Permeability of Concrete Made of Brick Chips

Broad purpose of this report is to analysis Permeability of Concrete Made of Brick Chips. Brick aggregate is broadly used all over Bangladesh for construction function. Other objectives are to identify the behavior of concrete under water pressure for various types of aggregates and to compare permeability of concrete prepared from brick and stone aggregate. This report also focus on to establish a relationship between the strength and penetrability of concrete. Finally identify the parameters that affect the permeability and identify relative importance of different aggregates that affect permeability.


Report on Single Phase Inverter

Main purpose of this report is to analysis Single Phase Inverter. This report describes a controller signal for single phase inverter, that’s used to convert DC in order to AC voltage. Inverter normally comes having various techniques of switching according to the application as in emergency lighting systems, AC varying speed drives, uninterrupted energy supplies and frequency converters. This sort of techniques include pulse breadth modulation, modified sinusoidal pulse breadth modulation and sinusoidal beat width modulation as found in this report.


Report on Generation of Electricity by Wind Energy

Main purpose of this project is to analysis Generation of Electricity by Wind Energy. Wind energy is available naturally and is considerable. Looking towards nature to create energy is needed so as to power future homes as well as countries. The objective of the work is simply to produce a full fledged practical treatment for renewable energy where it could be used where there is low wind flow. Report also focus on the wind turbine blades, the orientation, and blade composition. Advantaged and Disadvantages of the HAWT and VAWT turbines are discussed in detail.


Report on Criminal Information System for Bangladesh

Major principle of this Project Report is to analysis the Criminal Information System for Bangladesh through  redundant use of Data Warehousing and DSS. This system is developed to manage the crime and criminal related data of a police station and maintain a systematic database for the particular purpose. This project proves to be soulfully user-friendly as no time needs to be wasted by the user for taking any through training about this software.


Report on Automatic Fan Controller Based on Temperature

The main objective of this report is to build and examine the automatic temperature controlled motor speed, here focus on Automatic Fan Controller Based on Temperature. Other objectives are to know the circuit and determine how the different parts of the circuit function together to make the automatic temperature controlled motor speed. Here also familiar with the use of design and simulation tools in the design process. For this project the design and simulation of the FM Voice Transmitter circuit is using the Or CAD Capture CIS Software.

EEE Modern Civilization

Mobile Phone Effect on Youth in Bangladesh


The main concept of this study is to investigate effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh. The study starts reviewing the existing related literature and advances to construct its methodological portion and sets the various techniques of data collection Such as interview schedule, guide line for case study to provide a sociological approach .than it formulates the conceptual frame work  of the study. It is evident from this study that mobile phone effects on youth in Bangladesh. It is seem from the study, with the help of mobile phone social and personal life patterns of youth is changing. Often the smallest technological advances create the largest social impacts. Technology impacts the developing world in great ways because the contrast it has to the developed world. Mobile technology is no longer a new one. Companies and governments already know the opportunities that the mobile technology has created in the developing world, because the lack of technology and communication, the developing worlds are unable to participate in the global scenario and its benefits. This paper argues that mobile phones are quickly becoming an affordable, useful and accessible tool to young generation around the country and strengthen social networks. Teen-ager and young also negative impact on family relation in Bangladesh is remarkable negative impact of mobile phone uses. There is a direct correlation between mobile phones and poverty alleviation.

 In this paper we will focus the effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh using Various data collected through questionnaire, published source, internet etc. The data for this paper have been collected both from primary and secondary sources of information.

Considering the research objectives, the study use to both quantitative and qualitative, at one hand it gives a statistical analysis and on the other hand it also presents us with impetrative analysis by using qualitative method.


Mobile phone has dramatically changed peoples’ social and communication behavior use telephones. The land telephone line restricted the user’s accessibility to phone and also abilities to move around while talking and telephones were usually located in areas away from and more or less isolated from other activities. After the introduction of Cell Phone in Bangladesh in 1993, today, we see people use in mobile phone all kinds of situations, to public places such as in the streets, on the bus, in shops, restaurants, public theaters, offices, at work as well as leisure, while attending seminars, alone as well as together with others. There are over six nation-wide independently owned cell phone companies competing for business. As of March, 2011 there are 70.963 million mobile phone subscribers in

Bangladesh (BTRC). Expansion of cell phone has an impact on our behavior. Mobile phone users often perform cell phone conversations in combination with multiple other activities and simultaneously with other social interactions. This study was undertaken with the objective to understand why people use cell phone in a range of situations and identify the impact of expansion of cell phone on interpersonal communication and behavior change.

Statement of the problem

 Mobile phones have dramatically changed the way people communicate. Traditionally, telephone conversations were restricted to relatively fixed locations. The land telephone lines restricted the user’s abilities to move around while talking and telephones were usually located in areas away from and more or less isolated from other activities. The locations of the telephone in private homes and offices have also been regulated by norms and traditions, balancing the benefits of a central location with the comfort of having the phone conversation away from the noise and disturbance of other activities. The mobile phone have brought telephone conversations out from these designated areas of traditional fixed line telephones, and into the huge variety of social situations and settings people take part in. Today, we see people use cell phones in all kinds of situations, to public places such as in the streets, on the bus, in shops, restaurants, public theaters, offices, at work as well as leisure, while attending seminars, alone as well as together with others. Bangladesh is one of the few countries in the world that can guarantee each one of its residents can get a cell phone signal – no matter where they are in the country with a population of over 150 million. There are over six nation-wide independently owned cell phone companies competing for business. Bangladesh’s six cell phone carriers added 2.05 million new subscribers in January,2009 making the total number of user to 36.4 million in the one of the world’s fastest growing mobile market, official data showed. Expansion of mobile phone has an impact on our behavior especially on youth behavior. Mobile phone users often perform Mobile phone conversations in combination with multiple other activities and simultaneously with other social interactions. Rather than being a one-to-one interaction between the two telephone speakers, mobile phone conversations often involve other persons in the speaker’s local context. Today, a mobile phone is not merely a tool which enables us to make phone calls and send text messages or pictures. It can process, store, and output/input complex and diverse information. For instance, the functions the Apple phone has: Multimedia, Internet connectivity, Web accessibility, E-mail, etc. It is also time consuming and cost effecting to us. There is no doubt that many find mobile phone highly useful, and appreciate the flexibility and accessibility they represent. However, the use of cell phones may also be experienced as annoying and disturbing, and even perceived as improper behavior in many social situations. The problem of cell phone disturbance in public spaces has mainly been treated as a social phenomenon related to norms of social behavior in the various social settings.

The general argument being that cell phone usage may challenge the social norms of behavior of the social setting, and/or that specific norms of mobile phone usage have yet to be established. While the performance and cost of current new cell phone functionalities, or call services, are not yet completely satisfying no one can deny that a new age is coming – the age that belongs to the mobile phone. Now it is being a prestige issue without having mobile phone.

 In today’s world nearly everyone has access to a mobile phone. How people use Mobile phones is an interesting topic of young generation. It is related to how mobile phones will be designed in the future and how to apply information technology to our quality of life. Thus, the answers to these questions may inspire thoughts towards the effects of Mobile phones.

Rationale of the Study

Mobile phones have become a mainstream product in today’s world and have a huge impact on today’s world. With youth population constituting almost half of the population, Bangladesh has become a fine breeding ground for higher mobile connections. When mobile phones hit the high street over 10 years ago, not only did it give us the ability to communicate with friends, family and colleagues anytime and anywhere, but along the way it has also changed our social behavior and has made a huge cultural impact. It is the easiest way to stay connected with family and friends and also provides security, like updating our parents where we are if it gets late to go home. It helps to socialize, creates a sense of belonging to peer group and easy access to media and environment. Apart from its regular use, cell phones express individual identities. Right from the model we buy till the ring tone and wallpaper set, every minute detail is noted. On the contrary, cell phones have also made people introvert, that is, mobile phone has some dangerous effects. And in this case, youth of our society are the most vulnerable portion. Different mobile phone companies are trapping our youth society through offering some attractive but deceptive packages.

In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages. They are losing the essence of their profession/studies. They are derailing and deviating themselves. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. Their minds are becoming stagnant and static. Creativity and innovation is blocked by the consistent telephonic conversations spread. They are losing their interest towards the interactions and sociality. Alienation is increasing within small community or groups of people. In one room four roommates are strangers to one another. They never try to tie up the relation because they don’t have a pinch of time. By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health. Due to spending whole nights the absenteeism is skyrocketing in every profession. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents. They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents. They are traveling towards the lone parent family system in which one is not accountable to anyone and he is the only decision maker. Such kind of behavior is leading towards the social fragmentation and terrible decline of moral values in which respect is core one. They are crossing the restraints and limitations, very essential for the well integrated society.

Due to the bogus projection of the companies their effectiveness and determination is diminishing if we put a furtive glimpse on the chart of protests and rallies conducted against the negative policies, the ratio of youth’ contribution is at minor level and seems vanished because they have engrossed in making affairs and spending their potential and energy to locate the suitable packages.

Thus the young people of our society have been under a great threat due to the impact of using mobile phone. Though it is a fact of great concern for us, there do not have enough studies regarding this subject. Therefore, this study will be an effort to explore the devastating impact of mobile phone on our youth society.

The Objectives of the Study:

Broad objectives

The broad objective of the study is to understand why people use mobile phone in a range of situations and identify the impact and effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh.  

Specific objectives

  1. To explore the changing pattern of behavior of youth
  2. To identify the communicative practices of young mobile phone users.
  3. To assess the perception of an adaptation of social norms
  4. To introduce the user comprehension of mobile telephony technology.

Literature review

Pamela (2000) has discussed with different sectors in which cell phones have a great impact on today’s youth. Here, at first she has discussed with the educational sector. According to her, cell phones allow kids to text quiz answers, take pictures and videos of problem-solving methods for tests and leave voice messages detailing classroom pop quizzes and other events that otherwise would not spread by word of mouth in one day. A ban on cell phones in schools is not the answer, as a phone set to silent or vibrate mode may easily go unnoticed by teachers. Then she has discussed with fact of Sexing. The newest thing to hit young cell phone users today is sexing. Verbal texts, pictures or videos can be sent out to an entire contact list in seconds. Those kids that receive it in turn send it out and within an hour, potentially detrimental sexual material has been spread to a massive audience. Many kids can be hurt if pictures or texts that they think are going to one person are spread around to others. Pamela has also expressed her concern on the role of mobile phone in occurring an accident. Young cell phone users know how to text while driving. They can talk on the phone or text and drive on the streets and highways without regard to the potential danger. Car accidents involving cell phones and youth have increased.

The discussion made by Pamela in this article would certainly be an important one to study the impact of mobile phone on the youth of Bangladesh. But the discussion might have lacked some positive impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

A research conducted by Market Analysis and Consumer Research Organisation in the title of “ Study of mobile phone usage Among the teenagers and Youth in Mumbai ” (2004). In this study an effort has been provided to learn about the attitude of teenagers and youth ,age group 15-30 years, towards cellular phones. The study tends to examine the way young people relate to the functionality of mobile phones as well as asses observable phenomena. It also discusses with the different usage patterns of mobile phone in age-wise or gender wise. In all, the research was conducted in an attempt to replicate the study in an Indian context in order to arrive at the current trends, especially in metros like Mumbai where mobile telephony seems to have made an immense impact.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone on the youth but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Kheifets (2001) warned, however, that there were other possible explanations, including that mothers who were frequently on the phone through pregnancy might continue the pattern after birth, spending less time with their babies.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone on the pregnant women but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

 This study was performed by Nahid r.ghorbani and rosemarie n.heidari(2004) Effects of Information and Communication Technology on Youth’s Health Knowledge.The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives. The study tends to examine the way young people relate to using it and become addicted .

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed health knowledge and effects of it but but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

A research conducted by John-Harmen Valk , Ahmed T. Rashid ( 2006) conducted  by the analysis the title Using Mobile Phones to Improve Educational Outcomes evidence of the role of mobile phone-facilitated Learning in contributing to improved educational outcomes in the developing countries of Asia by exploring the results of that took place in the  Thailand, India, and Bangladesh. In particular, this article examines the extent to which the use of mobile phones helped to improve educational outcomes in Bangladesh. Analysis of the projects indicates that while there is important evidence of mobile phones facilitating increased access, much less evidence exists as to how mobiles promote new learning.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone for Improve Educational outcomes. But has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Johansson(2003)  has studied the effects of mobile phones, Wifi etc on humans since over 20 years and finds the evidence are compelling about Professor Johansson finds that the brain tumor issue is a minor thing compared to many other harmful effects. While brain tumors affect a small percentage other serious effects, affect the whole population including genetic damage, sleep disturbances, reduced learning capacity, concentration difficulties and psychological problems and serious hazards.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed, concentration difficulties and psychological problems and serious hazards. But the discussion might have lacked some positive impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Defining the concept of “Effects of mobile phone on youth”

Mobile phones have an important function in many people’s daily lives and it’s hard for us to imagine curtailing our dependence on them. Therefore, it might not be advisable to ban your child’s mobile phone, which could lead to social isolation. The goal is to establish healthy habits. Time spent on mobile phones, while useful and fun, is time not spent focusing on other important activities, such as studying, working, and improving mental and physical health.

It’s important to recognize that although mobile phones provide us with the ability to seek social contact and feedback at any hour of the day, it might be a worthwhile idea to spend time “offline” and to realize that our time might be well spent alone. In the same vein, parents might rely to heavily on mobile phone to communicate with their children, contacting them too much, in the place of a face to face conversation

Many young today have their own mobile phones to use for social, family, and professional purposes. Mobile phones are equipped to send/receive phone calls and text messages. “Smart” phones or PDAs and other devices also enable you to access the Internet, take/send photos/videos, play games, listen to music, use a calculator, alarm clock, and calendar, not to mention the thousands of apps that offer a growing array of services.

Many teens use a mobile phone as a part of a family plan, where the bill is sent to one person in a household or family. However, teens are able to procure their own mobile phones without committing to a contract by purchasing a prepaid phone.

Positive effects of mobile phone on youth

In economic sector, the aggregation of the supply-side, demand side and intangible benefits provide an indication of the total economic impact of mobile communications in Bangladesh. The total impact of mobile communications on Gross Domestic Product .

contribute to employment via several avenues:

 direct employment of the industry and related industries; support employment created by outsourced work And taxes that the government subsequently spends on employment generating activities; and Induced employment resulting from the above employees and beneficiaries spending their earnings, and creating more employment .the estimated that in aggregate, including direct and indirect employment for the related industries, dividing the proportion of

Revenue spent on wages by the average wage rate in each sector. , representing our view of the relative open-news of the Bangladeshi economy.

