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Architecture History

Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan

The Wazir Khan Mosque (Punjabi and Urdu: مسجد وزیر خان ; Masjid Wazīr Khān) is the most intricately decorated mosque of the Mughal period of the 17th century which retained its position as the main place of worship in the old town of Lahore, the capital of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari, the Viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan, founded it in 1634. The mosque is on the Tentative List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Wazir Khan Mosque, considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque, is renowned for its intricate work of faience tiles known as kashi-kari, as well as its interior surfaces almost entirely embellished with elaborate frescoes from the Mughal era. Near the Delhi gate of the walled city of Lahore, it stands tall, leading through a busy bazaar where tourists can hear the blaring horns and quibbling voices of busy clients through the walls of the mosque.

Façades facing the mosque’s courtyard are embellished with intricate kashi-kari tile work

This mosque and its associated structures were founded in 1044-45 AH by Hakim’Ilmuddin Wazir Khan, the Subedar of Lahore during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan (1634-35 CE). This was the largest mosque in Lahore at the time, situated about 260 meters inside the Delhi Gate. Since 2009, under the direction of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Government of Punjab, the mosque has undergone comprehensive renovation, with donations from the governments of Germany, Norway, and the United States. Visitors can find complex fine patterns decorating the wall mosaic style that contribute to the uniqueness of the mosque, also known as kashi kari, fresco painting, engraved stones, and brick outline fresco (taza kari).

A bathhouse (Shahi Hammam) and other commercial establishments were also built by Wazir Khan along the road to the mosque, whose income was intended to ensure the perpetual maintenance of the mosque. The bazaar to the east of the mosque was very prosperous and remains a thriving market even to the present day, although the bathhouse did not provide as much revenue as expected. The Mosque of Wazir Khan was built around the ancient tomb of Saint Syed Mohammad Ishaq Gazrooni, best known as Miran Badshah. In the 13th century, he migrated from Iran and lived in Lahore during the Turkish-Muslim Tughlaq Dynasty era. The mosque was part of a larger complex that included a row of bazaars used for restoring holy books and painting Quranic verses by calligraphers and bookbinders.

View of Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan

The trust included additional shops built into the body of the monument on the eastern and northern facades, a serai, a public bathhouse (the Shahi Hammam), open land, and two wells, all bequeathed by Wazir Khan to the mosque for its preservation and maintenance. The hujras that lined the forecourt (which may also have been the serai mentioned in the deed) also served as alcove rooms for traditional craftsmen to sell their products during the Mughal period. Wazir Khan Mosque features South Asia’s first example of a purpose-built Central Asian charsu bazaar, or four-axis bazaar, while two of the four axes are aligned as the entryway of the mosque in the Wazir Khan Mosque adaptation, whereas the other two form the Bazaar of the Calligrapher.

The interior of the mosque was richly embellished with frescoes synthesizing the decorative styles of Mughal and local Punjabi, while the exterior of the mosque was lavishly decorated with intricate kashi-kari tile work in the Persian style. The mosque of Wazir Khan superseded the older Maryam Zamani Mosque as the largest Lahore mosque for Friday prayers for congregations. The mosque is entirely constructed of cut and dressed bricks laid in kankar lime with a scanty sprinkling of red sandstone in the gate and transept, covering an overall area of 279 × 159′. The courtyard is divided into two parts: with the ablution tank in the center, the upper portion is around 6′ higher than the lower.

The underside of the dome has intricate designs reflecting Persian and Islamic architecture

In the Walled City of Lahore, Wazir Khan Mosque is situated along the southern side of Lahore’s Shahi Guzargah, or “Royal Road” (1.6 km), which was the traditional route crossed by Mughal nobles on their way to the Lahore Fort’s royal residences. The building started in 1634 A.D. Only a short walk from the Lahore Fort, as Emperor Shahjehan used to give his Friday congregational prayers in Wazir Khan Mosque, the mosque holds great significance. Many Mughal emperors rode through the Delhi Gate to the Fort of Lahore on horses. A town square known as Wazir Khan Chowk, and the Chitta Gate also face the mosque.

