How is it good?” or “Good to whom?” The “good” can sometimes be just a matter of opinion or taste or driven by culture, religion, habit, circumstance, or environment, etc. Almost all the values are relative, again. Of course, the exception is the importance of life. Life is an objective, intrinsic concept. We may take that as a matter of course, but we all have the importance of life or we would not be alive. Likewise, life is a dual interest where we interest our own lives and the lives of others.

Morals –

Morals, the word makes one think that the lack of it makes one embarrassed to face one’s kin, and more relevant to how one conducts one’s personal life. That means having different ‘morals’ than others is perfect if we don’t really know what others think of it because it is our own personal compass.

Moral values are relative values that protect life and are respectful of the twin life value of self et al. the nice moral values, like truth, freedom, charity, etc., have one thing in common. After they are functioning correctly, they’re life protecting or life-enhancing for all. But they’re still relative values. Our relative moral values must be constantly examined to create sure that they’re always performing their life-protecting mission. Even the USMC core values of “honor, courage, and commitment” require examination during this context. Courage can become foolish martyrdom, commitment can become irrational fanaticism, and honor can become self-righteousness, conceit, and disrespect for others. Our enemies have their own standard of honor, they need courage, and that they are surely committed. What sets us apart? Respect for the universal life value sets us but our enemies.

Ethics –

People may have professional ethics but they never hear about professional morality. Ethics tends to be codified into a formal structure or set of rules which a group of people expressly follow. Now, we’ve got medical ethics. Thus, ethics is established and embraced internally, while morals continue to be placed externally on others.

If we accuse someone of being unethical, it is equivalent of calling them unprofessional and may well be taken as a significant insult and perceived more personally than if we called them immoral (which of course they may also not like).

Ethics, the word makes us think of unscrupulous entrepreneurs and the phrase ‘good work ethics.’ Both of which seem to suggest what society feels is nice, just or fair, because if we don’t abide by what’s considered good, then society has a ‘right’ to decide that we’re wrong because if we want to be part of that culture we can’t really discuss it.

A person who knows the difference between right and wrong and chooses right is moral. an individual whose morality is reflected in his willingness to try to the correct thing whether or not it’s hard or dangerous is moral. Ethics are moral values in action. Being ethical id an important because morality protects life and is respectful of others all others. It’s a lifestyle that’s in line with mankind’s universal values as articulated by the American Founding Fathers’ human equality and also the inalienable right to life. As warriors, it’s our duty to be protectors and defenders of the life value and to perform the unique and difficult mission of taking the lives of these acting immorally (against life) when necessary to shield the lives of innocent others.

When we must kill protecting life it’s still hard, but it’s moral. Those that kill those not observant of their narrow relative religious, ethnic, or criminal values in other words, kill over relative values are immoral. A dedication to protecting the life value of self et al all others makes the moral Warrior different and moral.

Sound moral judgment is rooted in strong values and acted upon by our ethics. It looks as if the three are identical, but they’re different enough to warrant a better study. If we are writing a brief story, we would want to approach our main character from this viewpoint. As we develop the conflict our main character will face, try, and create a deep-rooted set of values. Consider where those values might need to come from. Then, use their morality because of the barometer in any decisions they need to create.

Finally, let our readers watch our main character choose correctly or incorrectly as their ethics get to full view. This transition will carry on a thrilling journey for our readers. You should be able to interact with the main character’s decisions and completely appreciate them.


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