The internationally acclaimed Village Phone Program with the help of Village Phone operators is providing telecommunication services in the Village Phone Program is a unique initiative to provide telecommunications facilities in remote, rural areas all over Bangladesh. Some 75 percent of the operators are women. The Village Phones have proventheir immense potential in boosting income of poor households in rural areas, promoting health care, development of agri-business and in the social empowerment of rural women.They have created a “phone culture” among women by enabling their access to communication tools from which they might otherwise be excluded. They have also shown that poor, largely uneducated women can master the skills and run a small business. Women phone operators have achieved economic and social empowerment within their households and communities.

There are a number of ways that mobile services can promote cohesion in families and society. For example, a cheap mobile service allows families and communities to remain as a coherent unit when family members are away for long periods. In cases where a family member is abroad either

Temporarily or permanently it allows the family unit .

In Bangladesh, it is common for mobile phone owners to use them for the benefit of those with low levels of education and literacy,. The same study found that owners are more likely to have higher incomes whilst users are more likely to have lower incomes. The operators in Bangladesh recognize the importance of broadening the accessibility of their services

Access to data services encourages local content, allowing users to learn about local services such as healthcare, agri service,as well as their general standard of education and knowledge in current affairs. Access to data services allows organizations to provide basic information such as protection against dangerous conditions such as avian influenza and other diseases, surgery times and how to obtain vaccinations. Mobile communications provide these capabilities To all sectors of society, whilst fixed services do not. In developing countries, fixed services are generally only available to wealthy individuals and corporations. Given an appropriate policy regime, mobile services can be extended to

all the whole population.

Mobile services dramatically improve access to emergency Services, which would otherwise only be available the wealthy.It also allows families to stay in touch with each other in the event of natural disasters, communicate with relief providers and obtain information that will allow them to obtain more rapid relief. A recent study “The Roles of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies” into the use of mobile phones in disaster relief used network data and other evidence to try to understand how people used mobile phones in extreme circumstances. The research identified

that mobile phones are used in the following many situations:like,Early warnings, Disaster management,  Immediate after math,  Recovery and rebuilding

One of the most consistent messages to emerge was the benefit of the timely spread of information in response to a disaster. The research found that while mobiles are only one element of a whole array of communications, they are especially effective at diffusing information rapidly to where it is most urgently needed. Particularly important is the superior resilience of mobile compared with fixed networks and the ability to install new capacity very quickly where needed.

 As one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy, mobile operators have taken steps to promote social responsibility, the education and welfare of communities and employees.

-Maintaining interpersonal communication. Using cell phoneincreasing social communication and spread one’s circle of acquaintance. especially  who want to optimize use of their time agree that using cell phone help in increasing proficiency in efficient delivery of responsibilities and goods.

Using mobile phone enriches their information and use internet option.Carrying cell phone gives a feeling of security which is especially supported by women .

Negative effects of mobile phone on youth

People were done up and vexed with internet but due to  cellular technology all gaps have been bridged for the destruction of youth.

The telecommunication companies in our country have been inclined towards introducing new and attractive packages for youth .

I think All necessary and normal interactions can be dealt with during daytime but the companies offer the packages that start after end of family or business communication. My feeling is that these packages are more likely to spoil and ravage our youth than to do anything else. Except on very urgent occasions ordinarily no one would like to talk after midnight

In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages. They are losing the essence of their profession/studies. They are derailing and deviating themselves. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. Their minds are becoming stagnant and static. Creativity and innovation is blocked by the consistent telephonic conversations spread over the whole of night.

They are losing their interest towards the interactions and sociality. Alienation is increasing within small community or groups of people. In one room four roommates are strangers to one another. They never try to tie up the relation because they don’t have a pinch of time.

By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health.

Due to spending whole nights the absenteeism is skyrocketing in every profession. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents.

They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents. They are traveling towards the lone parent family system in which one is not accountable to anyone and he is the only decision maker. Such kind of behavior is leading towards the social fragmentation and terrible decline of moral values in which respect is core one.

Role of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh

Mobile phone use has several potential costs: financial, academic, social, and health.

Aside from using more minutes than allocated in your mobile phone plan, extra text messages (both sent and received) can quickly add to your bill.

Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. Schools set restrictions because of the use of mobile phones for cheating on tests, harassing other people, causing threats to the schools security, and facilitating gossip and other social activity in school.

Some teens and young text message so much that they have developed physical symptoms, Texting Teen and Tendonitis. So much texting can lead to pain in the hands, back and neck soreness from poor posture while texting, impaired vision, and, possibly, many years down the line, to arthritis.

One study found that teenagers who excessively use their mobile phone are more prone to disrupted sleep, restlessness, stress and fatigue.  Another found that mobile phone addiction can result in psychological disorders.

Because mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation, concerns have been raised about cancer risks that may pose when used for long periods of time. The current consensus view of the scientific and medical communities is that health effects are very unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations. At the same time, cellular phones became widely available only relatively recently, while tumors can take decades to develop. For this reason, some health authorities have urged that the precautionary principle be observed, recommending that use and proximity to the head be minimized, especially by children.

Conceptual frame work

Mobile phone is an important medium of communication. Nowadays Accompanying cell phone gives a feeling of security. Using of mobile phone maintain interpersonal communication and build proficiency. Now it is found in every ones hand in our country. For Using cell phone increasing social communication and people can enrich knowledge.

However with all merits, a mobile phone has some negative effects too. Social harassment is increasing through excessive using of cell phone. Sometimes

Factor contributing in increasing incidence of social disturbance and eve teasing due to mobile phone. Tendency of telling lie is increasing for using mobile phone. Specially the habit of Preference of unnecessary talking over night and develop complicacy in personal/family relation affected much. Excessive using of cell phone cause health hazard to the users.

Operational definition

Mobile Phone: Wireless phones which brought conversations out from designated areas of traditional fixed line telephones, and into the huge variety of social situations and settings people use it/.

Youth: a period between child hood and adult age. The qualities of energy, freshness, immaturity etc. associated with being young.

presentation and analysis of case study

Case study 1

Ms. Shirin Afroz (28) working in an NGO for last two years. She is from Chittagong and living at Dhaka with her husband. She was involved in Red Crescent Society as a volunteer in 2003 while she was student. As a part of assignment she joined a seminar in Dhaka arranged by Red Crescent Society in which participants from different districts attended. During the seminar Ms. Shirin introduced with Mr. Zakaria who was from

Narshindhi and they exchange their address and phone number. Gradually they shared all about their personal and family affairs via cell phone. According to her opinion, day by day interpersonal communication and mental dependency between each other increased. After a long sharing they mutually decided to get married and accordingly did so.

Case study 2

Ms. Rafayet Ara is a housewife and involve in a cooperative society where all 40 members are female. Most of the society members are small and medium handicraft garments entrepreneur. Earlier they directly interacted with the customer and ship owners to receive selling order. Hence, they had to invest a lot of time to convince the customer. As a result they could not provide much more time to increase their production level. But when they started to use the cell phone they communicated quickly with the customer and received order from them. Gradually their business area

Expanded. Presently all entrepreneurs are able to provide more time to increase their production level.

Case study 3

Ms. Ferzana Nargis (33) is working in an NGO using the cell phone for last 10 years. She said that cell phone make easier to communicate with the friends. When she completed SSC examination some of her close friends got admitted in different colleges of Dhaka city. Therefore she couldn’t communicate with all of them. 15 years later, suddenly one of her friend called her. At first Ms. Ferzana could not recognize that person but after a while she recalled that the caller is her childhood friend. Therefore

they started to communicate in a regular interval. At present they meet each other in different social occasion and share about their family life.

Case study 4

Mrs. Huq received a miss call from an unknown person. She called back and told the caller that this is not the CP of the person he is trying to reach. In spite of that the caller continue to bother her with miss calls. Mrs. Huq’s daughter saved the number as “disturb” so that she can avoid the miss call.

Case study 5

Shahana (35) is a homemaker. Her daughter Lima is studying in a local college. She regularly goes out of home to attend the classes in the college. A few days back Shahana received a call from Farhana’s class friend enquiring why she is not attending the college for last five days. Although surprised, she avoided to reply her. But she was

worried and called Lima to know where she is. Lima replied angrily “Why, I am in theclass”. Shahana could feel that she is lying, but she had no way to check it.

Case study 6

Hossain is a businessman. His wife Mily comes from a large extended family. She is also very social. As such, she receives and makes lots of call daily. Some time even at night she is talking with someone over mobile phone. This irritates her husband. As such there is often conflict between them.

Findings of the study

Reason for use of  mobile phone:

Most of the respondents said that they use mobile phone to keep contact with others. In addition the students use mobile phone  to keep themselves informed about study and business people to maintain business related contact, use mobile phone also for safety. make and receive calls mostly from guardians and relatives by Students

Number of calls made and Expense:

Around two third of the total respondents said that daily approximate dialed call is 10 and below which includes mostly homemakers, students and service holders. Among businessman, half of them said daily approximate dialed call varies between 11 to 20. Most of the students and

homemakers spend between Tk.300/- to Tk. 1000/- monthly. Businessman generally spend more money for payment of cell phone calls. Most of the respondents do not agree that cell phone expense curtails the demands of everyday need and expense for  mobile phone is wastage.

Benefits of mobile phone:

Respondents from all categories highly support the statement that facilitates in maintaining interpersonal communication. Large number of respondents agree that using cell phone increasing social communication and spread one’s circle of acquaintance. Most of the respondents especially service holders and business people who want to optimize use of their time agree that using cell phone help in increasing proficiency in efficient delivery of responsibilities and goods. Also the respondents in the categories of student, business man and service holders agree that using  Mobile phone enriches their information and knowledge base. Among homemakers half of them did not agree to this, most probably because few of them use internet

option. Most of the respondents think that carrying cell phone gives a feeling of security which is especially supported by homemaker and business people. Home makers being women are more susceptible to insecure environment. They are also anxious about security of their children and spouse. Business people handling cash may also use mobile phone for safety measures.

Pattern of Mobile phone use:

The respondents are mostly get annoyed when some one around talk through  in Mobile phone loud voice and also conscious about not to do the same when they are using . Mobile phone Only some businessman said they are not that concerned about whether people around gets annoyed or not. To avoid unnecessary calls respondents generally do not pick up the Mobile phone and some of them cut off the line. A few of the respondents including students use call block option.

Behavioral effect:

The respondents in general supported that there are some amount of moral degradation due to

increased use of Mobile phone which includes enhancement in:

1. Tendency of telling lies;

2. Watching pornography;

3. Public discloser of personal and confidential information/ photograph

4. Habit of unnecessary talking

5. Annoying people through unnecessary miss call and eve teasing.

6. Indecent behavior in public place

Considerable percentage of homemakers and service holders considers calling people after midnight is interference of personal time of others. Whereas student and businessmen do not consider this as improper. However, along with home maker, service holder, most of the business man do not prefer to use mobile to call late at night. Only certain percentage of student like to use discount call offered by Mobile phone companies to make late night calls

Result of the study

Depending on the data collected from the field, various analyses have done by using SPSS and the results are shown in the tabular format. In our analysis there are 100 respondents and

their demography shows in the Table 1-7. Most  of the respondents age is 15-25  and 26-35 years which are 33 and 30 percent of the total respondent. This is assumed that the study was conducted with 52percent female and 48 percent male respondent. Among the participants most of the respondents are student and employee which are 38 and 26 percent of the total respondents. Every participant recently appeared in Secondary School Certificate examination and some are doing graduation which is 38 and 29 percent of total respondents.

 This is Assumed that all participants deserve Muslim values, which are 87 percent of total respondents. . Among the participants’ 48 percent respondents are married and 49 percent are single. And it is seem that is  39 percent respondent’s income is in the range of 501-15000 taka. and 15001-50000 taka constitutes by 36 percent respondents

Among all respondent.40 percent respondents  using mobile phone 6-10 years. And 20 percent respondents using mobile phone more than 20 years

 Out of 100 responses 44 percent  respondents have GP connections and 24 percent have Banglalink . It is visible from the table 14 that, only 14 percent respondents change their phone number frequently, while 86 percent respondents did not change their phone number frequently. Fifty seven percent respondents using first mobile phone on the age of 21-35 .Among total respondents65 percent  respondent said that they use mobile phone to keep contact with others which is general equally shared by all categories of respondent. . On the other hand respondents who mentioned use mobile phone for safety, which is followed by students (23%). Twenty eight percent respondent use more than one mobile to separate family and buissness life.

All the respondents uniformly said that they use general calls. All of the respondents  44 percent respondent use internet service of mobile phone. according to the percentage of 100 percent respondents among 100 respondents think that the rate of using mobile phone has now increased than before. Eighty five percent respondent  said that the reason of increasing is for communication. 56 percent respondents  said that they used to maintain mobile phone to store name and address.some of them are stored music ,pictures. among all repondents 51 respondents response their souce of recreation is TV. And 19 percent response on mobile. Tecnology are highly appreciated because it is not only Time consuming and complex work can be done quickly and easy and for is said by most of the respondent.

 most of the respondents expend 3 hours over phone. It is said by 49 percent responded. Only 6 percent responded expend time more than 3 hours over phone40 percent responded sleeps early in night. But most of the people sleep late night. It is said by 60 percent responded. 45 percent respondent want to prefer talk over night.and 25percent respondents think that because of mobile phone they feel any health problem. They all know that excess of talking usage might causes hearing problem but they all prefer it to use.Out of  all respondents it is said by all  in increasing incidence of social disturbance due to mobile phone. most of the responded they switch the ring off, it is said by 74 percent responded. Five percent responded said that switch the phone off. Most of the respondent’s opinion is public harassment. It is said by 64 percent responded, while 12 percent responded thinks that sector of misuse is eve teasing. fourteen percent responded said the crime is sector of misuse and only 10 percent opinion is unnecessary use is sector of misuse. and increased incidence of telling lie through cell phone (40%) has been rated high. All respondents’ observed that some people impulsively tell lies whenever they use cell phone the most of the respondents facing unnecessary calls. it is said by 44 percent respondents. On the other hand, 14 percent respondents facing excessive consciousness of parents.seventy six percent respondents are conscious about using mobile phone  consciousness increasedSixty three percent responded think that by media,while13percent believe that by family member. All respondent 74 percent having not any restriction for using finds out that the reason of not having full control of respondents.78 percent respondents think that because of communication Fifty two percent respondents youth should control of using mobile phone ,whereas 48 percent respondent view is not like that. respondents 87 percent respondents are agreed with the statement that government should be taken step, whereas13 percent responded are disagree with this. 86 percent think that accompanying cell phone gives a feeling of security, whereas  24 percent respondent feel without mobile  in unsecured position. , seventy percent responded agreed that expansion of mobile phone in some cases creating misunderstanding and complicacy in personal and family life, whereas30 percent are disagreed with that., 88 percent respondent among100 percent respondent think that mobile phone playing role in economy, whereas 12 percent don’t think  so.

