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Architecture History

A Visit To A Historical Place/Building (Eyüp Sultan Mosque, Turkey)

The Eyüp Sultan Mosque (Turkish: Eyüp Sultan Camii) is a very unique and holy mosque for the Islamic world; it is located in the district of Eyüp on Istanbul’s European side, near the Golden Horn, and outside the walls of Constantinople. The current structure dates from the early 19th century. It was the first mosque built by the Ottoman Turks after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, and it was completed in 1458. The mausoleum marks the location where Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Ebu Eyüp el-Ensari), the Islamic prophet Muhammad’s standard-bearer and companion, is said to have been buried. Sultan Mehmet II intended to construct a grand tomb to mark the site of Eyüp’s grave, which was discovered outside the city walls shortly after the Conquest. The Ottoman princes came to the mosque complex he commissioned for the Turkish equivalent of a coronation ceremony: the girding of the Sword of Osman to indicate their authority and title as padişah (king of kings) or sultan. The Eyup Sultan Mosque’s decorated dome, which measures 17.5m in diameter and is supported by two half domes, has an elegant architecture. Eyüp’s tomb is possibly more interesting than the mosque itself. It’s open Tuesday through Sunday from 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., and it’s covered in tile panels from various ages, creating a lovely, if overwhelming, effect. By the end of the 18th century, the mosque had fallen into disrepair, possibly as a result of earthquake damage, and Sultan Selim III ordered the entire building, except the minarets, to be demolished and rebuilt in 1798. In the year 1800, this project was completed. Mahmud II reconstructed the eastern minaret in the original style in 1822.

A fun leafy area to walk through is the Eyüp Cemetery, which leads up the hill from the mosque. The Ottoman princes came to the mosque complex he commissioned for the Turkish equivalent of a coronation ceremony: the girding of the Sword of Osman to indicate their authority and title as padişah (king of kings) or sultan. Eyüp Sultan is thought to have died in the 670s during the first Arab siege of Constantinople. Muslims hold his tomb in high regard. The mausoleum is located on the north side of a courtyard, directly across from the mosque’s main prayer hall entrance. Thousands of Muslims flock to the mausoleum on Fridays, which are holy days in Islam. Around the mosque and mausoleum, old trees, flocks of pigeons, praying believers, and visiting crowds create a magical and colorful atmosphere. Tiles from various periods cover the walls of the mausoleum in the courtyard. Turkey’s oldest and most sacred mosque is the Eyüp Sultan Mosque. Its style was altered several times by the Ottomans, who designed it in accordance with their own style of architecture at the time. Mimar Sinan, a well-known Ottoman architect, designed the Eyüp Sultan Mosque. Mimar Sinan was the son of either Greek or Armenian Christian parents. According to historical accounts, this district was also a holy site in Byzantine times, where people came to visit a saint’s grave and pray for rain during droughts. A variety of contrasting panels of Iznik tiles can be found on the mausoleum’s wall facing the mosque. They are from various times and were brought together during the mosque’s restoration in 1798-1799. Iznik tiles are also used to cover the walls of the mausoleum’s vestibule. They date from about 1580 and have the distinctive sealing-wax red slip. Similar tiles to those found in the vestibule can be found in a number of museums outside of Turkey; they likely once adorned the walls of the baths’ now-demolished entrance hall (camekân). The baroque mosque replaces the original, which was demolished in the 1766 earthquake, but the main draw is the türbe, a holy burial site that attracts crowds of pilgrims waiting in line to see the contents of the solid silver sarcophagus or to meditate in prayer. A panel of three blue and turquoise Iznik tiles, dated from about 1550, is housed in the British Museum and is identical to some of the ones that now adorn the shrine’s exterior wall.

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Plants and Animals

This Dried Up Bit Of Foliage Is Actually Alive, Meet The Dead Leaf Butterfly

Camouflage is a common defense system in the animal kingdom but undoubtedly, some are better than others are perhaps one of the most impressive is the dead leaf butterfly, also known as the orange or Indian oakleaf (Kallima inachus). These fascinating and gigantic butterflies are seen migrating from India to Japan in tropical Asia and bringing about a double life. On the one hand, they vibrant shades of blue and burnt orange with black tips and on the other, they look like dead leaves.