The abundant architectural decorations that embellish the mosque’s exterior and interior surfaces are the unique outstanding feature that positions the mosque at the forefront of the world’s great monuments. Under the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, construction of the mosque began in either 1634 or 1635 and was completed in about seven years. In the late 1880s, in the former Journal of Indian Architecture, John Lockwood Kipling, the father of Rudyard Kipling, wrote about the mosque and its decorative elements. Fred Henry Andrews, the British writer, noted in 1903 that the mosque had fallen into disrepair. The mosque of the Mughal period is rectangular, measuring approximately 282.7 × 165.4 feet, having four imposing minarets marking the corners of the main courtyard.

The distinctive architectural characteristic of the mosque is the use of minarets at each of its four corners, the first time that such a style was used in Lahore. The prayer hall follows the one-aisle five-bay motif first developed at the Maryam Zamani Mosque a generation earlier in Lahore, which was later to find its full expression in the Badshahi Mosque founded half a century later by Emperor Aurangzeb. Glazed tile mosaics (kashikari), frescos (naqqashi), typical engraved lime plaster, and cut-and-dressed brickwork are included in this extensive ornamentation. In Arabic and Persian, delicate calligraphy portrays verses from the Quran and the Hadith, includes references to the date of the mosque’s building and recognizes its founder and the Emperor.

The main prayer hall opens to an ablution pool

The Wazir Khan Mosque’s outer circumference is 279 feet (85 m) by 159 feet (48 m) and the long axis is parallel to the Shahi Guzargah. It was constructed with bricks laid in the lime of kankad. The courtyard is flanked by 32 small hujras of varying sizes on its east, north, and south sides. On the west side, the prayer chamber is split into five compartments by massive piers with broad, four-centered arches and a dome crowning each compartment. A small space has been installed in the central portion at the northern and southern ends of the prayer hall, although there is a gallery opening into the spiral staircase on the eastern end lending to the roof. Wazir Khan Mosque’s construction is most representative of the architecture and style of the Mughal period, with bricks and tiles adorning the walls. The mosque entrance is through a wide Aiwan that faces the Chowk of Wazir Khan. The Islamic declaration of faith is inscribed above the Aiwan.

Bricks facing the exterior of the mosque are richly embellished with the title work of the Persian style known as kashi-kari. The façades facing the inner courtyard are richly decorated with motifs and palettes that show clear Persian influences from the 17th century. Colours used in the Persian style include lajvard (cobalt blue), firozi (cerulean), white, green, orange, yellow, and purple, while star-shaped flowers and grapevines are Persian-influenced motifs. The four corner minars (minarets), the five domes, and the transept at the east entrance gate are the key structural features of distinction. The central hall, designed according to Persian architectural specifications, is the largest prayer hall. The wide dome stands on four arches, which makes the Char Taq more widely known as a square pavilion. The underside of the dome is painted with frescoes that depict an Islamic depiction of a paradise intricately built.

For Mughal-era mosques, the interior decorative design is peculiar, as it blends imperial Mughal elements with local Punjabi decorative styles. Of all the mosques constructed during the Mughal era, the Wazir Khan mosque has the best mosaic tile work. The Quran’s verses are seen as exquisite works of calligraphy adorning the walls. There is a square pavilion in the main prayer hall over which the largest dome of the mosque rests in a Persian shape known as Char Taq. Another fascinating fact about the Wazir Khan mosque is that, at that time, it was the first mosque of its kind in Lahore. Later, the same trend was followed by other mosques, such as Badshahi Mosque.

Of all the mosques constructed during the Mughal era, the Wazir Khan mosque has the best mosaic tile work. The Quran’s verses are seen as exquisite works of calligraphy adorning the walls. Around 160 feet by 130 feet, the courtyard features high arched galleries surrounding a central paved brick courtyard, a typical feature of Iran’s imperial Persian mosques. The courtyard of the mosque includes a pool used for washing the Islamic rite, wudu, measuring 35 feet by 35 feet. The distinctive blend of calligraphy, geometric forms, Persian motifs, and floral designs gives the building an unhindered touch of grandeur and opulence.