All respondents’ opined that comparatively female are mostly sufferer from unexpected

call /mobile teasing than the male. Mostly8o percent of responded unexpected mobile call bothered them during their resting time. respondents are highly support the statement that mobile phone facilitates in maintaining interpersonal communication. Sixty seven percent of the total respondent are agreed with that. And 33 percent are disagreed.

Most of the respondents support the statement that using cell phone increases social communication. it is said by 70 percent respondent, while 30 percent of respondent don’t agree with it According to them usage of cell phone strengthened  the interpersonal communication r. In other words, the social relation Most of the respondents are response in easy communication. It is said by 58% respondent.. Although 5 percent of respondent response in changing business Pattern. Nine percent are said in supplying valuable information, around 28 percent people do not agree with this they think mobile phone effects in committed crimes easily by criminals.

 80 percent of total number thinks that communication sector got revolutionary change by using of mobile phone. respondents are highly support the statement that mobile phone advantage of mobile phone much. Sixty eight percent of the total respondent are agreed with that. And 13percent are said fairly much. Respondents view about the impacts of mobile phone. Seventy three percent respondent’s opinion on positive impact while 27 percent thinks mobile phone has negative impact.

 Most of the respondents’ said that a changes of peoples lifestyle has been observed whilst the number of cell phone subscriber increased. For instance, cell phone. All respondents’ admitted that mobile phone is one of the popular entertaining medium for the people. Browsing internet, listing music. But the evil consequences of using mobile phone are not explicitly realized to all respondent.


In This study attempted to determine and measure the various usages of mobile phone in Bangladesh among different demographic factors and also the impact of usage in social and economical factors. Mobile phones,now increasingly affordable and widespread in all clusters of people have significant impact to extend social relations. On the other hand, incense usages of this technology are now creating some social problems and also advancement to have mobile phone.

In today’s world, with technological advancements, mobile phones have metamorphosed into an all-in-one gadget. A gadget that plays music, takes high-resolution pictures, offers services to access internet instantly, and many more. For young ones, a mobile phone has helped them to socialize, and share thoughts through a fast, efficient and common platform. Because of mobile phones, young member of a family is more reachable nowadays. However, on a less encouraging note, mobile phones being used while driving have added to the increased tally of traffic accidents. And share of involvement youths in the cases of road accidents while attending a mobile call.
It is true that mobile phone are potent enough to raise quite a few health related complicacies, and young individuals being the prominent users, do come into the umbrella of ill effects of a mobile phone. However, saying so, we still have to remind that every technical innovation possess a faithful follower in the name of ill effects. If one youth’s reckless attitude is sure to amass problems uncalled for, other’s judicious steps with a bit of precaution can help one and all to enjoy the limitless possibilities of a mobile phone. It is up to us to determine the functioning of one of our most loved device as a useful slave or a demanding master.


The respondents made following recommendations to promote positive behavioral change among mobile phone users:

  • · Creating awareness and positive attitude about use of mobile phone, especially among youths.
  • · mobile phone should be used only to maintain contacts.
  • · Should not talk at late night (without sleep), Day call rate should be reduced and night call rate should be increased.
  • · Should not misuse free talk/SMS time, free talk time/SMS by mobile phone companies should be stopped.
  • · Unnecessary use of call/gossip /SMS should be stopped.
  • · Not to disturb someone especially girls/women by mobile phone. There should be law to prevent such incidents.
  • · Not to call unknown people/number especially at night in order to disturb.

mobile phone should be kept in silent mode in a class/ hospital/work place.

  • · Avoid speaking in a mobile phone in public place/ talk gently in a public place.
  • · Not to misuse money/spend money for mobile phone use beyond their means.
  • · Not to use mobile phone while driving or crossing road.
  • · Age of users of mobile phone should be restricted. Use of mobile phone by under age (18 years and below) children should not be allowed.
  • · Call block service should be improved.
  • · Taking photographs by mobile phone especially without consent of the person being photographed should be discouraged.
  • · Not to publicize personal information/photograph through mobile phone.
  • · Not to be addicted in use mobile phone
  • mobile phone should be considered as a necessary tool to meet the need.
  • · Too much or unnecessary talk should be avoided.

mobile phone effect

Accounting Architecture

Overall Accounting Procedure of Real Estate Company


Techno Holdings Limited. (THL) has been a part of the real estate industry in Bangladesh for not very long but has earned a good name with its properties in the prime location of the capital city. It started its journey in the early 2010 with a vision of ling term business building modern apartment projects in the city, not to satisfy an individual client only but to contribute to the entire society as a whole. Our corporate philosophy is however based on very simple principle Quality apartments for the future. To this end we are constantly working towards upgrading & improving every aspect of our activities Techno holdings Limited is the exclusive developer and builder for planning, implementing and allotment and allotment of all facilities of the project as a modern and luxurious apartment complex consisting of self contained apartment, reserved car parking other features etc. as described in details.

Emerging with the confidence to face existing challenges in the ever competitive market of real estate, it has timely succeeded in proving its capabilities though undertaking a number of projects in the city.

Within a short span of time, it has earned the satisfaction from landowners and valued clients by virtue of its free and fair business practices. To ensure basic civic amenities and to add a new dimension in the quality of modern living, it remains mindful about its commitment in all respect.

Be it the quality of our architectural design of our after-sale service, the emphasis is to jeep on improving. It is because of this unrelenting quest for example that we have earned the goodwill of so many of our customers.

Techno holdings’ prime objective is to build beautiful apartments keeping pace with the changes in tastes and needs of modern lifestyle. Not only the aesthetic qualities of apartment projects is its concentration but its thought & ideology centre around the right combination of practicality, as it constantly strives to shore up the confidence of its valued clients.

As such, our main motto is to satisfying our potential customer with super commitment return in the field of making unique construction with the best infrastructure materials within the demarcated committed schedule.

Using innovative entrepreneurial approaches, transparent sets to offer a new tune of services to landowners and clients in a bid to ser a distinction in the trade and brand its entity as an authenticated name in the real estate sector and subsequently to place it in the rank of mainstream.

The project management team consists of project managers, project engineers and skilled supervisors who remain on site to thoroughly oversee the execution of project. The designers having all round conception are well conversant with client’s needs and aspirations. Using most updated software for accounting and financing, this dept keeps each and every individual client’s record in order.

Vision     : Quality apartments for the future.

Mission: We constantly strive to shore up the confidence of our esteemed clients through upholding our commitment in ensuring a beautiful and peaceful living which ultimately help them build a beautiful future for the generations to come.

The team at a glance:

Engineers possess very competent technical skills, yet are creative, bold and innovative. With years of accumulated experience at home and abroad, the engineers and planners have adopted an outward looking quality oriented construction strategy being driven by specialized engineering and management skills, prefect guidelines and thorough compliance with the stipulated specification, yielding the highest possible quality in construction.

Customized software’s are applied for structural and architectural designs to achieve highest accuracy. The engineering team is well equipped with latest computer aided solutions that produce instant updated records on areas of concern and advancement of projects as well. A flawless and formatted project schedule is well maintained by the engineering dept. to scan at a glance the whole activities under its lens.

The Architectural Design for each of our project is minutely detailed for achieving on impressive façade and a strong functional relation within the interior space layout. The balanced distribution in a harmonized manner results in a smooth and comfortable living at an affordable price. Sophisticated software called STAAF-lll is used for high tech structural design and stress analysis. CAD designs are followed for all architectural design.

Board of Directors:

A super combination of multi – disciplined experts with proven track records galvanizing the team  efforts in all respect.

Name % Number of Share
Md. Morshed Alam (Managing Director) 80% 4000
Mrs. Nasrin Alam   (Director) 20% 1000

Introducing of Board of Directors                                                   

A. Mrs. Nasrin Alam, Director of the company is one of the extra-ordinary woman entrepreneurs in the county .she is a solid 6 years of practical and first hand experience in real estate development and construction .She is much more obligated person. Her motivation, force, courage and gratitude towards work are symbolical .she posse’s outstanding leadership qualities and charismatic power through which he had resolved innumerable critical issues he met during project execution. Associated with a number of socio-economic organizations, he has been contributing to the society since long.

B. Md. Murshed Alam, Managing Director of the company, He has 25 years practical experience in real estate development and construction. He is a BSC His potentiality and idealism is authentic. Specializes in project management and facilitation of government affairs and legal matters. A competent member of general management with expertise in general administration & logistics. By virtue of his leadership capability he managed a large team of manpower from all walks of trades and having professional dexterity in the field of logistics supports. He is actively involved with various socio cultural organizations in the country.



Prime Rose:

Residential Project             Particulars
Name of the Project : Prime Rose
Address : Plot No-4,Road No-1,Block-D Nobodoy Housing, Mohammadpur Dhaka.
Area of land : 6 kathas
Total Floor : 8 Nos
Total Unit : 21
Construction area : 26880 sft.
Total cost : 40000000.00 Approx.
Developers part : 15350 sft.
Total sale   a. Flat sale:                                          4,91,20,000 .00 parking:                                         20,00,000 .00

c.Utility                                                   12,00,000.00

Total :                                                              5,23,84,000.00
Profit :                                                               1,23,84000.00
Source of fund : Owner source / Bank Loan


Residential Cum Commercial Project  


Name of the project : Niloy:
Address : House no-948/2/c,East Shewrapara,Kafrul,Dhaka.
Area of land : 5.36 kathas
Total Floor : 6
Total Unit : 15
Construction area : 13,560s.ft
Total cost : 26,850,000.00
Developments parts : 9
Total sale : a. Flat Sale   :                                         2,375,000.00

b. Car Parking :                                      15,00,000.00

c. Utility  :                                             1,350,000.00

Total : 4,10,00,000.00
Profit :                                        63,50,000.00
Sources of Fund : Owner source / Bank loan


1)  Project Name  








Plot # 205, Chata mosjid Lane, She-e- Bangla Road

Rayer Bazar, Dhaka-1209.

Type of Building : Residential
No. of Building : 2 Nos
TotalLand : 25 Khata
No. of Storied : Ten Storied
Size of Apartment : 1050 S.ft
No. of Apartment : 108 Nos
Total Car Parking Provision : 50 Nos

2)  Project Name : Hatirzil  Lake City




Plot # 5-20, 1st Lane Road # 01, East Merul, Tek Para, Badda, Dhaka-1212.
Type of Building : Residential
No. of Building : 10 Nos
TotalLand : 100 Khata
No. of Storied : Ten Storied
Size of Apartment : 1100 S.ft
No. of Apartment :  360 Nos
Total Car Parking Provision : 200 Nos
3)  Project Name : North Land




Plot # 2, Road # 01, Block # D,  Nobodoy Housing Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207.
Type of Building : Residential
No. of Building : 1 Nos
TotalLand : 6 Khata
No. of Storied : Ten Storied
Size of Apartment : 1050 S.ft
No. of Apartment : 27 Nos
Total Car Parking Provision : 12 Nos

Nature of the Organization:

The Company is engaged in purchasing land, developing the same for urban housing and selling to the people of different income group. The company also purchase high land for construction of multistoried apartments building.

Company Objectives:

The main objective of the company is to give the clients safe home with his/her suitable location. Techno Holdings ltd specializes in residential and commercial real estate listings and sales in the surrounding areas. Techno Holdings ltd offers Mohammadpur, East Sewrapara, Shohid Buddhijavi road, Nobodoy Housing Society Zone to the target customers for their upcoming projects.

The another objective of the company is to provide housing facilities to the middle class people with a mid term installment basis payment policy .THL believes that idea creates business , Business creates profit. Minimum profit  taking by providing equal benefit to the clients is the purpose of the company.

Administration and Logistic:

Techno Holdings Ltd has professional & skilled administration team to co-ordinate all departments of the company. Logistical services include repair maintenance facilities such as plumbing and prompt troubleshooting (solve problems). Permanent maintenance personnel ensure that the apartments are in good condition.


Sl.No             Name Designation Date of Joining Experience Remarks
1 Md. Azad Rayhan General Manager 01/01/09 11 years  
2 Md.Murshedur Rahman Manager 01/01/09 6 years  
3 Nargish Akhter Executive (Public Relation) 01/01/10 1 years  
4 Mizanur Rahman Jr. Executive (Logistic) 01/01/09 3 years  

Accounts and Finance:

 Techno Holdings Ltd has accountants to maintain the accounts. They also hire experts for their need to get an accurate costing to start new project and for specific forecasting.


Sl. No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Md. Mahabubur Rahman Account officer 01/01/010 3years  
02 Md. Kawsar Ahamad Executive (Accounts) 01/05/010 2 years  

Sales, Marketing and Customer Service:

 Techno Holdings Ltd has it’s efficient Customer Service Department. This department gives personal attention to each client and is known for the immediate effective action. A warm, friendly atmosphere is created for the client who can make purchase decisions at his/her step without feeling pressurized.

Sl.No Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Md.Mamunur Rashid Asst. Manager (Marketing & Sales) 01/01/09 5years  
02 Md.Tanvir Mahamud Executive (Land) 01/01/10 3 years  

Engineering & Design:

 Techno Holdings Ltd has developed in house design team for architectural, structural, planning & electrical design. THL has three engineers in construction and development team in addition to its Quality Control, Monitoring & Evaluation and Construction management personnel with senior level professionals, engineers, architects, planners trained at home and abroad.


Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
1 Engineer  Md. Abdul Alim Civil Engineer 01/07/10 5 years  
2 Engineer  Md. Nazrul Alam Civil Engineer 01/07/10 15 years  
4 Engineer Mirza Motiar Rahman Electrical Engineer 01/06/10 4 years  
5 Engineer  Md. Rafiqual Islam Site Engineer 01/07/09 10 years  
6 EngineerMd. Gulam Sarwer Site Engineer 05/08/10 3 years  


Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Arch. Tuhin Hasan Architect 01/01/10 5 years  
02 Md. Shahin Aziz Architect 01/01/10 5 years  
02 Md. Masudul Alam Executive (AutoCAD) 07/03/10 3 years  


Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
O1 Md. Shah Poran Executive Purchase 01/01/10 10 years of experience in Material procurement.  
02 Abu md. Jubary Customer Care 01/06/10 3 Years  


Sl.No             Name Designation Date of joining Experience Remarks
01 Md. Nur Mohammad        
02 Md. Kayum Office Peon 01/06/09 5 years  
03 Md. Nujrul Site Guard 01/06/09 5 years  
04 Md. Ashraful Site Guard 01/03/10 3 years  
05 Md. Ballal Site Guard 01/05/10 1 years  
06 Md. Hashem Sarker Site Guard 08/05/10  1 years  

Activities of the Organization: 

Real Estate Business in private sector mainly concentrated on land development and construction of apartments. “Techno Holdings Ltd” collects land and sell the flat to the people. They construct residential building and sell them to make profit. In order to accomplish the above task the company proceeds in the following ways-

  • The first task to the company is to find out the elite class of the society who are in housing needs. Such class includes the engineering association, teachers association, doctors association, agriculturist association etc. Generally such classes are grouped according to the professions.
  • The next task of the company is to collect the corporate data of the above-identified classes. Generally these data includes the following:

A)    Income Level

B)    Living style

C)    Living standard

D)    Thinking about housing

After studying the potential customers then the company informs them regarding the ongoing projects and also the coming projects in details.

Customer Facilities:

Techno Holdings Ltd is conscious about the facilities for customers beside the projects. The facilities to its customers are:

  • Proper Road facilities beside the project
  • School, college, university and mosque beside the projects
  • Well organized security system throughout the project
  • Availability of Shopping centers beside the projects
  • Availability of health facilities beside the projects.
  • Arrangement of house building loans.
  • Construction of security wall at market price.

Finance & Accounts Department:

Actually this is my department where I directly involved. Because of that I know about everything about this department. Like all other Organization Techno Holdings Ltd follows some Function of accounting. Account division is very crucial and sensitive for the Company. Because the Business does require very frequent financial transaction. The specific tasks are as follows:

Input / form


Daily expenditure

Employee information

Department, designation

Salary for employee

Remuneration for director

Overtime and bonuses


Output / form

Salary sheet

Net pay

Salary summary

Advance ledger

Advance of date

Bonus sheet

Department wise employee information

Receipt and Payments accounts

Income and Expenditure account

Balance sheet


Job Description of an Accountant:


Apply principles of accounting to analyze financial information and prepare financial reports by compiling information, preparing profit and loss statements, and utilizing appropriate accounting control procedures.


  1. Prepare profit and loss statements and monthly closing and cost accounting reports.
  2. Compile and analyze financial information to prepare entries to accounts, such as general ledger accounts, and document business transactions.
  3. Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of accounting and accounting control procedures.
  4. Analyze and review budgets and expenditures for local, state, federal, and private funding, contracts, and grants.
  5. Monitor and review accounting and related system reports for accuracy and completeness.
  6. Prepare and review budget, revenue, expense, payroll entries, invoices, and other accounting documents.
  7. Analyze revenue and expenditure trends and recommend appropriate budget levels, and ensure expenditure control.
  8. Explain billing invoices and accounting policies to staff, vendors and clients.
  9. Resolve accounting discrepancies.
  10. Recommend, develop and maintain financial data bases, computer software systems and manual filing systems.
  11. Supervise the input and handling of financial data and reports for the company’s automated financial systems.
  12. Interact with internal and external auditors in completing audits.
  13. Other duties as assigned.


  1. Develop the annual operating budget and consult with departmental management on the fiscal aspects of program planning, salary recommendations, and other administrative actions.
  1. Provide accounting policy orientation for new staff.


Working conditions are normal for an office environment. Work may require occasional weekend and/or evening work.


Under direction of a Division Manager, performs professional accounting work, including auditing, analyzing and verifying fiscal records and reports, preparing financial and statistical reports, providing information to City staff regarding accounting practices and procedures, and reconciling general ledger accounts; assists in preparing the City’s annual and mid-year budgets; prepares year-end audit reports and schedules; trains and provides technical advice to lower-level accounting personnel, and performs related work as required.

Class Characteristics:

This professional-level Accountant class is assigned to the Finance Division of the central Administrative Services Department. The incumbent works with a high degree of independence in performing accounting and financial activities for the City, the Redevelopment Agency and the Public Financing Authority. Successful performance of the work requires good knowledge of governmental accounting practices and procedures, fund accounting and fiscal management. Responsibilities include direct contact with all

City Department Directors, Division and Program Managers and other staff regarding monthly reports, revenue and expenditure accounts, the automated purchasing and financial reporting system and payroll activities. The class is distinguished from the lower level class of Office Specialist (Accounting), which is a technical support class not requiring the equivalent of a four-year professional degree and has responsibilities of a technical processing nature.

Examples of Key Duties: (Duties are illustrative and not inclusive and may vary with individual assignment.)

  • Prepares journal entries and reconciles general ledger and subsidiary accounts; prepares monthly financial statements, including distributing monthly revenue and expenditure reports to departments.
  • Analyzes and reconciles expenditure and revenue accounts, including trustee accounts and investment reports.
  • Makes wire transfers and journal funding transfers and reconciles monthly bank statements.
  • Monitors grant revenues and expenditures, ensuring data is recorded in the City’s financial accounting system.
  • Calculates and prepares reimbursement billings and tracks receivables; reconciles monthly accounts receivable.
  • Prepares audit schedules for external auditors and acts as a liaison between the City and auditors.
  • Prepares and files annual financial statements for the City, Redevelopment Agency and Public Financing Authority.
  • Assists with the preparation of the annual and mid-year budgets.
  • Assists with the fiscal year-end and fixed asset accounting.
  • Provides training in the use of the City’s computerized financial system and assists departmental personnel with budget questions, proper expenditure coding, document processing and other accounting related activities.
  • Performs other duties of a similar nature or level.

Physical Requirements and Working Conditions:

Must possess mobility to work in a standard office setting and to use standard office equipment, including a computer, stamina to maintain attention to detail despite interruptions, strength to lift and carry files weighing up to 10 pounds; vision to read printed materials and a computer screen, and hearing and speech to communicate in person and over the telephone.

Knowledge of: (at entry)

  • Generally accepted accounting practices and principles;
  • Fund or governmental accounting practices and principles;
  • Auditing practices and principles;
  • Public agency budgeting practices and principles;
  • Computer applications related to the work;
  • Standard office practices and procedures;
  • Applicable laws, codes and regulations; and
  • Techniques for dealing with a variety of individuals from various socio-economic, cultural and ethnic backgrounds, in person and over the telephone.

Skill in: (at entry)

  • Maintaining accurate financial records and preparing clear and accurate reports for informational, auditing and operational use;
  • Reconciling accounts, records, reports and journals;
  • Preparing financial and/or auditor statements, schedules and reports;
  • Interpreting, applying and explaining complex laws, codes, regulations and ordinances;
  • Reviewing and verifying accuracy of data;
  • Maintaining accounting records for special accounts and projects;
  • Making sound, independent judgments within established polices and procedures;
  • Organizing own work, setting priorities and meeting critical deadlines; and
  • Communication to interact effectively with co-workers, managers, subordinates and the general public sufficient to convey information and to receive work direction.

Cost Estimation:

1. Project Name




2. Project Location




House no -948/2/C, East Shewrapara, Kafrul, Dhaka.
3. Purpose


: Construction of building and sales flats
4. TotalLand


: 5.36  kathas
5. Project  area


: 3860 S.ft
6. Construction area


:  13560 S.ft


7. No of Building


: 01 = 06 (Six) Storied
8. Number of  Apartment    




a. Developer  :

b. Land owner:







9. Number of car parking





a. Developer:

b. Land owner:      







10. Size of Apartments




: Type A, 825 s.ft  of 05 Flat

Type B, 835 s.ft  of 05 Flat

Type C, 600 s.ft  of 05 Flat

11. Project starting time


:  December 2010
12. Project completion time


:  June 2013
13. Project grace period



:  01 year


14. Cost of the project:

SL NO Description Cost Incurred Cost To Be Incurred Total Cost
01 Land (5.36  khathas) 1,500,000.00 Nill 1,500,000.00
02 Consultation 400,000.00 Nill 400,000.00
03 Marketing, Advertising & others 200,000.00 150,000.00 350,000.00
04 Construction   3,000,000.00 18,600,000.00 21,600,000.00
05 Bank Interest Nill 3000,000.00 30,00,000.00
  Total 5,100,000.00 21,750,000.00 26,850,000.00

14. Model of Finance

SL NO Description Cost Incurred Cost To Be Incurred
01 Sponsors equity 4,500,000.00 7,350,000.00
02 Bank Loan             Nill 150,00,000.00
  Total 4,500,000.00 22,350,000.00

15. Debt – Equity ratio                      56: 44


Each apartment contains the following luxury and specification selected for your convenience ensuring beauty and easy of maintenance.


1. Floor and wall of all bathrooms will be furnished with Bangladeshi glazed tiles.

2. All porcelain fittings (commode, basin, pan etc) will be BISF or RAK band standard.

3. Commode will be used only in the attached toilet of master bed.

4. All metal Fittings (shower head, towel rail soap case tissue holder, bibcock etc) will be

Sharif  metal.

Floors& Fire Safety

5. 12”x12” glazed tiles (made in Bangladesh)in all over floors

6. 4”skirting will be provide in rooms.


 7. 220vpower connection from DESA with separate electric meter (2KW) for each flat.

8. Gang switch and BRB cable will be used.

Doors and Windows

 9. Door frame with mahogany seasoned wood.

10. And shutter will be teak crumple partex flash door.

11. In all bath rooms durable PVC door will be used.

12. 4mmx20mm flat bar grill will be used

13. 3” sliding Thai aluminum channel will be used

14. 5mm thick tinted glass of good quality will be provided in all window shutters.

Wall &Partition:

15. Internal and external 5” thick wall will be made of 1st class brick & salt less white fine sand.

16. Wall surface will be smooth with finished plaster.                                                          

Kitchen Features:

17. Double burner gas point with one gas riser.

18. A single sink, bibcock & a wash corner.

19. One RCC self (12” wide) will be provided.

20. Wall of kitchen will be furnished with 8”x12” glazed tiles up to 7’-0” height

2.7 Painting & Polishing:

21. Plastic paint in all internal walls and distemper in calling.

22. Outside with snowcap painting.

23. Enamel paint in Grill will be used.

Utility Lines:

24. The company will provide 1” water line & sewerage connection to WASA.

25. Under Ground water Reservoir with 20,000 liter capacity.

26. Wall of kitchen will be furnished with 8”x12” glazed tiles up to 7”-0”.



Power generator connection will be provided in each flat.


               Intercom line (kokum set) will provide in each flat to link with guard room.

Cost Details:



Description Area (Sft.) Quantity Rate Per S.ft./Pc Work Already Done Work to be Done Total
        Taka Taka Taka
01 Land Procurement   Lump Sum 1,500,000.00   1,500,000.00
02 Consulting (Architectural)   Lump Sum 3,00,000.00   300,000.00
03 Consulting (Structural) 13560 Lump Sum 50,000.00   50,000.00
04 Consulting (Electrical) 13560 Lump Sum 25,000.00   25,000.00
05 Consulting (Plumbing) 13560 Lump Sum 25,000.00   25,000.00
06 Advertisement & Graphics   Lump Sum 100,000.00 50,000.00 150,000.00
07 Marketing Promotion   Lump Sum 100,000.00 10,0000.00 200,000.00
08 Cost Of Piling 2400 550.00 1,320,000.00   13,20,000.00
08 Cost of Column up to Grade Beam 2260 500.00 1,130,000.00   11,30,000.00
09 Cost of Water Reserve 1 Lump Sum 300,000.0   300,000.00
10 Frame Structure Grade Beam to G.F. Slab 2260 500.00   1,130,000.00 11,30,000.00
11 Frame Structure up to 5th Floor 11,300 500.00   5,650,000.00 5,650,000.00
12 Brick Works up to 5th Floor 14,500 150.00   2,175,000.00 2,175,000.00
13 Plaster Works up to 5h Floor 30,000 50.00   1,500,000.00 1,500,000.00
14 Tiles Works 18000 100.00   1,800,000.0 1,800,000.00
15 Grill Works 4000 100.00   400,000.00 400,000.00
16 Thai Aluminum Works 1800 300.00   540,000.00 540,000.00
17 Wood Works:          
  A.  Main Door 350 400.00   140,000.00 140,000.00
  B.  Internal Door 1800 300.00   540,000.00 540,000.00
  C.  Louvered 125 120.00   15,00.00 15,000.00
18 Plumbing, Sanitary & Sewerage System:          
  A. Water Distribution  System 15000 40.00   600,000.00 600,000.00
  B. Sanitary fittings & Fixtures 7000 35.00   245,000.00 245,000.00
19 Electrical Works:          
  A. Internal   Lump Sum   350,000.00 350,000.00
  B. External   Lump Sum   350,000.00 350,000.00
20 Painting & Coloring 42000 10.00   420,000.00 420,000.00
21 Utility:          
  A. Gas Connection 15 8000.00   120,000.00 1,20,000.00
  B. Wasa Connection 15 5000.00   75,000.00         75,000.00
  C. Substation & DESHA Connection 1     900,000.00 9,00,000.00
  D. Lift 1 10,00,000.00   900,000.00 9,00,000.00
  E. Generator 1 500,000.00   5,00,000.00 5,00,000.00
22 Boundary Wall/Gate/Tank Etc.       3,00,000.00 3,00,000.00
23 Lime Concrete in roof 2270 Lump Sum   200,000.00 200,000.00
24 Bank Interest for Project Loan       3,000,000.00 3,000,000.00


4,850,000.00 22,000,000.00


(Total Taka Two Core Sixty Eight Lac and Fifty Thousand Only.)

The above cost calculated on the basis of present marker rate of construction material and labor charges. During execution of construction work the rate of individual may very from proposed cost structure.