The striking camouflage is undoubtedly impressive, but how can anyone start as a butterfly and end up like a dry shower? In line with Church Darwin’s theory of evolution, he wrote in the Westminster Review in 1867 that the imitation these pages was researched by naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. “But the most striking and suspicious aspect of the protective similarity between butterflies that we have seen before is that of the common Indian Kallima inachis…” Exactly how the mystery of his day was.

This Dried Up Bit Of Foliage Is Actually Alive, Meet The Dead Leaf Butterfly

Recently, scientists have found evidence of four distinct intermediate forms of KM Inches before this method of camouflage was developed. Over time, these butterflies saw small changes in their wings, as well as 45 closely related species, and they were able gradually gather the most complete evidence of the introduction of a means of mimicking evolution. They found that multiple related species shared a rough plan on their wings, suggesting that duplicates of the leaves too inherited across all species.

“Leaf mimics in butterfly wings provide an interesting example of complex adaptive features and create speculation about how wing patterns develop close resemblance to leaves from ancestral forms that do not resemble leaves,” the study authors wrote. “The types of leaf imitations are slowly changing, suddenly, evolving from mimetic [no imitative] ancestors. Through a lineage of Kallima butterflies, leaf patterns emerged through the temporary collection of orchestrated changes of multiple pattern elements.

The common baron caterpillar (Euthalia aconthea) is a similarly skilled camouflage critic native to India and Southeast Asia. Instead of dead leaves, E. aconthea blends seamlessly with the yellow, green leaves. Little larvae live solitary lives on top of mangoes and cashews while hiding from simple sightings from predators. When the baron showed off his great invisible work, the monkey slag caterpillar (Phobetron perithecium) really said, “Hold my beer” for fear hanging and to dress likes a tarantula. The larvae themselves are not dangerous; they feed on most trees and shrubs and do not sting their hair despite widespread misconceptions (as opposed to this walking-hat for caterpillars). The amazingly sized and strange creature, unfortunately, left out of the ugly breath effect, as after pupation it evolved into a hug moth that looked like a fluffy turd.

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Plants and Animals

Oldest Cave Art In Australia Has Been Found And – Of Course – It’s A Kangaroo

The oldest known indigenous rock painting has identified in Australia and – not surprisingly – it is a kangaroo painting. These studies detailed in a new study published today in the journal Nature Human Behavior. Researchers are currently researching a treasure trove of rock art found at eight rock art sites in the Kimberley area of ​​Western Australia. This art gallery includes animals depicting snakes, a lizard-like figure, and murals of various colors, including three macropods (the iconic family of marsupials, including kangaroos, wallabies, and quokkas). 

Together with the site’s aboriginal Traditional Historian owners, scientists at the University of Melbourne set out to set the date for the artwork in an effort to unravel a more detailed timeline of this creative activity. However, determining the dates in these paintings is not an easy feat, since ancient aboriginal artists often painted using ocher pigments made from iron oxide, which cannot easily dated because they contain no organic matter. To overcome this obstacle, the researchers leaned towards a knowledgeable tested and tested method: instead of dating the painting, they wrote down the remains of ancient mud waste houses that had painted. By dating the waste houses above and below the painting, the kangaroo national artwork dated 17,500 to 17,100 years ago, making it one of the oldest painted figures in Australia.

Oldest Cave Art In Australia Has Been Found And – Of Course – It’s A Kangaroo

“This has turned the painting into one of Australia’s most famous in-situ paintings,” said Dr. Krishna Kumar, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Melbourne and lead author of the study. Damien Finch said in a statement. The kangaroo painted on the opal ceiling of a rock shelter on the Unghango Group Estate in the Balanggarra country in the Kimberley region of northeastern Western Australia. In addition to its significant age, the style of painting also attracted the attention of researchers. Its life-size scale and subjects are typical of the irregular infill animal or naturalist period. As the researchers explained, it gives some valuable insights into the culture of those who painted this piece and even raises the possibility that old works may still be in Australia.

