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ArchitectureHistory

A Visit To A Historical Place/Building (Eyüp Sultan Mosque, Turkey)

The Eyüp Sultan Mosque (Turkish: Eyüp Sultan Camii) is a very unique and holy mosque for the Islamic world; it is located in the district of Eyüp on Istanbul’s European side, near the Golden Horn, and outside the walls of Constantinople. The current structure dates from the early 19th century. It was the first mosque built by the Ottoman Turks after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, and it was completed in 1458. The mausoleum marks the location where Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Ebu Eyüp el-Ensari), the Islamic prophet Muhammad’s standard-bearer and companion, is said to have been buried. Sultan Mehmet II intended to construct a grand tomb to mark the site of Eyüp’s grave, which was discovered outside the city walls shortly after the Conquest. The Ottoman princes came to the mosque complex he commissioned for the Turkish equivalent of a coronation ceremony: the girding of the Sword of Osman to indicate their authority and title as padişah (king of kings) or sultan. The Eyup Sultan Mosque’s decorated dome, which measures 17.5m in diameter and is supported by two half domes, has an elegant architecture. Eyüp’s tomb is possibly more interesting than the mosque itself. It’s open Tuesday through Sunday from 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., and it’s covered in tile panels from various ages, creating a lovely, if overwhelming, effect. By the end of the 18th century, the mosque had fallen into disrepair, possibly as a result of earthquake damage, and Sultan Selim III ordered the entire building, except the minarets, to be demolished and rebuilt in 1798. In the year 1800, this project was completed. Mahmud II reconstructed the eastern minaret in the original style in 1822.

A fun leafy area to walk through is the Eyüp Cemetery, which leads up the hill from the mosque. The Ottoman princes came to the mosque complex he commissioned for the Turkish equivalent of a coronation ceremony: the girding of the Sword of Osman to indicate their authority and title as padişah (king of kings) or sultan. Eyüp Sultan is thought to have died in the 670s during the first Arab siege of Constantinople. Muslims hold his tomb in high regard. The mausoleum is located on the north side of a courtyard, directly across from the mosque’s main prayer hall entrance. Thousands of Muslims flock to the mausoleum on Fridays, which are holy days in Islam. Around the mosque and mausoleum, old trees, flocks of pigeons, praying believers, and visiting crowds create a magical and colorful atmosphere. Tiles from various periods cover the walls of the mausoleum in the courtyard. Turkey’s oldest and most sacred mosque is the Eyüp Sultan Mosque. Its style was altered several times by the Ottomans, who designed it in accordance with their own style of architecture at the time. Mimar Sinan, a well-known Ottoman architect, designed the Eyüp Sultan Mosque. Mimar Sinan was the son of either Greek or Armenian Christian parents. According to historical accounts, this district was also a holy site in Byzantine times, where people came to visit a saint’s grave and pray for rain during droughts. A variety of contrasting panels of Iznik tiles can be found on the mausoleum’s wall facing the mosque. They are from various times and were brought together during the mosque’s restoration in 1798-1799. Iznik tiles are also used to cover the walls of the mausoleum’s vestibule. They date from about 1580 and have the distinctive sealing-wax red slip. Similar tiles to those found in the vestibule can be found in a number of museums outside of Turkey; they likely once adorned the walls of the baths’ now-demolished entrance hall (camekân). The baroque mosque replaces the original, which was demolished in the 1766 earthquake, but the main draw is the türbe, a holy burial site that attracts crowds of pilgrims waiting in line to see the contents of the solid silver sarcophagus or to meditate in prayer. A panel of three blue and turquoise Iznik tiles, dated from about 1550, is housed in the British Museum and is identical to some of the ones that now adorn the shrine’s exterior wall.

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Plants and Animals

This Dried Up Bit Of Foliage Is Actually Alive, Meet The Dead Leaf Butterfly

This Dried Up Bit Of Foliage Is Actually Alive, Meet The Dead Leaf Butterfly

Camouflage is a common defense system in the animal kingdom but undoubtedly, some are better than others are perhaps one of the most impressive is the dead leaf butterfly, also known as the orange or Indian oakleaf (Kallima inachus). These fascinating and gigantic butterflies are seen migrating from India to Japan in tropical Asia and bringing about a double life. On the one hand, they are vibrant shades of blue and burnt orange with black tips and on the other, they look like dead leaves.

The striking camouflage is undoubtedly impressive, but how can anyone start as a butterfly and end up like a dry shower? In line with Church Darwin’s theory of evolution, he wrote in the Westminster Review in 1867 that the imitation these pages was researched by naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. “But the most striking and suspicious aspect of the protective similarity between butterflies that we have seen before is that of the common Indian Kallima inachis…” Exactly how the mystery of his day was.