8.0 Project cost and profit analysis:

Profit & Loss Account:

Description Rate per sft. Total Amount (Tk.)
Income from Apartment Tk.4500.00


Less Total Construction Cost  


                                                              Net profit


 Financial Information:

Description Total Area Rate per sft. Total Amount (Tk.)
Earnings From Sale Flat      6750 s.ft



Total Project Cost 13560



Construction Cost 13560



Own Financing  



Loan from Bank    


9.0 Debt-Equity Ratio:

Debt Equity Total Taka Debt : Equity


Tk.11,850,000.00 Tk.26,850,000.00 55.86:44.14

10.0 Cost of the project:

Sl No Description Cost Incurred Cost to be Incurred Total Taka
01 Land ( 5.36 Katha )




02 Consultation




03 Marketing, Advertising & Others





04 Construction




05 Bank Interest




  Total project Cost:Tk.=





Taka Two Core Sixty 

Eight Lac and Fifty Thousand.

11.0 Mode of Finance:

Sl No Description Cost Incurred Cost to be Incurred Total Taka
01 Sponsors equity




02 Bank Loan




Total Project Cost :Tk=




Debt: Equity Ratio = 56:44

SWOT Analysis

 SWOT Analysis is an important tool for evaluating the company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It helps the organization to identify how to evaluate its performance and scan the macro environment, which in turn would help the organization to navigate in the turbulent ocean of competition.

S Strengths
W Weakness
O Opportunities
T Threats


a) Company Reputation:

      THL has already established a favorable reputation in the Real Estate industry of the country particularly among the new comers. Within a period of Four years, THL has already established a firm in the Real Estate sector having tremendous growth in the profits and deposits. All these have leaded them to earn a reputation in the Real Estate field.

b) Top management:

The top management of the Company is also a major strength for the THL and has contributed heavily towards the growth and development of the Company. The top management officials have all worked in reputed Company’s and their years of working experience, skill, and expertise will continue to contribute towards further expansion of the Company. The top management of THL is the driving force and the think tank of the organization where policies are crafted.

c) Market share profitability:

As already mentioned earlier, THL has established a position among the new comers in the Real Estate industry of Bangladesh. They have already achieved a high growth rate accompanied by an impressive profit growth rate. The number of deposits and the loans and advances are also increasing rapidly as sales revenue increases with the increasing of upcoming a lot of new projects.

d) Strong financial resources:

THL has strong financial resources to run the Real Estate business. It is expected that in the near future the Company’s financial resources will get stronger.

e) Team work at mid level and lower level:

THL’s mid level and lower level management do the responsibilities with team works. Many jobs are performed in-groups of two or three in order to reduce the burden of the workload and enhance the process of completion of the job. People are eager to help each other and people in general are devoted to work.


          The size of the market captured by THL is not as wide as the other established companies do. Most of the projects are six to Eight storied building. They have no high rise building. THL works only Dhaka city corporation. The other city corporation have the activities of real estate business Opportunities. But THL does not expand them because of financial shortage.


       There are more than 550 companies have the REHAB membership. Most of the companies do not work the other city corporations and cannot think about middle class and lower income group people. Most of the companies do not maintain RAJUK plan and cannot handover the project in time. If some companies do, they charge a huge per square feet rate. Most of the companies do not believe the long term installment basis payment policy. So these are the opportunities to the THL to capture this market.


         THL considers hundred companies from all REHAB members as it’s strong competitor. These companies minimum costing and below quality service and fraudulent advertisement criteria is the major threats to THL. The other threats are political disturbance, strike, fiscal policy and natural calamities which ultimately destroy the plan of handover the project in time.


  • Whole activities of THL is not computerized, still there exist manual record keeping system.
  • Insufficient training program for the employees.
  • Slow in modernization comparing with its competitors.
  • The working environment is not congenial & appropriate.
  • THL tries to maintain  Safety and security, Highest safety standard, Earth quake protection up to 6.But sometimes fail to provide appropriately all these services because of clients bargaining Existing Human Resources of THL is  not sufficient for delivering proper service. They have to recruit more skilled employees.
  • The of per square feet rate of sales revenue and land owners signing money.
  • At THL’s mid level and lower level management, there are often team works. Many jobs are performed in-groups of two or three in order to reduce the burden of the workload and enhance the process of completion of the job. People are eager to help each other and people in general are devoted to work.
  • THL’s financial resource is not enough to run the Real Estate business in a wide view. It is expected that in the near future the Company’s financial resources will get much stronger by venture capital.
  • Real estate business Opportunities are available in other city corporations.
  • But THL does not expand their business because of financial shortage.
  • THL doing promotional campaign to attract their customers. Because of high demand in the market THL does not have to invest lots of money in promotional activities. THL puts their advertisement in the print media. The promotional activities are not enough to cover the whole market in present competitive situation.
  • The key marketing tools which I have found in  Techno Holdings Ltd is given bellow:
  • In some cases -Project type, Land area, Consultant, No of apartments, Size of apartment, Total car parking are not specifically mentioned which ultimately give a negative impression about the company.
  • The company does not follow the service marketing mix at the time of product, price place and promotional strategies.
  • Available packages, Real Estate Business Cards, Company websites, Brochure, Print media, Electronic media, Billboard, Banner. So, It’s marketing strategy is not well designed.
  • General terms and conditions is not mentioned clearly. Because of abstruse sentences sometime clients cannot understand the policy of the company which can give negative result to company.
  • The estimated cost and estimated sales revenue is not appropriately measured. Because the estimation price is lower than the original costing price. Many factors like inflation, government fiscal policy, break in continuous construction, political interruption is not considered at the time of cost estimation. The sales revenue forecast is not match with the original situation. Negotiable-(Bid and Ask) price is charged to the clients. As a result the sales revenue varies with the forecasting. Pricing strategy is not appropriate because the clients bargaining are not satisfied.
  • In Dhaka the housing problem is basically for the lower income people, but the private real estate developers are developing the land for the higher income people. Due to poor load bearing capacity of soil, high-rise buildings are very difficult to build in places being developed by real estate entrepreneurs at present. Hence, low density of residential area is resulting in the form of inefficient utilization of the land resources. Urban area is expanding horizontally without maintaining any guidelines. The unexpected and unplanned growth of residential areas is creating extra problems for the city managers. There is no link between the existing structure plan and the real estate developments. Consequently these projects are creating sheer stress on the planned development of the city. This is also creating polarization in the demand of services and facilities. For the buyers, land hoarding is the main objective to purchase the plots. As a result, the developers develop land for housing to earn more profit, which were used for playground. They are also using place, which were in the lake. On the other hand, buyers keep their plots vacant the new housing projects are creating tremendous impact on the natural drainage of an area. Consequently water logging has become a common phenomenon in this area.
  •  Real estate companies doing their business because of profit. They are not doing their duty for society. They are not doing marketing research in huge manner. They only buying land and develop it and then they sell it to the customers. Because of high demand of housing, customers have to buy the flats or apartments in high cost. Real estate companies are not doing any research to fulfill the high perception of the customers.
  •  Real estate business is one kind of service. So customer satisfaction is very important factor in this sector. Real estate companies are not doing any kind of marketing research but they need to do lots of marketing research to give their better service.


1        THL should increase more skilled manpower to do its activities more efficiently, so that many of the employees do not have to take mental pressure to handover the projects in time.

2        Adopting the latest office automation is very important for delivering swift customer service as well as continuing smooth activities.

3        Maintaining internal quality management through training to its employees.

4        Inclusion of more subjects based on the effective design and construction and marketing  in the Training courses of the THL Training in order to develop expertise.

5        The authority of THL should give more emphasize on modernization of customer service.

6        It should open a customer care window to update the information about their project’s completion.

7        THL should appoint a sufficient number of women employees to deal with woman clients, professionals or officials & open Women desk to consult with the women because most of the women clients booking their flat for their family.

8        To follow the RAJUK plan for a safe, secured, environmental accommodation. To give the security of apartment buyers that the project will be handover in time and the materials will be used same as the contract is made.

9        THL needs venture capitalist from idle asset holder.

10    To establish and develop a market drives leadership and lays great emphasis on securing of quality business.

11    Through pragmatic and market friendly policies to continue increase in volume of business.

12    Product / Service expansion

13    Provides highest level of satisfaction to customers and appraise feedback by questionnaire.

14    REHAB needs to establish a common market place where buyers both home and abroad will find all products in a single location.

15    Project type, Land area, Consultant, No of apartments, Size of apartment, Total car parking should mentioned specifically.

16    General terms and conditions should be mentioned clearly.

17    The estimated cost and estimated sales revenue should appropriately measured because it will give the idea about pricing that will give revenue and will give the business a clear position.

18    Profit maximization should not be the motto.

19    DAP implementation should be in mind for future generation.

20    To keep in mind the middle class customers and prepare the apartment for them.


          Techno Holdings Ltd is trying heart and soul to overcome all its lacking and doing marketing research for satisfying their customers. But some real estate companies are not doing marketing research as it requires. So they cannot satisfy their customers and also making lots of natural problem. Though main purpose of the real estate companies is to give the service to the customers then it is essential to do marketing research on their projects. They should strictly maintain regular research program when they start any project.

 Real Estate



Executive Summery

CITYCELL is the first who provide mobile telecommunication facilities in Bangladesh. CITYCELL is a customer-driven organization whose mission is to deliver the latest in advanced telecommunication services to Bangladesh.  CITYCELL was received their licenses to start business in 1996.From beginning of their business they are trying hard for their development Now they have approximately 5 lacks subscribers. They gained success from the very beginning of their business and they work hard to continue their success.  Now today the main competitors of CITYCELL are, AKTEL, GRAMEEN PHONE, BANGLA LINK etc.

CITYCELL has many strongest sides but one of the strongest sides its customers service and relationship and so they always say “Because we care”. All of  the operator of the company work hard for the company’s objective so, soon it turned out to be a big hit.

Industry Classification

CITYCELL is a mobile telecommunication company. CITYCELL is a service oriented company. It also provides both products and services. The main competitors of CITYCELL’s are-

  1. Grameen Phone
  2.    AKTEL
  3.    Banglalink
  4.    TeleTalk.

The History of CITYCELL

CITYCELL (Pacific Telecom Limited) is Bangladesh’s pioneering mobile communications company and the only CDMA network operator in the country. CITYCELL basic strategy is coverage of both urban & rural areas. CITYCELL DIGITAL builds continuous coverage may vary from area to area depending on market conditions, the basic strategy of cell-to-cell coverage is applied throughout CITYCELL network. In Feb’1996 CITYCELL received licenses to start business operation.

Ownership Structure

CITYCELL (Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited) is a privately owned company with majority foreign ownership equity. Following lists the current owners of CITYCELL (PBTL):

  •        Sing Tel Asia Pacific Investments Pvt. Ltd. – 45%
  •        Pacific Motors Limited – 31.43%
  •        Far East Telecom Limited – 23.57%


CITYCELL is a customer-driven organization whose mission is to deliver the latest in advanced telecommunication services to Bangladesh. The company offers a full array of fixed and mobile services for consumers and business that are focus on unique needs of the Bangladeshi community.


CITYCELL is focused on innovation and creating new ways for customers to stay in touch and to do business. City Cell’s is offering a wide range of competitive prepaid and postpaid mobile packages as well as Value Added Services such as – SMS and information based services.


CDMA means Code Deviation Multiple Accesses. The main advantage of using CDMA cell-phone signals for reference clock purposes is that they work better inside buildings, thus often eliminating the need to mount the GPS antenna on the outside of a building. It’s provides following benefits-

  •       The latest technology of the world.
  •       Best voice quality.
  •       Data updated condition is far better than GSM.
  •        Maintenance cost is low.


 RIM (removable User Identity Module) card. CITYCELL s’ RIM cards come in 32k memory capacity that gives you more space to store your data. RIM comes to you with the added benefits of:

 Flexibility to change handset (RIM compatible CDMA handset) whenever you like.

Storing important phone numbers or SMS in the RIM card, which will be with you even when you change your handset (Portability of user profile and personal data)?

 The most secure environment for network connection and mobile e-services

SWOT Analysis

CITYCELL is a telecommunication company. It has number of strength, weakness, opportunities and threats.





Strength and weakness are internal factors of an organization that which is controlled by organization.

Opportunities and threats are external factors of an organization which is not only dependents on that organization but also giving part took by the Government, culture, environment and so on.

Strengths of CITYCEL

  •       CITYCELL is the pioneer mobile company of Bangladesh.
  •       Call charge low from other competitors.
  •       Country- wide Network Coverage.
  •       Extended warranty for handset and accessories.
  •       Call to cash package.
  •       Discount on after sale service.
  •       All types of advertising promotion have made CITYCELL by them selves.
  •       Available One 2 One facility.
  •       International Roaming facility
  •       Special offers for corporate customers
  •       Widest worldwide coverage in more than 110 countries.
  •       Accounts holders can pay their bills over the internet, ATM card and cash card which is a type of scratch card.
  •       A group meeting can be held. Such as three people can talk at a time.
  •       The company operates 24-hours call centre with over 86 well trained operators to respond to customer requires.

Weakness of CITYCELL

      Network problem.

      When the customer desire they can not change their mobile set

      Facility limited. Such as:

  • Do not provide multimedia SMS.
  • Do not provide GPRS system.

Opportunities of CITYCELL

  •       M. Morshed Khan is the owner of CITYCELL who is a Foreign Minister of Bangladesh.
  •       Large numbers of population in Bangladesh for business.
  •       Most of the businessman uses CITYCELL for there business.
  •       Many verity of product.

Opportunity Matrix 

Threats of CITYCELL

  •       Aggressive promotion strategy of competitors.
  •       Government regulation.
  •       Expensive campaigns of competitors.

Threat Matrix

After analysis SWOT we find some valuable information about CITYCELL Digital. Bangladesh is a developing country. We can easily choose which is better for us. CITYCELL Digital has some lack ages. Such as-

  •        Network coverage
  •        CDMA system
  •        Contradiction between RIM and SIM

If CITYCELL removes these defaults, we think they will be the leader of the cellular company in our country.

Network problem

Increase network over country


Do not provide GPRS

By provide GPRS

Do not provide Sim

By providing Sim.

Aggressive promotion strategy of competitors.

They also should use promotion strategy.