“This is a significant discovery in this initial hypothesis. We can understand something about the world in which these ancient artists lived. We never understand what the artist thought when he painted this work for more than 600 generations. Previously, but we know that the naturalist period extended into the last ice age, so the environment was cooler and drier than it is today,”Dr. Finch explained. “This iconic kangaroo image is visually identical to the paintings of the islands of Southeast Asia more than 40,000 years ago, suggesting a cultural link – and pointing to the still old rock art in Australia,” added Dr Sven Ouzman, one of the project’s organizers. The University is the lead investigators at the Western Australian School of Social Sciences.

Multiple old decorative images have rediscovered in recent times beyond Australia. Just last month, archaeologists emerged as the oldest metaphorical work of art created by the human body: a 45,500-year-old doodle of a fat-pig.

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Architecture History

A Visit To A Historical Place/Building (Kalenderhane Mosque, Turkey)

Kalenderhane Mosque (Turkish: Kalenderhane Camii), like Hagia Sophia, Zeyrek Mosque (Pantokrator Monastery), and Fethiye Mosque, is a Byzantine church in Istanbul, Turkey, that was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. (Pammakaristos Church). The church was most likely dedicated to the Theotokos Kyriotissa at the time of its building. The structure is also known as Kalender Haneh Jamissi and St. Mary Diaconissa. Despite the discrepancy between the Kalenderhane Mosque and the Monastery of Mary Kyriotissa as described in Byzantine sources, scholars have identified the building as the Church of the Monastery of Mary Kyriotissa based on two frescoes of Mary with the inscription Kyriotissa. Their conclusion also differs from the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Istanbul’s previous identification of the structure as the Church of the Monastery of Christ Akataleptos. This structure is one of only a few surviving Byzantine churches with a domed Greek cross plan. The Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa was built in the twelfth century during the Komnenian Dynasty on top of a fifth or sixth-century Roman bath complex and served as a Greek Orthodox Byzantine church until 1453. Following Constantinople’s conquest in 1453, the church was given to the Kalenderi Dervishes, who used it as a zaviye (Islamic religious school) and imaret (soup kitchen). Despite the fact that the structure has been restored several times due to fires in the late nineteenth century, it continues to function as a mosque. The Greek Cross plan of the Kalenderhane Mosque is supported by a dome within sixteen ribs. The structure’s medium is typical middle Byzantine architecture, which is a combination of brick and stone masonry layers.

Central dome of Kalenderhane Mosque

The mosque is situated at the western end of the existing section of the Aqueduct of Valens (Bozdogan Kemeri), with the aqueduct offset slightly to the south. The current church was built during the late Comnenian Dynasty (1081-1185), incorporating remains of earlier structures built on the site, including a 4th or 5th century private bath, two basilicas predating the iconoclastic era (717-867), and an unfinished 8th century church, according to Kuban and Striker’s field research. The original marble decoration of the structure is still surviving similar as Hagia Sophia and Chora Museum. The church was used as a Roman Catholic Church by the Catholic Crusaders after the Latin Conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusader in 1204, and they adorned the southern chapel of the church with frescoes depicting the life of St. Francis. The only wall mosaic panel from pre-Iconoclast Constantinople is a mosaic panel depicting “the Presentation of Christ,” which was discovered on the apsidal wall of one of the basilicas. The church was used by Catholics during the Latin invasion, according to frescoes found in a diaconicon chapel portraying the life of St. Francesco, the oldest surviving depictions of the saint. Before the Ottoman conquest, the church was surrounded by monastery buildings, none of which survived the Ottoman era. Hacı Beşir Ağa (d. 1747), the Kizlar Ağası of the Topkap Palace, completed the conversion of the building into a mosque in 1746 by constructing a mihrab, minbar, and mahfil. The mosque was reconstructed after being destroyed by fire and earthquakes in 1855 and again between 1880 and 1890. After the minaret collapsed due to lightning and the Medrese was destroyed in the 1930s, it was abandoned. The above-mentioned renovation by Kuban and Striker has restored the original features of the Comnenian church, the 18th-century mihrab, and the minaret, enabling the monument to continue to be used as a mosque.