The mosque’s courtyard

The integration of 22 shops into its ground layout is a peculiar characteristic of the mosque. These stores, situated on either side of the entrance hall, form a bazaar with a brick-paved passage in between. This business area stretches east beyond the mosque into Chowk Wazir Khan (Wazir Khan Square), which to this day remains a vibrant business district. The mosque complex is part of the Protected Heritage Monuments of the Punjab Department of Archaeology. The site was added to the UNESCO Tentative List for the Status of World Heritage Sites in 1993. Restoring the Chowk Wazir Khan would provide a designated, well-maintained, and well-furnished public space for the residents and visitors of the Walled City where cultural, social, and regulated commercial activities can take place in a historical setting.

 

Information Sources:

  1. orientalarchitecture.com
  2. zameen.com
  3. archnet.org
  4. wikipedia
Categories
Plants and Animals

The Electric Eels Found Hunting in Groups for the First Time

What do you call a team of electric eels? This sounds like the beginning of a joke, but it is a valid question on the lips of researchers who discovered the world’s first electric eels will hunt in groups. Incredibly rare observations based on data from a small lake deep in the Amazon Basin were published in the Journal of Ecology and Evolution. The study, led by C. David de Santana, a research fellow at the National Museum of Natural History Fish Research in Smithsonian, details the discovery of a small lake with more than 100 electric eels.

You may think that eels were made in numbers for lack of size but many of them were 1.2 meters (4 feet) long. Electric eels, which are not true eels but are actually a kind of knife fish (#EelOrNoEel) were never thought to be assembled in this way. Usually, solitary creatures, the discovery of so many electronic eels l was unusual in itself, but seeing only got spicier from there.

In this river-feeding lake on the banks of the Erie River in the Brazilian state of Perry, eels were working together in small fish-ball balls called tetras. Much like a wolf’s clawed claws, eels lions follow tetras in groups of 10 and sometimes split into small swamps and encircle and simultaneously zap their prey.  The behavior has never been recorded in the electronic isle before, previously considered a strictly solitary predator although researchers still do not know how widespread the behavior is.

De Santana said in a statement, “Group hunting is very common among mammals, but it is actually very rare in fish.” “There are nine more species of fish to do this which makes it really special to find … If 100 [the law] were in one place, it would be a common occurrence. I think we’ve heard about it before.”

A legend in the de Santana electric fish community, he found 85 new species of electric fish in South America and tripled the number of known electric isle species in the last year (the electric eels lo waits for no epidemic). One of De Santana’s discoveries, described in a 2019 study, was the same species that was found in a group hunt, with the disturbing idea that. Volta’s electric eel, Electrophorus voltage can produce a shock of 860 volts.

De Santana said, “If you think about it, a person of this species can generate up to 860 volts of discharge – so theoretically if 10 of them were discharged at the same time, they could generate up to 8,600 volts of electricity.” “It needs the same voltage to get about 100 light bulbs.”

The next step for De Santana and his team is to directly measure the shock of the simultaneous attack to better understand the full force of the zap used to stop the tetras. Although their voltages are high, lasting for about three milliseconds, according to Shock de Santana, who wrote an email to IFLScience that a by-loti has become obsessed, “I usually feel numbness in the arm at the touch of an electric touch. It is a strong but very short discharge.”

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Plants and Animals

Birds Sniff out Potential Mates Who Are Genetically Different

I will never forget the fragrant smell of my first major Crush Cindy. Sometimes, I catch a glimpse of her Hawaiian Ginger Body Mist perfume and I moved to the time and straight dark club 15 years ago. Calgon, take me.

Many of us have experienced the power of a nostalgic scent entangled in our memories. Of course, our sense of smell is not just a reminder of our long-lost love. The smell can alert us to the tempting presence of inferior food, or it can alert us to dangerous toxins in our environment. We can smell even if our companions are sick.

Our body odor is affected by many factors. The food we eat, our stress levels, if we are healthy or sick, the bacteria and fungi that live naturally in our body, and even our genetic makeup can all affect the effect of our smell.

Avian body scent: But what has this got to do with birds? Much like the phrase “blind as a bat” (bats can look pretty good, thank you), there’s an endless myth that birds can’t smell. In the 1820s, artist and ornithologist John James Audubon erroneously claimed that vultures use their eyes rather than smell to find food. Audubon’s decisions were flawed, but the myth continues.