Government regulation

Overcome this regulation

Expensive campaigns of  competitors

Expensive campaigns of  competitors


 Product Life Cycle 

                  Stage of the Product Life Cycle

Sales revenue





(total industry sales revenue )





( total industry profit)







Gain Awareness




Brand Loyalty














Product Line

Best Sellers





Gain Share,


Defend Share,







Stress competitive
















Porter’s Five Forces

Bargaining Power of Supplier

CITYCELL  is a Private limited company. Their competitor’s are Grameen Phone, AKTEL, Banglalink. They are related with foreign company like Sing- Tel Asia Pacific Investments Pvt. Ltd. Pacific Motors Limited,   Far East Telecom Limited. For this most of the raw materials they take from foreign countries. Motorola, Nokia, Dexian, Hisense, Utstartc.

 Bargaining Power of Customers

In BangladeshCITYCELL are in Oligopoly market. There are only four mobile company. But competition is very high. So the bargaining power of customer is high.

Threats of New Entrants

It was the first mobile company of Bangladesh. But day by day another three mobile company entered in to this business which is taken its place, and also much new company will enter in to business. They are in threats of new entrance.

 Threats of substitutes

Grameen Phone, AKTEL, Bangle Link provides many new packages. For this customer can get more benefit from them. As they are substitutes of CITYCELL the new packages are threats for them.

Threats of Competitive Rivalry between Existing Players

They provide after care service to employees as free mobile phone service, transportation service, short working hour service, many sponsor to the  employees as they can go to many events, foreign tour. CITYCELL provide many other facilities to employees which can differ them from others

BCG Matrix

In the BCG (Boston Consulting Group) matrix we find that company are evaluated with market share and market growth. There are four parts in BCG box. These are Stars marks, “?” Marks, Cash cows and Dogs. After analysis the packages of City cell we find that different packages goes under different category.

High market share + High market growth = STAR

Low market share + High market growth = “?” Marks

High market share + Low market growth = Cash cows

Low market share + Low market growth = Dogs


           “Aalap CLASSIC” goes under star category. Because market share and market  growth are both high.

    “ ?” Mark

     “Aalap Super” goes under “?” marks. Because market share is low and market growth is high.

     Cash Cow

 Market share of CITYCELL premium is low and growth is high. Cash cow needs some extra promotion to raise market growth.


 And last of all CITYCELL Telluler goes under dogs category. Because the market share and growth is both low. all Dogs needs diversification. It may need kick out from the market.

This different category needs different promotion

   Product/ Market Expansion Grid

Existing product + Existing market = Market penetration

New product       + Existing market  = Product development

Existing product + New market        = Market development

New product       + New market       = Diversification

  Market Penetration

Making more sales to current customers without changing its products.

   Market Development

Develop new markets for its current products.

   Product Development

Offering  modified or new products to current markets. Aalap Classic goes to product development.


 New products for new markets.

Value Chain

Value Chain is a tool for identifying ways to create more customer value. Michale Porter of Harvard has proposed this value chain. The value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities that create value and cost in a specific business. These nine value creating activities consist of five primary activities and four support activities.

Inbound Logistics

They provide mobile with rim to customers. They collect their product as mobile phones of various companies such as Nokia, Dexian, Motorola etc. They collect these types of phones from abroad as their raw material. Mobile phone’s charger, the instruments of network coverage.


They reach their products name to their target customers by various way, like the use many media (TV ad, news paper, bill board, etc.)

Outbound logistics

They provide their products by the seller department and dealers.

Marketing and Sales

The have an own marketing department for their particular product. This department manages the whole marketing operations, such as- promotion segmentation, Distribution etc.


They have a service department. Which is open 24 hours customer services .

They have hotline 121 for CITYCELL and 011-121121 from any other phone. Open for Business 7 Days a Week Recently CITYCELL was again at the forefront of innovation by being the first operator to open its front desk operations 365 days a year at all of its Customer Service Canters in Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet.

Firm infrastructure

Firm infrastructure means- total transportation system, buildings, bank balance, man power, Physical structure, network tower.

  Human Resource Management

They have a high skilled and educated people who are working for the company to achieve their mission and objectives.

Technology Development

They develop their technology by using foreign technician. They use CDMA technology which is very up to date. They are continuously trying to make strong their network coverage.


They collect their raw materials from abroad like Singapore, Malaysia, China, etc.


Segmentation means division of a market into distinct group of customer. After introduce CITYCELL in 1996 they follow the mass marketing, because this time they ware the only one mobile company in Bangladesh. But now many competitors are coming in mobile phone market.

CITYCELL segment their market for “Aalap Classic” by following ways-

Demographic Segmentation

Demographic segmentation is mainly nation, age, income, nationality wise segmentation. Our product, CITYCELL “Aalap Classic” mainly segmented.

The main view of this product is to provide mobile facility in cheaper rate for all.

Geographic Segmentation

 “Aalap Classic” is geographically segmented by whole nationwide. There is no target wise segmentation. They segmented the product for all the regions and for all regions they spend same type of clarification.

   Behavioral Segmentation

Behavioral segmentation is benefit, occasion, and user status wise segmentation.

    Offer for Aalap Classic

    Effective segmentation

There are many ways to segment a market but all the segmentations are not effective.

Effective market segmentations are –

  •       Measurable
  •        Substantial
  •        Accessible
  •        Differential
  •        Actionable
  •       Measurable

Measurable means size and purchasing power. Here size is the number of customer and purchasing power is the buying capacity of consumer. City Cell provide the lowest cost price of product, so their segment is measurable and all types of customer are afford to purchase their product.


The market segments are large or profitable enough to serve. Segment must be large enough to warrant a special marketing mix. City Cell is the pioneer of mobile company and they have number of customer approximately 5 lacks.


Accessibility of product in the market that is called accessible. Product must be accessible to the segment. Segment can be effectively reached and served. Now almost all of the city in our country we can get the product of citycell.


Different segment for different appeal. Segment must be respond differently to different marketing mix elements & action. City Cell provides:


Effective programs can be designed or attracting and serving the segments or implement the marketing mix-




CITYCELL distribute their product Aalap Classic all over the country.


CITYCELL segments their market for these reasons:

       To identify customers with similar needs and wants.

       To design separate marketing mix for separate segments.

       To satisfy customers.


Targeting means among the segment we will find the attractive one to serve.

CITYCELL has targeted their customers into certain levels of measurement. Their package “Aalap Classic” is mainly targeted for all class people. They are offering this package at lowest price mobile connection with hand sets in the market. No competitor don’t give this type offer like them. They have given this package into target market to increase their market share.


Positioning means occupying a clear and distinctive place in the mind of target customers.

Because We Care” this is the main positioning of CITYCELL. By this positioning they want to mean that they always care for their customer. They also try to provide all kind facilities for their customer.

As their product is “Aalap Classic” the main position of this product in the mind of target customers is call free. This is the cheapest cost product for all types of customers in the country. They want to make this position in their mind.

 The ways of differentiation positioning are –

  •        Product differentiation
  •        Service differentiation
  •        Personal differentiation
  •        Image differentiation
  •       Product Differentiation

Their product is totally different from other mobile companies because they are the only CDMA network operator in the country.

      Service Differentiation

They always offer mobile connection with hand sets, and give  1 year warranty with every hand set. They have a service department. Which is open 24 hours to give customer services.

      Personal Differentiation

They have a high skilled and educated people who are working for the  company to achieve their mission and objectives. Which makes them different from others.

      Image Differentiation

They  do a lot of things to increase their image such as- social welfare, give sponsorship to cultural program, sports, beatification, traffic rules, police control room’s phone numbers, etc.

Marketing Mix

The marketing mix is probably the most famous phrase in marketing. The elements are the marketing ‘tactics’. Also known as the ‘four Ps’, the marketing mix elements are product, price, place, and promotion.

CITYCELL provides both products and services, because it has various items which are tangible and it provides communication services for customer relationship which is intangible. So, CITYCELL is both product and service oriented company. In this reason CITYCELL work with three additional P’s, these are:

  •     People
  •     Physical Evidence
  •     Process

So we can say CITYCELL work with 7 P’s:

  •     Product
  •     Price
  •     Place
  •     Promotion
  •     People
  •     Physical Evidence
  •     Process
  •   Product

Everything is product which having utility. CITYCELL is telecommunication Company. It has different types of product. The product of CITYCELL basically divided in two parts.

Here, we discuss a specific product of CITYCELL, which felt in under the Prepaid line that is “AALAP CLASSIC”.

Levels of Product

   Core Product

Consists of all the benefits the product will provide for consumer. Here, the core product is –

   Basic/Actual Product

Consists of the physical good or delivered service those are providing for consumer. Such as Mobile, Rim etc.

   Expected Product

      All features of the product.

       30 second pulse from the first minute

       24 hour NWD and ISD facility

       Network coverage

      Augmented product

        Extra service with the product.

       TK 50 preloaded free talk time with 7 days validity

       1(One) year handset warranty

       Free T&T incoming during Super Off Peak hour

      (Till 25 th April 2006)

       No additional BTTB charge for local T&T outgoing

      (Till 25 th April 2006)

    Potential product

      A product which is not present in market.

Types of Products

Two types of product: (In terms of business)

Consumer Product

Consumer product means Product purchase for ultimate consumption. All types of packages those are provide CITYCELL for consumer that is consumer   product.

Types of consumer product are:

  1. Convenience products
  •       Staples products
  •       Impulse products
  •        Emergency products

2. Shopping products

3. Specialty products

4. Unsought products

  Product classification for Consumer Product

    Business Product

 Citycell provides many facilities to various companies in terms of increasing their sells. These types of product terms as a business product for citycell. In the police control room, rail office, traffic control room etc.

    Product Line

 All the product items of a company are called product line. There are four types of product line:

  •  Product Width
  •  Product Length
  •  Product Depth
  •  Product Consistency

Product Width

Number of product lines. There are two types of product lines. These are:

  •    Pre-paid
  •    Post-paid
  • Product Length

Total number of items. CITYCELL have many packages under its pre-paid and post-paid category. All the products goes under this product length.

Amar Phone Aalap Classic
Citycell Premium Aalap Super
Citycell Tellular Aalap Call Me
Shobar Phone Aalap 24

Product Depth

Size into variety.

 Product Consistency:

When same distribution channel use for all product that is called product consistency line. CITYCELL don’t use product consistency line.


Branding means a name, term, symbol, design, or combination there of that identifies a seller’s or company’s products and differentiates them from competitors’ products.

 CIYCELL uses its own brand. It’s brand name differs it from the other telecommunication company. Brand uses as a distinguish purpose for the company. A product’s success depends on the target market’s ability to distinguish one product from another. CITYCELL uses branding as these types of purposes. The marketing and management department of CITYCELL try to use the branding as the major tool in distinguishing their product from the competition.

A Brand can represent this entire feature. Such as-

  •        Attributes
  •        Benefits
  •        Culture
  •        Value
  •        Personality
  •        Users
  • Branding Strategy

There are four types of branding strategy-

  •        Individual name
  •        Blanket family name
  •        Separate family name
  •        Company individual name

Under the branding strategy city cell fall in Individual name strategy.

Individual name:  Individual products individual name.


       Branding Strategy Decision


Activity of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.

Packaging used to just contain and protect the product.

  Factors to Consider When Making Packaging Decision

  •        Protection
  •        Visibility 
  •        Added Value 
  •        Distributor Acceptance 
  •        Cost 
  •        Expensive to Create 
  •        Long Term Decision 
  •        Environmental or Legal Issues


Price is the sum of all the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. In a m marketing mix without price all are cost and only price gives us revenue.

      Call charge for Aalap Classic

    Cost-Based Pricing VS. Value-Based Pricing

Citycell always tries to satisfy their customer by their pricing. For this they follow value-based pricing.

 Legal protection or blocked entries

Before 1996 after introduce city cell in to Bangladesh mobile market the govt. ruled that no mobile company did not enter the market of Bangladesh for one year. So in this time City cell charged skimming price.

Penetration pricing

Penetration pricing means price sensitive in market condition.

Citycell follows penetration pricing.

    Physicological Pricing

There are two types of  Physicological  Pricing such


  •       Range Rate Pricing.
  •       Odd/Even Pricing.

Under this pricing strategy,  CITYCELL goes to

Range Rate Pricing Strategy.


CITYCELL Classic is our product. CITYCELL provide this product for all types of consumers through all over the country. As CITYCELL charged for CITYCELL Classic low price, generally low revenue earned people are their main customers.

 Marketing Intermediaries Used

Generally market intermediaries are used to making their product available in the market. As CITYCELL provide to consumer product and services. For this they also use marketing intermediaries to provide their product and services for consumer available in the market.

They provide channel 1 and channel 3. They have their own personal selling for this their customer can bye their product directly. Then they follow channel 1. When they want to provide their product to a long distance, then they follow channel 3, because they provide their product to the whole seller and then the retailer get product form them and customer buy product from the retailer.

 Channel function

Generally channel functions is done by the channel members, as whole seller and retailer.

      Marketing Channels Structure 

There are three marketing channels:

        1. Exclusive Distribution

        2. Selective Distribution

        3. Intensive Distribution

CITYCELL maintain selective distribution, because their product is special and with special brand name with selective intermediaries. Their main dealer is DIGI MOBILE.

  Conventional Marketing Channel Vs. a Vertical Marketing System

CITYCELL maintain conventional marketing channel. They  also maintain Vertical marketing system. Because The manufacturer of their product  provide that Straightly to the consumer by their selling center which is on17/2, Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka. First they provide it to the wholesaler. The retailers take products from the whole seller or CITYCELL ’s selling center .Customer take product from the retailer.

  Conventional Marketing Channel Vs. a Vertical Marketing System 

  Vertical Marketing System

There are three type of VMS such as-

  •     Administered VMS
  •     Corporate Systems
  •     Contractual Systems

CITYCELL mainly maintain contractual system. They follow administered VMS

  CITYCELL Network Coverage


Marketing communication mix


Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion  of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.(print, broadcast, outdoor and others).

They do two types of advertising:

Major advertising channel

     Personal Selling

Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships.

     Sales Promotion

Short term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service.(sample, coupons, point of purchase and etc.)

     Public relation

Building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories and events.(press releases and special events).

     Direct marketing

Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships.(catalog, TV,phone, internet , kiosk and others).

   Advertising Objectives in Relation to Stage in the Product Life Cycle

                            Stage of the Product Life Cycle
     Introduction Growth





CITYCELL is in maturity level that’s why they do persuasive advertising and reminder advertising.