This Dried Up Bit Of Foliage Is Actually Alive, Meet The Dead Leaf Butterfly

Recently, scientists have found evidence of four distinct intermediate forms of KM Inches before this method of camouflage was developed. Over time, these butterflies saw small changes in their wings, as well as 45 closely related species, and they were able gradually gather the most complete evidence of the introduction of a means of mimicking evolution. They found that multiple related species shared a rough plan on their wings, suggesting that duplicates of the leaves too inherited across all species.

“Leaf mimics in butterfly wings provide an interesting example of complex adaptive features and create speculation about how wing patterns develop close resemblance to leaves from ancestral forms that do not resemble leaves,” the study authors wrote. “The types of leaf imitations are slowly changing, suddenly, evolving from mimetic [no imitative] ancestors. Through a lineage of Kallima butterflies, leaf patterns emerged through the temporary collection of orchestrated changes of multiple pattern elements.

The common baron caterpillar (Euthalia aconthea) is a similarly skilled camouflage critic native to India and Southeast Asia. Instead of dead leaves, E. aconthea blends seamlessly with the yellow, green leaves. Little larvae live solitary lives on top of mangoes and cashews while hiding from simple sightings from predators. When the baron showed off his great invisible work, the monkey slag caterpillar (Phobetron perithecium) really said, “Hold my beer” for fear hanging and to dress likes a tarantula. The larvae themselves are not dangerous; they feed on most trees and shrubs and do not sting their hair despite widespread misconceptions (as opposed to this walking-hat for caterpillars). The amazingly sized and strange creature, unfortunately, left out of the ugly breath effect, as after pupation it evolved into a hug moth that looked like a fluffy turd.

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Plants and Animals

Oldest Cave Art In Australia Has Been Found And – Of Course – It’s A Kangaroo

The oldest known indigenous rock painting has identified in Australia and – not surprisingly – it is a kangaroo painting. These studies detailed in a new study published today in the journal Nature Human Behavior. Researchers are currently researching a treasure trove of rock art found at eight rock art sites in the Kimberley area of ​​Western Australia. This art gallery includes animals depicting snakes, a lizard-like figure, and murals of various colors, including three macropods (the iconic family of marsupials, including kangaroos, wallabies, and quokkas). 

Together with the site’s aboriginal Traditional Historian owners, scientists at the University of Melbourne set out to set the date for the artwork in an effort to unravel a more detailed timeline of this creative activity. However, determining the dates in these paintings is not an easy feat, since ancient aboriginal artists often painted using ocher pigments made from iron oxide, which cannot easily dated because they contain no organic matter. To overcome this obstacle, the researchers leaned towards a knowledgeable tested and tested method: instead of dating the painting, they wrote down the remains of ancient mud waste houses that had painted. By dating the waste houses above and below the painting, the kangaroo national artwork dated 17,500 to 17,100 years ago, making it one of the oldest painted figures in Australia.

Oldest Cave Art In Australia Has Been Found And – Of Course – It’s A Kangaroo

“This has turned the painting into one of Australia’s most famous in-situ paintings,” said Dr. Krishna Kumar, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Melbourne and lead author of the study. Damien Finch said in a statement. The kangaroo painted on the opal ceiling of a rock shelter on the Unghango Group Estate in the Balanggarra country in the Kimberley region of northeastern Western Australia. In addition to its significant age, the style of painting also attracted the attention of researchers. Its life-size scale and subjects are typical of the irregular infill animal or naturalist period. As the researchers explained, it gives some valuable insights into the culture of those who painted this piece and even raises the possibility that old works may still be in Australia.

“This is a significant discovery in this initial hypothesis. We can understand something about the world in which these ancient artists lived. We never understand what the artist thought when he painted this work for more than 600 generations. Previously, but we know that the naturalist period extended into the last ice age, so the environment was cooler and drier than it is today,”Dr. Finch explained. “This iconic kangaroo image is visually identical to the paintings of the islands of Southeast Asia more than 40,000 years ago, suggesting a cultural link – and pointing to the still old rock art in Australia,” added Dr Sven Ouzman, one of the project’s organizers. The University is the lead investigators at the Western Australian School of Social Sciences.

Multiple old decorative images have rediscovered in recent times beyond Australia. Just last month, archaeologists emerged as the oldest metaphorical work of art created by the human body: a 45,500-year-old doodle of a fat-pig.