Interior view of Kalenderhane Mosque

The structure features a central Greek Cross plan with deep barrel vaults over the arms and a 16-ribbed dome. With alternating layers of brick and stone masonry, the building has a typical middle Byzantine brickwork. On the west side, there is an esonarthex and an exonarthex (added much later). Following the Latin attack, the side entrances from the inner narthex were blocked. The upper gallery to the inner narthex was probably demolished during the 1854 restoration, and windows were opened on the northern façade within the grand arch that had been blocked by the gallery. The sanctuary is on the east side, but the restored mihrab and minbar are in a corner to achieve proper Mecca alignment. Prothesis and diakonikon, two small chapels typical of Byzantine churches from the middle and late ages, have survived. The north and south aisles flanking the nave were both demolished at this time, and neither was restored during the 1966 restoration; the triple arches that once linked the nave to the aisles now form the lower tier of windows on the north and south façades. The church’s interior decoration, which includes exquisite colored marble panels and moldings, as well as elaborated icon frames, is mostly intact. The mosque of Kalenderhane is one of the most significant architectural examples of a domed Greek cross church from the Byzantine middle period, alongside the Gül Mosque in Istanbul, the Church of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki, and the Church of the Dormition in (Koimesis) in Iznik (Nicaea). The non-extant iconostasis, which rose to the level of the vaults, is commemorated in two intricate icon frames on the piers flanking the sanctuary. The church’s original decoration, which consists of polychrome marble revetments and moldings, has been preserved to a large degree. The minaret rises from the southwest corner of the church and was also restored during the 1966 renovation. The structure has two distinct characteristics, both of which are unique in Istanbul: a one-meter-square mosaic representing the “Presentation of Christ,” the city’s only pre-iconoclastic exemplar of a religious theme, and a cycle of thirteenth-century frescoes depicting the life of Saint Francis of Assisi (found in a chapel at the southeast corner of the building and painted during the Latin domination). These have been partly restored and are now on display in Istanbul’s Archaeological Museum. Other discoveries from the 1966 expedition are on display in a small museum in the Kalenderhane Mosque’s diaconicon.

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Plants and Animals

World-First Victory As Two Captive-Born Cheetah Brothers Are Successfully Rewilded In Africa

Some animals are suitable for life as pets. Take, for example, dogs whose domestication by their ancestors transformed them from ferocious predators. Cheetahs, on the other hand, are not so much, but it is right to know what to do with wild animals raised in captivity because they will not survive without rebuilding. Hard but impossible to call it impossible since the Aspinall Foundation successfully repatriated two captive-descended cheetah brothers to the wild and completed the final phase of their reconstruction as part of the project that took years to build.

Saba and Nairo, brothers were born on July 15, 2017 at the Port Lympne Hotel & Reserve in Kent, England. Under their supervision, he was able to make a complete recovery, but inevitably, he became accustomed to playing and feeding with humans: dependence that would not benefit a cheetah in the wild. Saba reunited with her brother Nairoin December 2018 and despite their time, the pair formed an immediate bond.

World-First Victory As Two Captive-Born Cheetah Brothers Are Successfully Rewilded In Africa

There are only 7000 cheetahs in the wild, and genetic diversity is a final issue for this species, and with that in mind, the Aspinall Foundation was determined to bring these two young and now healthy males back to their wild roots. Then a project was started which saw that the two would be successfully rebuilt and the wild cheetah would be free to hunt successfully despite the story of their captive source. The two left the United Kingdom on February 5, 2020 to visit the South African Asia Cheetah Conservation, where the first phase of their reconstruction will begin. Once they found their feet, they transferred to a hunting camp at Mount Camdeboo Private Reserve. Here, it was crucial that the animals began to make their own food sauces, and after being sufficiently convinced, the two secured the first kill in August 2020, a young blesbok. 