The Communication Process


  • The marketer
  • The sender of the message


  • Designing of advertisements, sales presentations,
    P-O-P displays, etc.
  • Translation of the message into symbolic form


  • Actual advertisement that contains the intended message
  • Symbolic expression of the sender’s thoughts


  • Television, radio, print media, telephone, direct mail, etc.
  • Path through which the message moves to get to the receiver


  • Person or groups of persons for whom the message is intended


  • Process receiver uses to interpret the meaning of the message


  • Marketing research, market share changes, sales reports
  • Attitude changes, purchase or non-purchase
  • Gauge of effectiveness of communication techniques


  • Interference at some stage in communications process
  • Competitive promotional messages
  • Misinterpretation of message or wrong receiver.

Steps in Developing Effective Communication

Step 1.  Identifying the Target Audience.

Step 2.  Determining the Communication Objectives Buyer Readiness Stages.

Step 3.  Designing a Message

Step 4.  Choosing Media

Step 5.  Selecting the Message Source (expertise, Trustworthiness, likeability)

Step 6.   Collecting Feedback.

CITYCELL generally follow the pull strategy.

 Setting the Total Promotion Budget

Affordable : Based on What the Company Can  Afford.

Percentage of Sales: Based on a Certain Percentage of Current or Forecasted Sales.

Objective-and-Task: Based on Determining Objectives & Tasks, Then  Estimating Costs Competitive-Parity: Based on the Competitor’s Promotion Budget.

CITYCELL follow mainly affordable and objective task method but some time follow all.

Five “M” of Advertising

Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)

When all the promotion tools are used together to increase sells and profits that is called IMC.

CITYCELL follows the all the advertising tools. So  they follow the IMC.


For a company there are involve two kind of people. One is internal and another is external. Internal people are employees and external people are customers. They create interactive marketing.

Internal people: For internal people CITYCELL provide

following benefits-

  •    Training
  •    Motivation
  •    Divide working hour transportation
  •    Free mobile facilities
  •    Give some special facilities for foreign technician
  •    Employee can join the events which are sponsor by CITYCELL.

External people:

  •    mobile service.
  •    customer care.

Physical Evidence

Physical Evidence is Presentation, Grooming, and Interior Decoration of the company. There Physical Evidence is as follows:

  •    Employees behavior
  •    Well decorated office and customer care center.
  •    Bill statements
  •    Brushier
  •    News letter


 Process is System, Data Management, and Time Management of an organization. There are two kinds of process.

  •    Standard process
  •    Complex process


CITYCELL (Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited) is Bangladesh pioneering Communication Company and only CDMA network operator in the country. They are operate their work with trained operator so customer are always satisfy with there service. CITYCELL has also a good reputation in the market which is also a forward advantage of CITYCELL. Their feature plan is increasing there customer and they are trying hard for this. That day is not away when they rock the telecommunication world. So enjoying the CDMA technology.


Through the all marketing report we get help from various sources. We use our text book, search in the Internet and many source that gain data.

  • Marketing (9th Edition), Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, Prentice Hall: India.
  • Marketing Management (11 th and 12 th Edition ),

     Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller.

  • News Paper         


EEE Science

Coal as a Source of Electrical Energy in Bangladesh


Electrical power is the corner stone of national economy. Electricity can be generated from many sources. Fossil fuel – oil, coal and natural gas dominates power generation. World reserve of fossil fuel resource is fast depleting .Moreover, burning of non fossil fuel is triggering global warming through green house gas emission. Floods, draught, cyclones, tornados, bushfires are causing massive destruction in different countries. People are turning to renewable sources – solar, wind, wave, geothermal, hydroelectricity, nuclear power generation is also getting popularity. Most of the countries have well crafted and professionally managed energy policy. Many countries have regional energy grid for energy trading.

Bangladesh is very lucky that it has got substantial natural gas reserve and significant but almost untapped high quality coal resource. There is also plenty of scope to generate solar power, wind power and energy from bio fuels. Many countries of the world like Japan, Korea do not have any fossil fuel resource yet they are among the top developed nations. They import almost their entire requirement of the fuel for energy generation from highly competitive energy market. Several countries do not have enough basic fuel to meet their huge demand. These countries import energy from energy rich countries to fuel their economy.

Unfortunately our small country Bangladesh of 160 million people has no appropriate strategy. There is an energy policy which is not properly administered.

Electricity generation in Bangladesh is overwhelmingly gas based. More than 85 percent of evening peak demand is catered by natural gas .This is followed at a distant by liquid fuel, and coal with generation shares of 6.76 percent and 5.41 percent respectively. Hydropower accounts for insignificant 2.45 percent of generation. The fuel mix if recalculated using the derated generation capacity, share of gas based generation reduces marginally to 83.45percent; share of liquid fuel and hydro based generation increases to 7.55 percent and 4.60 percent respectively.

The production and supply of natural gas is grossly inadequate. Natural gas is also used as feedstock for fertilizer production, as fuel for many industries, as compressed natural gas for automobiles. It is also used by commercial and domestic consumers. It is said that against a national demand of 2200 MMCFD our production capacity is 1880MMCFD Consequently the deficit is seriously impacting upon power generation and operation of fertilizer plants and other gas using industries. For several years some international oil companies having exploration rights in several exploration blocks did not do any work and now most of them are relinquishing these blocks. Petrobangla companies also failed to implement reservoir reassessment of major gas fields and expand production. So It is not in a position to carry out all its responsibilities. In this situation the remaining 6tcf reserve of natural gas may run out by 2015 if no new discovery is made soon

Bangladesh is now suffering from the worst energy crisis of its history. Entire country is suffering from 8-10 hours load shedding on the average despite of the fact that only 35% of its 15 million people have direct access to power supply. Industrial growth has come to almost standstill due to inadequate gas supply. Existing industries cannot be operated properly due to unsteady supply of energy.

The coal reserves in five fields of Bangladesh are estimated at 3.0 billion tonnes equivalent to 67 tcf of gas, which can conveniently serve the energy needs of Bangladesh for 50 years. Recovery rate of coal from reserves varies with the choice of technology and method of mining. If modern mining technology can be adopted ensuring strong regulatory supervision and monitoring about 85% coal from Barapukuria, Phulbari and Dighipara can be recovered. Khalaspeer can be ideal candidate for Coal Seam methane while we can wait for some years for technological development for mining giant Jamalganj coal mine.

Now, appropriate strategy should be adopted to explore and exploit coal, the only other major energy resource. In the present crisis situation it is felt prudent to discuss about coal situation in Bangladesh. From the information presented in a recent discussion in Dhaka we find Bangladesh does not have any choice but to start coal mining without delay adopting technically appropriate and economically feasible and environmentally friendly mining method.


Bangladesh is an energy hungry country. Power infrastructure of Bangladesh is small and insufficient but the demand is rapidly increasing. The per capita power consumption in Bangladesh is about 136kwh which is one of the lowest in the world but for huge population density our power sector is in enormous pressure. In Bangladesh, electricity is the major source of power and most of the economical activities depends on electricity.

Generation of electricity

Total electric power generation (installed) capacity of Bangladesh is 5823MW [BPDP, June 2010] and only three-fourth of which is considered to be available. The present [Feb, 2011] effective power generation capacity per day is about 4000 MW and the demand is 5000MW.  Only 40% of our total population has the access to electricity and in rural areas it is less than that .

Table  Electricity generation per year (from 2003 to 2011)

Year Electricity – production(kwh) Percent Change Date of Information
2003 15,330,000,000 2001
2004 15,330,000,000 0.00 % 2001
2005 16,450,000,000 7.31 % 2002
2006 17,420,000,000 5.90 % 2003
2007 18,090,000,000 3.85 % 2004
2008 22,780,000,000 25.93 % 2007 est.
2009 22,780,000,000 0.00 % 2007 est.
2010 22,990,000,000 0.92 % 2007 est.
2011 25,620,000,000 11.44 % 2009 est.

In past few years, generation of electricity have been increases in a considerable amount but demand increases more than that, so our generation plants have been unable to meet system demand for a long time.

 Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal, but potentially very large natural gas resources that’s why, most of the generation plant used natural gas as fuel. Some coal, diesel, furnace oil is also used in production of electric power. About 87% of our total electric power is produced by natural gas, 5.75 % by furnace oil, 4.29 % by coal, 3.19 % by diesel and 3.95 % is produced from hydro electric plant.

Generation (installed) capacity by fuel type

Figure Generation (installed) capacity by fuel type(as june 2010)

Distribution and consumption

In Bangladesh, electricity distribution system in controlled by national grid. Total electric power, generated from the power plants is first supplied to the national grid then to the hole counrty through national grid. The Padma-Jamuna-Meghna river divides power distribution sytem  into two zones, East and West. The East contains nearly all of the country’s electric generating capacity, while the West, with almost no natural resources, must import power from the East. Electricity interconnection from the East to the West was accomplished in 1982 by a new, 230-kilovolt (kV) power transmission line. The vast majority of Bangladesh’s electricity consumption takes place in the East, with the entire region west of the Jamuna River accounting for only 22% of the total. There are many organizations to distribute electric power in hole country. Dhaka electric supply authority (desa),   Dhaka electric supply company (desco), dhaka power development corporation (DPDC),  rural electrification board (REB), west zone power development company limited (WZPDCL) etc. All of these companies have their own power demand and the demand is given below in the chart-

 3 Consumption pattern of electric power

Figure  Consumption pattern of electric power (%)

In last few years power consumption in bangladesh is increased in such a high rate that, inspite of  increasing the power generation in a considerable amount , our power system doesn’t meet the goal and still we have a large amount of power shortage. Power consumption of last few years are as following –

Table Yearly power consumption (from 2003 to 2011)

year Electricity – consumption(kwh) Percent Change Date of Information
2003 14,260,000,000 2001
2004 14,250,000,000 -0.07 % 2001
2005 15,300,000,000 7.37 % 2002
2006 16,200,000,000 5.88 % 2003
2007 16,820,000,000 3.83 % 2004
2008 21,370,000,000 27.05 % 2006 est.
2009 21,370,000,000 0.00 % 2006 est.
2010 21,380,000,000 0.05 % 2007 est.
  2011 23,940,000,000 11.97 %                      2009 est.

yearly electric power consumption

Figure : yearly electric power consumption

key problems in power sector

Load shedding and voltage variation

The state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB), which controls nearly three-fourths of the total generation capacity in Bangladesh, has resorted to load shedding as a means to reconcile demand to the available capacity. Load shedding is a significant constraint on growth of the economy.

 Operating Inefficiency

The power sector does not fare well in terms of operating efficiency. For example, Bangladesh requires considerably more employees per customer served than is the case in many countries.

System loss

System loss occurs both for technical reasons and for reasons of inefficiency and corruption in administration. Exact figures of loss are unknown but, at approximately 30 per cent, the net country-wide system loss is probably among the highest in the developing world. The losses incurred differ dramatically across the various utilities.
 Unadjusted tariff structures and ineffective billing procedures

Many countries have been unable to establish tariff structures and billing procedures that enable the power sector to be financially self-supporting. The resulting losses require subsidies from government or donor agencies that divert revenue away from other important programmes,such as education and public health. This problem has afflicted the Bangladesh power sector entities to varying degrees.


Bangladesh is a developing country and most serious challenges we faces is power crisis. What ever we forecast for demand but our calculation failed because if you produce right now 7000 megawatt, it will fulfill with in a very short time because of many development and industries are waiting for power. If power is available, we will see many new projects, industries will consume immediately.

In electricity, when we save power it means we produce power. If somebody save 100 watt, another user can use that power. Therefore energy efficiency is essential in every electric product. All the develop world even India also have energy efficiency authority to motivate and regulating energy efficiency policy.

Now, let’s see in which sector we can reduce use of energy and some policy to motivate the people.

Industrial Sector

Major energy use in industrial sector and there are inductive and non inductive load. In our country, there are no major rules or not applied properly the rules for machine use. Like many industry using motor and sometimes those motor are not efficient at all and may be it will be recondition or old enough to be an efficient motor. Most of the inductive load do not have soft starter. Even in general use of water pump, there are no standard efficient level for selecting pump. Therefore people using 2500 tk water pump and that same 1 hp pump, in good branded one will be 7500 or higher. But people choose low price one which will destroy power and less efficient.

Air condition

Now on days, we are used to use of these products. It is inductive load and consumed good amount of energy. Nobody cares to reduce the temp level or efficient products. Recently, at the same price, many manufacture offering 50% less power but same BTU because they are using DC motor. Therefore high tax, high electricity unit price where higher then 3-5 kilo residential load needed. But it may not be possible due to political and public emotion purpose. But still there are no substitutes to make energy expensive then people will careful to use of energy.

Lighting purpose

We came to new energy saving age and using cfl bulb or tube. It will save energy sure but it cause heavy damage in environmental. Every cfl contain mercury and emit UV. UV is harmful for our skin and mercury is highly radioactive poison. When any bulb damage in our room, we have to keep vacant that room and open door, windows because of mercury vapor. After that we send it outside or sale. If it is goes to river, soil it will damage the water and its poison circle will start. It affect drinking water, fish and we take water or fish and cause cancer, unborn child defect, etc. Some tube light THD level also too high which decrease gird performance. we can use LED light in this purpose. It is environmental friendly, long life (50000 Hrs where cfl is 3000 to 5000 hrs), very less energy consume even one third comparing cfl. As it is still expensive, we can use certified cfl and rules and regulation for recycling cfl. Another thing is still now; customs do not have HS code or tax structure for led light, bulb or tube. Led light must have duty/ tax free access.

BTS for mobile operator

 Bangladesh has rapidly expanding mobile uses and according to that base transmission station also need. Now, 25000 over BTS running and more 7000 or more coming within 2 years. For mobile company, energy unit rate must have different category (high). Every BTS they use 2 pc 1 ton air conditioner which run round the clock. Now, if we calculate everyday 18 hrs air condition running this means 32.4 kilo only air condition. 32.4 times 25000 = 810000 kilo everyday 810 megawatt everyday.

 Future plan

In Bangladesh ,crisis in power sector becomes one of the major problems .some recent steps and a strong and clear forecasting is needed to overcome that problems .power sector is always been one of the major priority for Bangladesh government . To overcome the problems, a large and clear future plan is been taken by Bangladesh government.

It is estimated that power demand of our country will be almost double in upcoming 5 years.