Researchers have shown that birds use odors to perform all sorts of tasks, such as finding food, avoiding predators, protecting their nests, separating relatives from relatives, and identifying their parents. Our feathered friends have a special preen gland at the base of their tail. When birds rub the gland with their scalp, it releases prawn oil, which they swallow themselves. Light oil is waterproof and helps protect feathers from damage, but it is also a major source of bird body odor.

Does bird body odor have any purpose? I wanted to know how the birds smelled so they were attracted to each other, as Cindy smelled. Gently pressing the preen gland I collected preen oil called sparrow (Melospiza melodia Melodia), a common bird song in North America, capturing them and giving them a choice between men and women in preen oil. Men spend more time with preen oil than females and women spend more time with preen oil than men, which means that birds like the smell of the opposite sex. This is probably because the sparrows were looking for mates to start a family.

Smell the difference: Birds, like humans, are more likely to have healthy families if their mates are not genetically related. But how do we assess whether a potential partner is a good genetic match? Believe it or not, researchers in the 1990s persuaded a group of women to determine their preferences for the smell of men’s dirty shirts. This “sweat T-shirt test” shows that women with B.O. From men who are genetically different from themselves.

Recently, researchers have shown that there is a link between bird odor and bird genes, suggesting that genetically different birds smell differently than genetically similar birds. I wanted to know that even birds like humans don’t like the smell of genetically different partners, so I designed my own sweaty t-shirt test. I gave a choice of prune oil to the female song sparrow from males like me who are less hereditary than me. Like human studies, female birds also like the smell of genetically different males.

What’s more, I’ve tested male birds the same way and got the same results: males genetically differentiate females from smelling. Both birds and humans like the smell of genetically distinct partners. It helps ensure that our lineage is able to fight against healthy and harmful pathogens.

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Plants and Animals

Dire Wolves Were Not Actually Wolves At All, Surprising Study Reveals

Dior wolves were among the most influential predators in North America until quite a while ago, but most of what we know about them was wrong. In particular, these two divided 5-6 million years ago, far from being the larger relatives of the gray wolves.

Dior wolves were once very common, with over 4,000 bones found in a pit at La Barry in Los Angeles. Yet little research has been done on their predecessors. Now a large international team has compared the deadly wolf DNA from five places to modern canid species over 50,000 years. The result published in nature is a shock. Dyer wolves have no close relatives. Instead, they separated from the line in which the gray wolves, dogs, and quails did the Eurasian jackals at the same time. The former males of the deadly wolf tiger were probably gray wolves and had been in North America for a long time before coming to Kuwait, but we know very little about them.

When the gray wolves crossed the Bering Strait they shared a continent of deadly wolves for at least 10,000 years, but there seems to have been no breeding. The authors believe that the two evolved so far in order to have a successful mating, that modern cannabis manages even with jackfruit.

“Sometimes wolves are portrayed as mythical creatures – giant wolves spread black frozen landscapes – but the reality turns out to be even more interesting,” Dr. Kieran Mitchell of the University of Adelaide said in a statement. Mitchell told IFLScience that he thinks the wolf lineage was somewhat neglected because “people were probably confident enough to know the answer by keeping the similarities between the skeletons of the two wolves.”

In addition, Mitchell added, “Dyer wolf fossils have been found mostly in tropical or subtropical environments, where DNA is not very well preserved. We had to work harder to extract DNA and spend a lot more money.” There should have been a formula. The part of the wolf that does not have fossil fossils may have more in common with African wild dogs than winter-loving gray wolves.

Michelle told IFLScience that they have no close relatives. The only ancestor we can tie them to with confidence is the wolf of the extinct Armbruster’s. Mitchell added, “Lots of endangered species were thought to be associated with both gray and deadly wolves. Now scientists need to do the work of their line that they are really on.

The long line of gray wolves has split into several tiny species, with the brutal mark of the terrifying wolf that Mitchell thinks is because this niche in North America was filled by members of the cat family. Once upon a time, the rising temperatures of the last ice age, competition from humans, and the extinction of prey species led to the extinction of deadly wolves, as well as saber-toothed cats and North American lions. A counter adapted to small prey may survive.

This discovery means that terrifying wolves may need a new genus name, as they are no longer members of the Canis. Mitchell and colleagues have suggested Aenocyon as a “terrible wolf”, although it is likely that Aenocyon virus will still be called a deadly wolf.