“This is an incredible achievement for the conservation of the Aspinall Foundation, Mount Camdeboo, and the Asia Cheetah,” Damien Aspinall, chair of The Aspinall Foundation, said in an emailed statement to IFLScience. “Many doubted this seismic project was possible, but together we have proved conclusively that captive-bred cheetahs can be successfully rebuilt. We are already working with other agencies to replicate this incredible project and to rebuild more cheetahs in Africa, to bring valuable new genetics to the local population, and to bring this stunning cat back to their ancestral homeland.”

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Plants and Animals

Wildlife Photographer Of The Year’s People’s Choice Winner Reflects On Australia’s Bushfires

Enthusiastic photographers and animal enthusiasts are likely to follow the Wildlife Photographer of the Year award at the London Natural History Museum. The annual competition displays captivating and heartbreaking images of the natural world by photographers across the planet, and 2020 has yet to become the deadliest – perhaps surprisingly proven.

You can throw darts around the 2020 timeline and get the bad news, but a number of dramatic images have emerged from Australia’s devastating wildfires, which saw what a new year would do. It looks like those who voted for the 2020 People’s Choice Awards didn’t shy away from complex issues, as they praised children’s television personality and wildlife photographer Robert Irwin (yes, Irwins) as the winner for his crisis photo.

Wildlife Photographer Of The Year’s People’s Choice Winner Reflects On Australia’s Bushfires

To capture a spectacular image of the Australian bushfire using drone photography, the son of zoo and TV legend Steve Irwin must be the family mascot genus, Crocodilia from with countless wildlife – with an estimated more than a billion animals – lost in the blaze that transforms the landscape, the image carries a heavy message. Straight to the title “Bushfire”, the hunting shot framed 50:50 delicious green trees against the black remnants that they would soon be.

As smoke rose from the horizon of the Steve Irwin Wildlife Reserve in Cape York, Queensland, Irwin identified the opportunity: a protected land that supports more than 30 ecosystems, including some endangered species. “I am incredibly excited to win the Wildlife Photographer of the Year People’s Choice Award. For me, nature photography is about telling a story to make a difference to the environment and our planet, “Irwin said in a press release about the award.” As a reminder of our impact on the world and our responsibility, take care of it.”

The PCA received nearly 50,000 images for the 2021 competition, which was shortlisted by the Museum of Natural History in just 25 images. Irwin’s PCA will feature four highly acclaimed images as well as part of an exhibition at the museum, which at the time of writing intended to run until August 2021 – although dates may change due to ongoing COVID-19 lockdowns in the UK.

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Plants and Animals

This Stressful Animation Shows How Difficult It Is For Whales To Avoid Fatal Vessel Strikes

Going by the body of water, the sea is quite Philippines’ huge in After occupying all these wet real estate, you might think that boats and whales living in happy isolation from each other could be easier – but recent reports have served as a memorable reminder that It didn’t happen. In February, in a week’s time, some disturbing information about the movement of a blue whale published, showing ships disappearing into the waters of Patagonia and backwards. This did not include recreational vessels, only heavy shipping traffic.

Blue whales can be undesirable, spending much deeper time in the ocean before heading to the surface for feeding. This lifestyle puts them at risk of large ships with heavy-duty pilots, who will not see whales until it is too late. Vessel strikes can cause catastrophic injuries to whales, and it is common for these to prove fatal. The research, published in the journal Nature, highlights the need to establish a corridor for these animals where there are movement corridors so that conservation efforts can work with traffic to avoid fatal collisions.