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ArchitectureHistory

A Visit To A Historical Place/Building (Kalenderhane Mosque, Turkey)

Kalenderhane Mosque (Turkish: Kalenderhane Camii), like Hagia Sophia, Zeyrek Mosque (Pantokrator Monastery), and Fethiye Mosque, is a Byzantine church in Istanbul, Turkey, that was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. (Pammakaristos Church). The church was most likely dedicated to the Theotokos Kyriotissa at the time of its building. The structure is also known as Kalender Haneh Jamissi and St. Mary Diaconissa. Despite the discrepancy between the Kalenderhane Mosque and the Monastery of Mary Kyriotissa as described in Byzantine sources, scholars have identified the building as the Church of the Monastery of Mary Kyriotissa based on two frescoes of Mary with the inscription Kyriotissa. Their conclusion also differs from the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Istanbul’s previous identification of the structure as the Church of the Monastery of Christ Akataleptos. This structure is one of only a few surviving Byzantine churches with a domed Greek cross plan. The Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa was built in the twelfth century during the Komnenian Dynasty on top of a fifth or sixth-century Roman bath complex and served as a Greek Orthodox Byzantine church until 1453. Following Constantinople’s conquest in 1453, the church was given to the Kalenderi Dervishes, who used it as a zaviye (Islamic religious school) and imaret (soup kitchen). Despite the fact that the structure has been restored several times due to fires in the late nineteenth century, it continues to function as a mosque. The Greek Cross plan of the Kalenderhane Mosque is supported by a dome within sixteen ribs. The structure’s medium is typical middle Byzantine architecture, which is a combination of brick and stone masonry layers.

Central dome of Kalenderhane Mosque

The mosque is situated at the western end of the existing section of the Aqueduct of Valens (Bozdogan Kemeri), with the aqueduct offset slightly to the south. The current church was built during the late Comnenian Dynasty (1081-1185), incorporating remains of earlier structures built on the site, including a 4th or 5th century private bath, two basilicas predating the iconoclastic era (717-867), and an unfinished 8th century church, according to Kuban and Striker’s field research. The original marble decoration of the structure is still surviving similar as Hagia Sophia and Chora Museum. The church was used as a Roman Catholic Church by the Catholic Crusaders after the Latin Conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusader in 1204, and they adorned the southern chapel of the church with frescoes depicting the life of St. Francis. The only wall mosaic panel from pre-Iconoclast Constantinople is a mosaic panel depicting “the Presentation of Christ,” which was discovered on the apsidal wall of one of the basilicas. The church was used by Catholics during the Latin invasion, according to frescoes found in a diaconicon chapel portraying the life of St. Francesco, the oldest surviving depictions of the saint. Before the Ottoman conquest, the church was surrounded by monastery buildings, none of which survived the Ottoman era. Hacı Beşir Ağa (d. 1747), the Kizlar Ağası of the Topkap Palace, completed the conversion of the building into a mosque in 1746 by constructing a mihrab, minbar, and mahfil. The mosque was reconstructed after being destroyed by fire and earthquakes in 1855 and again between 1880 and 1890. After the minaret collapsed due to lightning and the Medrese was destroyed in the 1930s, it was abandoned. The above-mentioned renovation by Kuban and Striker has restored the original features of the Comnenian church, the 18th-century mihrab, and the minaret, enabling the monument to continue to be used as a mosque.

Interior view of Kalenderhane Mosque

The structure features a central Greek Cross plan with deep barrel vaults over the arms and a 16-ribbed dome. With alternating layers of brick and stone masonry, the building has a typical middle Byzantine brickwork. On the west side, there is an esonarthex and an exonarthex (added much later). Following the Latin attack, the side entrances from the inner narthex were blocked. The upper gallery to the inner narthex was probably demolished during the 1854 restoration, and windows were opened on the northern façade within the grand arch that had been blocked by the gallery. The sanctuary is on the east side, but the restored mihrab and minbar are in a corner to achieve proper Mecca alignment. Prothesis and diakonikon, two small chapels typical of Byzantine churches from the middle and late ages, have survived. The north and south aisles flanking the nave were both demolished at this time, and neither was restored during the 1966 restoration; the triple arches that once linked the nave to the aisles now form the lower tier of windows on the north and south façades. The church’s interior decoration, which includes exquisite colored marble panels and moldings, as well as elaborated icon frames, is mostly intact. The mosque of Kalenderhane is one of the most significant architectural examples of a domed Greek cross church from the Byzantine middle period, alongside the Gül Mosque in Istanbul, the Church of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki, and the Church of the Dormition in (Koimesis) in Iznik (Nicaea). The non-extant iconostasis, which rose to the level of the vaults, is commemorated in two intricate icon frames on the piers flanking the sanctuary. The church’s original decoration, which consists of polychrome marble revetments and moldings, has been preserved to a large degree. The minaret rises from the southwest corner of the church and was also restored during the 1966 renovation. The structure has two distinct characteristics, both of which are unique in Istanbul: a one-meter-square mosaic representing the “Presentation of Christ,” the city’s only pre-iconoclastic exemplar of a religious theme, and a cycle of thirteenth-century frescoes depicting the life of Saint Francis of Assisi (found in a chapel at the southeast corner of the building and painted during the Latin domination). These have been partly restored and are now on display in Istanbul’s Archaeological Museum. Other discoveries from the 1966 expedition are on display in a small museum in the Kalenderhane Mosque’s diaconicon.

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