Mitchell told IFLScience that he began studying horrible wolves before George R. R. Martin’s book series and the next TV series Game of Thrones (#TeamStark) made them an international favorite, but they must help non-scientists understand his preferences. Did. “When you’re describing your work to people and they’ll know the animal they’re talking about,” he said, it’s not always the case with experts on endangered species. Alas, Mitchell can’t say what the chances were of having a deadly wolf as a pet or guardian against the White Walkers.

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Plants and Animals

Fuzzy New Bat Species Found In Guinea’s Nimba Mountains

sIt’s a huge old world out there, and while humans have made impressive progress across its bottoms, there are creatures where science is still not unknown. This knowledge ignites a common dream among some scientists; everyone wants to identify them by introducing a new species to the world. The dream was given to a team of scientists working with Bat Conservation International, who named a brand new bat in a new study published in the Journal of the American Museum Novitates and found it to be a (vague) peach.

In 2018, a team of scientists from Bat Conservation International and Maroua University in Cameroon began surveying the Nimba Mountains in Guinea in West Africa, exploring the natural caves of bats. The survey also surveyed mining tunnels built in the 70s and 80s and presents hot properties for bat shaking.

The aim of this study was to draw a clear picture of which bat species are using which habitat and how their roasting behavior changes throughout the year. Critically endangered Lamotte’s roundleaf bat, Hipposideros lamottei is an occupant of hill real estate. These bats are only found in the Nimba Mountains, so getting a better idea of ​​their annual activity may inform a better conservation approach for this unstable population.

H.While searching for lamottei (academically speaking), the team found an animal that they did not see like a bat. Realizing they had stumbled upon something new, they phoned the curator of the American Museum of Natural History and a member of the International Board of Bat Conservation to see what he had created.

“As soon as I looked at it, I agreed that it was something new,” Simmons said in a statement. “Then comes the long journey of documentation and the collection of all the data needed to prove that this is not true compared to any other known species.”

Bats’ voices, genetic material, and morphological analyzes have returned to what they had hoped for: a science that has not yet been recorded. The group named the ginger floating Myotis nimbaensis, translating it from “Nimba “in recognition of the mountainous region it was found in.

“In an age of extinction, a discovery like this shows a glimmer of hope,” said Winifred Frick, chief scientist at Bat Conservation International and associate research professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, in a statement. “It’s a spectacular animal. It has this bright orange fur, and it was so unique that it made us realize before that it was never described before. Discovering a new mammal is very rare since I was a child.”

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Architecture History

Royal Palace Of Caserta, Italy

The Royal Palace of Caserta (Italian: Reggia di Caserta (ˈrɛddʒa di kaˈzɛrta)) was built on the orders of Charles III of Bourbon, the genius of Luigi Vanvitelli, who wanted an icon to show the influence of the Bourbon dynasty. It is a former royal residence in Caserta, Southern Italy, established as the principal residence of the kings of Naples by the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. It is the largest palace erected during the 18th century in Europe. The palace was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997; its nomination described it as “the swan song of the spectacular art of the Baroque, from which it adopted all the features needed to create the illusions of multidirectional space.” This palace is one of the most important monuments in the history of Naples, and one of the most interesting places in our country.

Royal Palace of Caserta

The Caserta Royal Palace and Park, north of Naples, was designed according to the wishes of Charles of Bourbon III by Luigi Vanvitelli, one of the greatest Italian architects of the 18th century, mixing the styles of Versailles, Rome, and Tuscany. In terms of height, with a surface area of 47,000 m2, the Royal Palace of Caserta is the largest royal residence in the world with over 1 million m3. The main façade has 143 windows, 1200 rooms, and 34 staircases standing as an exaltation of Baroque Italy. Caserta is considered a triumph, and ahead of its time, of the Italian Baroque. Expanding over 11 acres, the ponds, fountains, and cascades of the garden are aligned by a ‘telescope effect’ that reaches as far as the eye can see.