This Stressful Animation Shows How Difficult It Is For Whales To Avoid Fatal Vessel Strikes

Images published on Facebook by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute (FWC FWRI) show the tragic aftermath of a 54-foot sportfishing ship colliding with a right whale. “On the evening of February 12, 2021, the captain of the August 54 sportfishing ship received news of a whale being killed near the entrance to St. Augustine’s Inlet,” the post read. “The pot starts to take water and is made on a quick basis to protect it from drowning. The occupants are all safe. The real-time report near Captain is vital to increase our understanding of shipwrecks and warns researchers to look for injured or dead whales.”

The next morning the search ended with the search for the right whale calf in the North Atlantic on a beach in Anastasia State Park. The calf is just one month old and a whale cub known to FWCWWRI as Catalog ‘Infinity’. Mother and calf were swimming in local waters that have quiet grounds for right-wing whales in the North Atlantic, two mother-calves also spotted in January 2021. A necropsy revealed that the 22-foot-long male calf was torn from the driver of the boat on its back and head by a piece of the piece, which was likely to be torn to pieces. Mother Infinity later found alive on 16 February, but with injuries consistent with the ship’s strike, which appeared to have caused by the sailor. Members of the FWC FWRI will continue to monitor Infinity as it tries to determine the severity of its wounds.

Caring for these animals creates a complex problem, as injuries are not always obvious and adequate cuts are initially as benign, in time they can cause fatal infections. Stories like these shed light on the need for more research migration routes for surface-habitat whales so that scientists can work with ship traffic services to better navigate directly and avoid such accidents. For now, the task of protecting these animals rests on the shoulders of captains, who told IFLScience in an email as a representative for the global marine charity Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC) – which steps could taken to reduce the risk of collisions.

“The [advice] for the captain is fairly simple and life-saving – slow down and post a look,” the WDC said. “The ideal speed of 10 knots that comes slowly is an increase in time to see your whale and give the whale some extra time to respond and passengers are injured so it’s not just about whale saving.”

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Architecture History

Fasil Ghebbi, Ethiopia

The Fasil Ghebbi (Amharic: ፋሲል ግቢ) is situated in the Amhara National Regional State of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, in the North Gondar Administrative District. It is a fortress that was built by Emperor Fasilides in the 17th century and served as the residence of Ethiopian emperors. There are eight sections to the serial property. The Castle of Emperor Fasilidas, the Castle of Emperor Iyasu, the Library of Tzadich Yohannes; the Chancellery of Tzadich Yohannes; the Castle of Emperor David, the Palace of Mentuab, and Banqueting Hall of the Emperor Bekaffa are all situated inside the Fasil Ghebbi palace complex. The distinctive architecture represents a wide variety of influences, including Nubian styles.

The remaining seven components are located in and around the city of Gondar: the Debre Berhan Selassie (Monastery and church); the Bath of Fasilidas; Kiddush Yohannes; Qusquam (Monastery and Church); Thermal Area; the Sosinios (also known as Maryam Ghemb); the Gorgora (Monastery and Church) and the Palace of Guzara. In 1979, the site was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Amharic word ghebbi means “compound” or “enclosure.” It was designed by Emperor Fasiladas, who became unhappy with his predecessors’ migratory semi-nomadic lifestyle and decided to make a statement by constructing a grandiose palace complex that was one of the most majestic structures of the period.

Interior view of Fasilides’ Palace

Ethiopian rulers often relocated their royal camps between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 1636, King Fasil (Fasilidas) settled in Gondar and made it his permanent capital. The royal court had grown from a camp into a fortified compound called Fasil Ghebbi, which consisted of six main building complexes and other ancillary buildings, surrounded by a 900-meter-long wall with twelve entrances and three bridges until its decline in the late eighteenth century.

The Fasil Ghebbi has its origins in the Ethiopian emperors’ old custom of moving around their territories, living off the produce of the peasants and sleeping in tents. This precinct was sometimes referred to as a katama (“camp” or “fortified settlement”) or makkababya, the name given to the imperial camp in the Royal Chronicle of Baeda Maryam, reflecting this relation.

The Royal Enclosure, which is enclosed by a 900-meter wall, includes a collection of churches, palaces, and monasteries, each with its own architectural style. Many of the early designs are strongly inspired by Hindu and Arabic architecture, with subsequent occupiers applying their own touches to the pre-existing structures. Later additions display Portuguese, Moorish, and Aksumite influences. Fasil Ghebbi is about 70,000 square meters in size. To the south, Adababay, Gondar’s market place, where imperial proclamations, troops were displayed, and criminals were executed, is now a city park.

Fasil Ghebbi

No one knows why this location was chosen as Ethiopia’s capital, but it was prophesied that an Ethiopian capital would be established at a location beginning with the letter G. The legend spawned a string of towns in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Guzara, Gorgora, and finally Gondar. The fortress city functioned as the center of the Ethiopian government until 1864. Twenty Palaces, royal houses, ornately decorated temples, monasteries, and other unique public and private structures have been transformed by the Baroque style introduced to Gondar by the Jesuit missionaries. Massive towers and looming battlemented walls define the main fortress, which looks like a piece of medieval Europe transplanted to Ethiopia.

Emperor Fasilidas designed Enqualal Gemb, also known as the Egg Castle because of its egg-shaped dome roof, and it is one of the most prominent structures in the compound. The Fasiladas prayer room, which towers above Enqualal Gemb and offers 360-degree views of Gondar, is located above Enqualal Gemb. Dawit’s Hall is situated in the enclosure’s northern portion, near the Bakaffa-built structure and the Asasame Qeddus Mikael church, and is known as the “House of Song.” It was described as a “substantial one-story building with a round tower at the southeast corner,” as well as traces of a smaller round tower at the northeast corner and traces of a square tower at the northwest corner, “the majority of which has collapsed.” “The regular arched windows and doorways offered light and access,” according to the building’s interior, which is a single long corridor.

Dawit’s Hall

The Palace of Iyasu, which was the first to be constructed in the city, is located to the northeast of the complex. The palace was built during the reign of Iysau I (1682-1706), the Gonderine period’s greatest monarch. Iyasu Palace was once decorated with glistening Venetian glassware and decadent gold-plated ivory artwork and is noted for its saddle form and rare vaulted ceilings. A two-story pavilion of a bathing palace associated with Emperor Fasilidas is situated outside the city’s confines to the north-west by the Qaha River. The structure is a two-story battlemented structure that sits inside and on one side of a rectangular pool of water filled by a canal from a nearby river. The bathing pavilion is built on pier arches and has many rooms linked by a stone bridge that can be raised for protection.

Fasil Ghebbi is surrounded by a curtain wall with twelve gates piercing it. The banquet hall and granary are situated to the north of Iysau’s Palace. The building was once decorated in intricate artwork, but during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia, it was sadly plastered over. The last palace on site, Mentewab’s Castle, a two-story castle that now serves as the site office, was designed by Emperor Bakaffa. Following rulers, such as Iyasu the Great, continued to build, improving the techniques and architectural style, and expanding the city to the hills north-west of the city center, in the Qusquam region. Fasil Ghebbi and the other Gondar city ruins show a remarkable interface between internal and external cultures, with cultural elements linked to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Ethiopian Jews, and Ethiopian Muslims.

Fasil Ghebbi is open Monday through Sunday from 8:30 a.m. to 17:30 p.m. It is possible to visit the Royal Enclosure in the morning or afternoon. It is often included as part of a larger city tour of Gondar, but it is the city’s main attraction. Gondar remained an important commercial and transportation center for northwest Ethiopia throughout the nineteenth century. Some of the monuments also serve a sacred function, and the surrounding landscape retains important cultural significance for the locals.

Information Sources:

  1. brilliant-ethiopia.com
  2. whc.unesco.org
  3. wikipedia
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Plants and Animals

Monogamous Lemur Brains Reveal Not All Lasting Love Works The Same

Monogamy is a rare thing in mammals, but some older romantics include certain species of bats, wolves, beavers, and leopards. Subsequent science is of particular interest because these primate species closely related to humans – cousins ​​at a distance from humans who once occupied the island of Madagascar – and can directly compare to other members of their liver family who are not exclusive. 