Caserta Royal Palace and Park is one of the last great European gardens, borrowed from creations such as Versailles and villas in Rome and Tuscany in the 16th century. Charles VII of Naples (Charles III of Spain), who worked closely with his architect, Luigi Vanvitelli, began the building of the palace in 1752. When Charles saw the grandly scaled model of Vanvitelli for Caserta, it filled him with “fit to tear his heart from his breast” emotion. In the end, when he abdicated in 1759 to become King of Spain, he never spent a night in Reggia, and the scheme was only partly completed by his third son and successor, Ferdinand IV of Naples.

A few kilometers from the capital, Naples, the building (palace) was constructed, prompting an urban project that would reflect the power of the Bourbon family. Caserta Vecchia’s population was moved 10 kilometers to provide a workforce closer to the palace. In the immense parkland, the silk factory at the San Leucio resort was disguised as a pavilion. It was the first Italian landscape garden, for instance. But the reasons also stemmed from the patterns spreading across Europe at the time, namely providing the royals with leisure and accommodating botanical study. Hundreds of rare and precious plants were brought to Caserta from around the world and still grow there today.

Inner view of the Royal Palace of Caserta

It was made with influence from that of Versailles at the wishes of the king, but Vanvitelli produced a unique work, a synthesis of the architecture of three centuries, going to summarize what was the paradigm of neoclassical architecture, due to the discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii’s lost cities. Importantly, since it reflects the shift in approach in the relationship between royals and the rest of the world, the design was also singular. The architecture included a silk factory and associated workers’ homes, and the natural forests were integrated. In material form, it is an eloquent manifestation of the Enlightenment, incorporated into its natural environment rather than forced upon it.

The palace was the site of the Accademia Aeronautica, the Italian Air Force Academy, from 1923 to 1943. The Royal Palace served as the Allied Force Headquarters for the Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean region, Sir Maitland Wilson and later Sir Harold Alexander, from 1943, during the Allied invasion. The Palace was built as an enormous building with twin facades, one facing the parade ground, the other facing the gardens. In the original plan, the central dome and the statue of Charles on the gable in the center of the facade were present but were never realized.

There are 5 floors in the palace, 1,200 rooms, including two dozen state apartments, a large library, and a theatre modeled after Naples’ Teatro San Carlo. After the King left the kingdom, the gardens were finished, and in 1762, through the Caroline aqueduct, the water from Maddaloni entered the Palace. The royal rooms date from the late 18th century and the “new apartment” dates from the early 19th century. Within, three octagonal vestibules leading to the four courtyards link to the vaulted arcade, distinguished by niches and wide corner apses.

It is difficult here to identify the Palace and its gardens. It is one of the world’s most famous and most appreciated architectural masterpieces. The palace has a rectangular plan, measuring 247 m x 184 m, and two orthogonal arms link the four sides, creating four inner courts. Each floor measures approximately 47,000 m2 (505,904 sq ft), but the entire palace measures 235,000 m2 considering the five floors (2,529,519 sq ft). In 1997, the palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site its nomination file described it as “the ‘swan song’ of the spectacular art of the Baroque period, from which it adopted all the features needed to create the illusions of a multi-directional space.”

The Diana and Actaeon Fountain at the feet of the Grand Cascade

The entrance is from the upper hall to the Palatine Chapel (similar to the one in Versailles). The Chapel, with columns and a high stylobate, is an unadorned and vaulted space. The Christmas Eve Mass in 1784, in the presence of the King and all of the Court, was inaugurated. Mary Immaculate, whose portrait is painted on the apse, is dedicated to the chapel. With more than 2 million cubic meters, Caserta is by far the largest royal palace in the world in volume (70 million cu ft). A jumble of buildings appeared behind the facades of its corresponding segmental ranges of outbuildings that surround the giant forecourt to facilitate everyday business. The palace includes four courts with a well-proportioned interior that evokes a monotonous dignity, unique in its time, featuring what scholars describe. There are more than 40 monumental rooms in the royal palace, completely decorated with frescoes, while Versailles has only 22 monumental rooms.

The throne room

Starting from the palace’s back façade, the park flanks a long promenade with artificial fountains and waterfalls. There is also a magnificent botanical garden, built in the 1780s, called “The English Garden.” At intervals along a wide straight canal that runs to the horizon, the fountains and cascades, each filling a vasca (basin), with design and hydraulics by Luigi Vanvitelli, rivaled those at Peterhof outside St. Petersburg. At the top of the park, beginning in 1785, Vanvitelli and the German botanist John Andrew Graefer designed the first Italian landscape garden at the behest of Queen Maria Carolina.