With this in mind, a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports has decided to investigate the brain activity of the homosexual and deceptive lemur species. In a homogeneous group, we have red-bellied and mongoose labors. Couples in this group stay together year after year, working as a team to help young people grow up and defend their territory. Bonded lemurs are easy to spot, spending a lot of time snuggling together with the tails wrapped around each other. Some of their genus pulses, however, are not as sensitive, cut and change partners as they please.

Voles proved to be a major group of animals in the understanding of monogamy, studying the brains of life partners for mates showed that they have more receptors for oxytocin and vasopressin – aka cuddle chemicals. These hormones are released during mating, and the more confident relatives of the solitary vole do not have so many receptors that they are seen to be inseparable from the lasting love between these mammals. This new research team wanted to see if male-female bonds could affected in the same way as Voles and so turned to lemurs who have more close genetic similarities with us. Using autoradiography, they mapped the mandatory sites for oxytocin and vasopressin in the brains of 12 lemons – some homogeneous, some not – that died of natural causes at the Duke Lemur Center.

When they compared their searches to the Voles Study, they noticed some significant differences. Oxytocin and vasopressin acted on labors in different parts of the brain, which may or may not change their effects on the body. As well as separated from the vultures, the brains of the solitary lemurs did not seem too separated from their neighboring relatives.”We do not see evidence of a pair-bond circuit,” Nicholas Grebe, a postdoctoral fellow at Duke University, said in a statement. “There are probably a lot of different ways in which loneliness is instantly introduced into the brain, and it depends on which animal we’re looking at. We’re going through a lot more than we originally thought.”

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Plants and Animals

Meet Elizabeth Ann, The World’s First Cloned Black-Footed Ferret

The wonder of modern technology is that scientists have been able to create clones of living things using a variety of processes. The result is a sample that made from the exact replica of the biological entity, sharing its genetic code with the letter. In the past, scientists cloned everything from cells and tissues to completely complex organisms like dolly sheep.

One of the world’s most endangered mammals – an ambitious project to increase genetic diversity among blacklegged ferrets – created a ferrite clone that died 30 years ago. The genetic material needed to make the clone sampled from a ferrite called Villa, which gave birth to her genetically identical doppelgänger, baby Elizabeth Ann.

The conservation project is collaboration between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Revive & Restore, ViaGen Pets & Equine, San Diego Zoo Global and the Association of Zoo and Aquariums. The goal is to overcome the current genetic barriers to recovering blacklegged ferrets populations, which are at risk in the future, if the surviving pools do not have adequate genetic diversity. Expansion of the gene pool with clones from a dead animal reduces the risk of reproductive health problems that often seen in offspring born of “pure-bred” dogs or females, usually in mammals when there is no other mate. Take it.

Meet Elizabeth Ann, The World’s First Cloned Black-Footed Ferret

This may sound like a sci-fi movie set-off, but when you consider that all the existing black-legged ferrets have come down from just seven people, it starts to make sense. Will, the creature created from Elizabeth Ann, as she was one of the ferrets of the black foot caught in the wild. Seriously, his descendants sit outside the world’s seven “black established ferrets,” so Will’s DNA represents a great opportunity to return some diversity to the black-crowned ferret gene pool.

Cloning alone will not reintroduce the species, but the project aims to enhance the ongoing efforts to stabilize the wild population by restoring and increasing suitable habitat for these animals. 

“The service sought the expertise of valuable recovery partners on how we can overcome the genetic limitations that hinder the recovery of black-legged ferries and we are proud to make this announcement today,” IFLScience said in a press release sent by email. Walsh is the director of the service’s Mountain-Prairie region, where the service’s national blacklegged ferry conservation center is located. “Although this study is preliminary, it is the first cloning of an endangered species in North America and it provides a promising tool for continued efforts to conserve black-legged ferrites.”