The Rooms of the Seasons, the small and highly decorated rooms, must be listed. The King and Queen welcomed their most intimate guests in the “spring” room, and Hackert embellished it with some splendid harbor views. Contemporary observers noticed that all the other royal palaces in Europe, including their models, were exceeded by the Caserta in one specific aspect: the combination of completeness and stabilization. Caserta’s Royal Palace is a year-round resort, but in spring and summer, its vast gardens are at their finest. On Tuesdays, the complex is closed.

 

Information Sources:

  1. isitworldheritage.com
  2. realcasadiborbone.it
  3. wikipedia
Categories
Plants and Animals

If You Want To See a Bird Swallow an Alligator Whole, Today Is Your Lucky Day

If you’ve ever wanted to see a bird swallow an alligator (and yes, we’re judging you quite a bit) you’re lucky, because it’s a scene that a wildlife photographer stumbled upon last month. Shelley Gilliam, a Florida resident (where you can see such scenes from elsewhere, face it) came out near Apopka Lake when she saw the Great Blue Heron shortly after capturing a teenage alligator in her chin. According to Gilliam, it took him half an hour to “kill and swallow the guardian”, although he gratefully only uploaded the final few minutes of the meal. Gilliam wrote on Facebook, “The Great Blue” wrote in a comment, “I saw it when I grabbed the alligator a few hundred yards away and flew this plane with the machine in his wrists with his rebuke.” Heron is a savage hunter.

The Great Blue Heron is actually amazing predators, with razor-sharp beaks and necks that can move fast. As far as they are close and almost the right size to eat they can eat almost anything, be it rats, gophers, feces, turtles, or fish. Although we should mention, it is basically fish. If you are wondering how they are able to physically fit carcasses et al in them (this is a fair question) then they have a loose digestive tract and an enlarged esophagus and stomach as they swallow their prey.

They occasionally appear to have eyes larger than their stomachs (or esophagus) and die trying to swallow larger prey. They are thought to have died trying to eat carp, frogs, bullheads, and snakes, holding their breath before descending from the victim’s throat. This is risky to work on when you are the victim of large prey.

They usually eat prey larger than other species of heron. This gives them the advantage that they can eat larger fish in the same water and adapt much more than other aquatic birds, including the ability to hunt small mammals and reptiles on land. Generally speaking, they are more likely to be victims of Alligator-on-Aaron violence than criminals, but as seen in the video above, even the strongest (teenage) elite are not safe from these animals.

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Plants and Animals

We Finally Know Why Millipedes Torment Trains In Japan Every Eight Years

The curious life cycle of America’s Cicadas sees these critics blossom from their millions of grounds every 13 or 17 years, once again temporarily filling the air with chatter before being muted. This was thought to be unique in terms of their long life cycle, but a new study published in the Royal Society Open Publishing Journal found that there is a similar austerity for life under other leaves like the creepy Cripple elsewhere in the world.

The train’s millipede, Parafontaria laminata armigera, disrupted the train for eight years, causing trouble for the train in Japan. The mechanism behind the strange cyclonic waterlogging was still unknown. For nearly half a century, researchers, including top author and government ecologist Keiko Niijima, have been studying the species, revealing the bizarre and protracted developmental stages of this disrupted arthropod.

Train millipedes lay their eggs in the ground and must pass seven instar stages before they can finally emerge from the soil as mature millipedes eight years after hatching. They take a year at each stage of the stage and every summer they explode with old threads and with new ones. To confirm the eight-year life cycle of train millipedes, researchers had to trace their entire life history from egg to adult. They found populations in two places and from 1972 to 2016 these sites were surveyed several times.

By soil samples at both sites and by recording changes in larval millipedes they were able to determine that millipedes underwent seven instar changes before reaching maturity. Once turned, they emerge from their molten pouches and become debris on the soil surface. This is when small trike becomes a problem for trains because they are grown in such numbers that it obstructs the rail tracks.

Some millipedes will travel up to 50 meters in search of breeding opportunities. After mating successfully, they will hunt on the ground again to hibernate during the worst of winter. Towards the end of spring, they move again for some more mating (what a year!)) By July, the females will lay a lot of eggs every month (from 400 to 1000) (along with the males). “We have shown the existence of a periodic millipede, a new addition to periodic organisms with longevity cycles: periodic cicadas, bamboo and some plants of the genus Strobilanthes,” the study authors wrote in their research paper.

 

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Plants and Animals

Stunning Underwater Images from the “Ocean Art” Photography Competition

The Ocean Art Submarine Photo Contest is back for another year, featuring some of the best images of ocean beauty in 2020. The annual competition, organized by the Underwater Photography Guide, aims to document the world’s best underwater images and document the amazing ecosystem that exists beneath the surface of the water. Now in its 9th year, the winners of 2020 are as stunning as ever despite the hardships brought on by lockdowns, travel restrictions, and the COVID-19 epidemic.

The Best of Show award went to photographer Gaetano Dario Gargiulo for a wide-angle shot (pictured below) of a deeply intriguing octopus in the camera lens at tidal pools in New South Wales, Australia. “On the day of the film, I was in a tidal pool because there was very little travel outside the tidal range. In the shallow part of the pool, I noticed an octopus. I placed my camera near its hole and the octopus began to interact with it. It came out of the shell completely and to our surprise, it started shooting photos! My son (3 3 y.o.in the background) was very curious about the octopus,” Gargiulo said on the competition’s website.

The competition features winners for arrays of different categories including Wide Angle, Macro, Marine Life Behavior, Portrait, Coldwater, Blackwater, Nudibranch, Underwater Conservation and many more. You can check out some of the winning images from the latest competition below. If they have your fancy imagination, then take a look at the winners of 2019.

The judge of the Eighth Annual Ocean Art Underwater Photo Contest, organized by the Underwater Photography Guide, has been rolled out, and the winning images and photographers have been announced. Greg Lacquer was the best on the show with a crabeater Seal image from Antarctica. The organizers of the competition shared with us some of the winning and honorable mentions below, which are under 16 categories of underwater photography the caption was written by individual photographers and was lightly edited for the content.

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Plants and Animals

Man Has Two Guesses to Get His Forgotten Password Correct or Lose $240 Million in Bitcoin

About 10 years ago, programmer Stephen Thomas created an animated video titled “What is Bitcoin” for Bitcoin enthusiasts in Switzerland. For his problem, he had to pay exactly 7,002 in bitcoin.  Coins were about $ 2 per coin at the time, which is still quite good for a short and relatively simple animation. Bitcoins are now about $ 34,500, making his Bitcoin $241,569,000.

Sounds pretty great, the true happy story tale of good luck and patience isn’t there too fast, buddy. As you can see, Thomas put Bitcoin on his encrypted IronKey hard drive as a security-conscious type. IronKey anyone trying to access it 10 It basically guesses before self-harm which makes it accessible to anyone.  It’s a different bad character trying to access your 200 200 but it’s great, but that perfect person doesn’t remember what the password is when you’re under 10 and the amount you’re trying to access is 0 240 million ideal. The New York Times reports that what happened to Thomas was that he lost a piece of paper in which he had written down his password.

In the intervening years, Thomas tried to access the drive by trying to reach his millions, but to no avail. As you can imagine, it put him under some pressure. Thomas told the New York Times, “I will just lie in bed and think about it.” Then I’ll go to the computer with some new techniques and it won’t work and I’ll be desperate again.” He has now used eight of his 10 estimates. Two more and it’s gone.

Suddenly remembering it or not finding the piece of paper, his chances of accessing it are quite slim. However, some technologists believe that the code could be cracked. Alex Stamos of the Stanford Internet Observatory wrote in a Twitter thread, “For 20 220M on lock-up bitcoin, you don’t have to guess 10 passwords but buy 20 irons and take them to professionals and spend six months finding side-channels or in disguise.”

“We’re not talking about some NSA-built cryptoprocessor installed on any SSBN, but an old piece of the customer kit is 50 pieces. There’s no way to crack it against USNIX paperwork from the last ten years that has never been used in practice.”  Let’s hope he’s OK, or Thomas can join British IT worker James Howells, who lost 500 bitcoins – 498 more than Thomas – when he accidentally dropped a hard drive and saved it in 2013.