Energy advisors press meet produced some important figures as can be seen below-

Table  Estimated Demand [ MW Per Day ] Supply Gap

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Max Demand 6454 6765 7518 8349 9268 10283 11405
New Generation

Public Sector

255 851 838 1040 1270 450 1500
New Generation Private Sector 520 1343 1319 1134 1053 1900 1300
Power Import 500      
Capacity Retired   58 83 161 1292 128 1033
Generation Capacity 5936 8042 10116 12629 13660 15882 17649
NET 5499 7720 9 12124 13114 15247 16543
Dependable Capacity[Dec2010] 4331 5945 7575 9578 10491 12197 13554
Maximum  supply Shortage In Summer 2123 520 57 + 1229 + 1223 + 1914 +2149


yearly increasing demand ( in MW )

Figure  yearly increasing demand ( in MW )

Bangladesh government will increase power generation to reach their goal of ‘load shedding free Bangladesh ” , for that a large number of power new plant will be installed in next 5 years.

Some of the future projects given below –

Power plant in Sirajgonj

 Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina recently (4th april,2011) laid foundation stone of 150 megawatt peaking power plant at Saidabad in the district. Hasina also inaugurated expansion works of the Saidabad-Enayetpur road and reopened the much-expected Sirajganj National Jute Mills previously known as Qaumi Jute Mills.

Chittagong power to get Canadian help

A Canadian company has expressed its interest in generating electricity from the domestic waste produced by the Chittagong city people every day. CEO of Canadian Company Technology Not Theory (TNT) Steve Smith expressed the interest to the Mayor of CCC in meeting with the mayor recently. The project is fully environment friendly and pollution free, Smith pointed.

Power Grid Company installing substation

The Power Grid Company of Bangladesh recently signed an agreement with German company Siemens to install a substation that would link about 30 kilometers grid interconnection between Bangladesh and India to import 500MW electricity from 2012.

BGMEA to set up power plant

Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), apex body of the readymade garment (RMG) industry, will shortly begin a technical assessment on setting up small, area-based power plants. The BGMEA move came in response to Prime Minister (PM) Sheikh Hasina’s call recently to set up such power plants to meet industry demand.

North West power generation company to install 810 MW power plant

North-West Power Generation Company (NWPGCO), a newly formed state-owned power company, is set to install 810 MW power project in the northwestern part of the country to address nagging power crisis of the area.

Bangladesh and India power transmission deal

Bangladesh and India signed a power transmission agreement for electricity to be imported to energy-starved Bangladesh.

Initially, 250 megawatts of power would be available to Bangladesh from India, with transmission to start in 2012.

Under the deal, state-owned Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. will invest and construct 50 miles of transmission line, which it will own, operate and maintain. PGCIL will recover the construction costs under a fixed rate over 35 years.

While the agreement is limited to importing 500 megawatts of electricity from India, state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board Chairman Alamgir Kabir said that more interconnections might be built in the future with Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar to ensure greater energy security

Bangladesh and Russia deal

In May 2011, Bangladesh and Russia signed a framework agreement for Bangladesh’s first nuclear plant, expected to produce at least 2,000 megawatts of electricity by 2020. Bangladesh aims to have nuclear energy account for 10 percent of its total power generation by that time.

Some other Future power plants

Govern take a plan to produce  4500MW more power by installing some new power plantds. List of the plants and their capacity is given below –

Table Future power plant

Location Fuel Capacity Implementation
Nabiganj , Bibiyana Natural Gas 450 Combined Cycle Plant 2013
Siarjgonj Natural Gas 450 Combined Cycle Plant 2013
Meghnaghat unit 2   & 3 Natural Gas 2 unit each 450 Combined Cycle Plant 2013
Bheramara Natural Gas 450 Combined Cycle Plant 2014
Horipoor Natural Gas 300 MW Combined Cycle 2014
Chanddpoor Dual Fuel 150 MW CCP 2014
Khulna Dual Fuel 250 MW CCP 2014
Siddhiragnj Natural Gas 2×150 = 300 MW Peaking Plants 2014
Phulbari Coal Fired using Clean Coal Technology 2×500= 1000MW 2014
Mongla Coal Fired using Clean Coal Technology 500MW 2014
Total 4750MW 2014

Government to set up coal based power plant

According to Power System Master Plan (PSMP) the government has planned to set up eight new power plants with 4,000MW capacity by the year 2015. The government has primarily identified 13 places to install coal based power plants and now trying to install four plants at Khulna, Mongla, Meghnaghat and Chittagong areas, Taking into consideration the fast-growing demand of power consumption amid scanty supply, the PSMP has also taken up a mega-plan for producing about 20500MW additional electricity in 20 years from 2005 to 2025 by setting up 30 new plants. Bangladesh government needs US dollar six billion to implement coal power projects to meet the increased demand of electricity in the country. Of the plants, eight or more will be installed in the country’s north and northeastern regions where demand for electricity is increasing at a galloping rate of seven percent, in order to achieve this goal the development of Barapukuria and Phulbari should be more intensive.

Natural Gas

Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon-dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.

In Bangladesh natural gas is most important indigenous source of energy that accounts for 75% of the commercial energy of the country. About 89% of the electricity generated in the country comes from gas fired power plants. Installed capacity of Electricity generation by gas is steam-2638 MW (45.31%), Gas turbines-1466 MW (25.18%), combined cycle-1263 MW (21.69%). So far in Bangladesh 23 gas fields have been discovered with the rate of success ratio is 3.1:1 of which two of the gas fields are located in offshore area. Gas is produced from 17 gas fields (79 gas wells). To reduce the dependency on natural gas, alternative energy resource must be explored. Average daily gas production capacity is about 2000 mmcfd of which International Oil Companies (IOC) produce 1040 mmcfd and State Owned Companies (SOC) produce 960 mmcfd. At present the daily approximate projected gas demand throughout the country is 2500 MMCFD. The demand is increasing day by day. Energy and Mineral Resources Division (EMRD) has already undertaken an array of short, medium, fast track and long term plans to increase gas production to overcome prevailing gas shortage. After completion of these plans production capacity is expected to increase to about 2353 MMCFD gas by December 2015. To increase the gas production more programs will be taken in near future.


Oil is another source of electricity generation. Bangladesh is not a oil enriched country. Diesel, Furnace oil (HFO) are generally used in Bangladesh to produce electricity. Here 226 MW (3.87%) electricity generates from Diesel.  To meet the total demand of commercial energy, Bangladesh imports annually about 1.3 million metric Tons of crude oil. In addition to this, another 2.7 million metric Tons (approx) of refined petroleum products per annum is imported. Condensate is mixed with crude oil. Major consumer of liquid fuel is transport sector followed by agriculture, industry and commercial sector which is mostly met by imported liquid fuel. Eastern Refinery Limited (ERL), a subsidiary company of Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC), is capable of processing 1.3 million metric Tons of crude oil per year.

Oil was tested in two of the gas fields (Sylhet and Kailashtila). Crude oil, the liquid form of hydrocarbon, has been discovered in commercial quantity only in the Haripur oil field in Sylhet. The oil field has an estimated in-place oil reserve of about 10 million barrels, with a recoverable reserve of about 6 million barrels. The oil field produced 0.56 million barrels of oil in six years. Khulna Power Company Limited is one of the main oil based power station of Bangladesh. Furnace oil is its main fuel.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is the energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, water, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional Biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.


Karnafuli Hydro Power Station the only hydropower plant in the country is located at kaptai, about 50 km from the port city of chittagong. This plant was constructed in 1962 as part of the ‘Karnafuli Multipurpose Project’, and is one of the biggest water resources development project of Bangladesh. After being commissioned in 1962, the plant could feed the national grid with 80 MW of electricity. In later years, the generation capacity was increased in two phases to a total of 230 MW which is 3.95% of total generated electricity. The plant not only plays an important role in meeting the power demand of the country but is also vital as a flood management installation for the areas downstream.

In future hydroelectricity will be a probable sector of power generation of Bangladesh. Possibility of installing mini and micro level hydro-electric power plant in the hilly areas of Bangladesh would be explored.

Solar Energy 

Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Potential of solar energy is good in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a poor country and it’s a huge cost to established a power plant. Consequently, the only option that is open to Bangladesh at the moment is renewable energy such as solar and hydro-electric. Particularly solar energy is sufficiently abundant in Bangladesh and can fruitfully be harnessed. But due to its higher cost of equipment it has to go a long way to become commercially viable. However, in remote areas of Bangladesh it is gradually becoming popular and government has undertaken lot of scheme to subsidize on it. Presently there are about 2, 64,000 solar panels installed throughout the country.

Now, more than 3 lakh houses (.3m) of 465 upazilla of all the districts and 16 islands are getting the light of solar energy. The beneficiaries of this system are about 30 lacks (3m). 44 megawatt electricity is produced everyday from the solar projects in Bangladesh. In future Bangladesh Government wants to produce 20% of electricity from the solar energy.


Biogas may be the most promising renewable energy resource. Presently there are about 50,000 households and village-level biogas plants in place throughout the country. There is a huge potential for expansion in rural areas.

There is prospect of producing 1,000MW electricity from Biogas and if the opportunity is utilized the growing shortage of electricity could be solved in this power-starved country. The government agency Infrastructure Development Company Limited sources said Bangladesh has 215,000 poultry farms and 15,000 cattle farms. Establishing biogas plants in these farms, electricity could be generated. So far 35,000 biogas plants have been established across the country and these plants are producing gas, which is being used for cooking purposes in the rural areas. At present 33 lack squire feet biogas is being produced in the country daily. The Government agency said they got eight core tons of cow dung in 2004.With this cow dung, 30 lack biogas plants could be run. Government has a target to establishing 60,000 biogas plants by 2012.

Wind Power

Wind power harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. 31 At the end of 2009, worldwide wind farm capacity was 157,900 MW, representing an increase of percent during the year. Germany, Spain, Denmark, Portugal, United States are leading wind power producer country.

Bangladesh generates a very small amount of electricity from this sector. Windmills are with capacity of 2 MW in operation in the coastal area of Bangladesh. The possibly of this type of power generation is low.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear power station use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235 inside a nuclear reactor. Now a day it’s one of the major sources of electricity. At present in Bangladesh electricity generates from nuclear energy is 0%. Recently we signed an agreement with Russia to install our first nuclear plant at Rooppur in Pabna. The construction cost is initially being put at between US$1.5 billion and $2 billion in the final agreement The Rooppur nuclear power plant (RNPP) will eventually generate around 2,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity, with each of two proposed reactors having a capacity to generate 1,000 MW.

Coal as a source of energy

Coal is a valuable and plentiful natural global resource. Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity, worldwide. Coal plays a vital role in electricity generation worldwide. Coal-fired power plants currently fuel 41% of global electricity.

Besides natural gas, Bangladesh has significant coal reserve. Coal reserves of about 3.3 billion tons comprising 5 deposits at depths of 118-1158 meters have been discovered so far in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The name of these deposits are-Barapukuria, Phulbari and Dighipara coal field in Dinajpur district, Khalashpir in Rangpur district and Jamalganj in Joypurhat district. Out of which 4 deposits (118-509 meters) are extractable at present. As an alternative fuel to natural gas, coal can be extensively used. The depth of Jamalganj coal deposit is 640-1158 meter with 1053 Million Tones in-situ coal reserve where production may not be viable by present day’s technology due to the depth of the deposits. Possibilities of extraction of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) need to be explored from this coal deposits. Government is actively reviewing law to be applicable for Exploration and Production of Coal Bed Methane. So far, only Barapukuria coal field is under production. Dinajpur Barapukuria coal fired power plant is our first coal based power plant which capacity is 250MW. Then some small power plant was made. Bangladesh has a bright future in coal based power generation if we remove the obstacle of this sector.

Coal fields of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is sleeping on coal mine bed located in the northern districts of Rangpur and Dinajpur, while facing a mounting energy crisis and relies on natural gas as the main source of energy, which is depleting at geometrical progression. In contrast, Bangladesh has proven reserve of 3.0 billion tonnes of low sulphur, low ash, high caloric value bituminous coal in five discovered coal mines – Phulbari, Barapukuria, Jamalganj, Dighipara and Khalsapir.

Bangladesh has 15 tcf (trillion cubic feet) of proven reserve of natural gas; the remaining 6 tcf reserve of natural gas may run out by 2015, if no discovery is made soon.  As against this, the coal reserves in five fields of Bangladesh are estimated at 3.0 billion tonnes equivalent to 67 tcf of gas, which can conveniently serve the energy needs of Bangladesh for 50 years.

Table Coal Reserves in Bangladesh

The depth of the discovered fields ranges between 119 – 506 metres and 150 – 240 metres in Barapukuria and Phulbari respectively. The depth of the largest field at Jamalganj ranges from 900 – 1000 metres.  The area covered by coal fields is rather limited and is about 70 – 80 square kilometres. A total of 1.73 million tonnes of coal has been extracted by underground method from Barapukuria up to December 2008. The present value of coal per tonne in international market is for steam coal US$ 65-115, coking coal US$ 250, metallurgic coke coal US$ 525. The total value of coal will be more than US$ 500 billion.

Barapukuria Coal Field

The Barapukuria coalfield is located at the Parbatipur Upazila of Dinajpur district, at a distance of about 50 km southeast of Dinajpur town. The coalfield has a proved area of about 5.25sq km. The estimated resource of the coalfield is 390 MT.

The government decided to establish an underground coal mine at Barapukuria. In 1993, the government entered into a contract with the Chinese government for technical and financial assistances for establishing the mine. The mine construction by the Chinese contractor started in 1996 and was originally scheduled to be completed by 2001. But this was delayed and finally commercial production started from September 2005.

However, the underground mining operation in Barapukuria has been facing many difficulties from the beginning of its development stage. In 1998, a sudden water inrush flooded the mine and forced to suspend mine development works for two years. The revised mine design reduced both mineable reserve and mine life. In fact, the existing geologic setup: the thick overlying water bearing Upper Dupi Tila  sequence, high jointed thick coal seam (36m) with numerous faults and joints made the situation difficult for smooth economic operation of the mine. The unfavorable underground mining environment with high temperature, very high humidity, and unidentified sources of hot water, spontaneous combustion and lethal gas emission made the situation dangerous and unhygienic for the mine workers. An incident of spontaneous combustion and emission of poisonous carbon monoxide gas led to suspend operation and sealing off a mining face with one of its longwall systems.

Phulbari Coal Field

The Phulbari coalfield was discovered in 1997 by BHP Minerals. The Phulbari coalfield is located about 10 km south of the Barapukuria coal field and in the vicinity of Phulbari township. The coalfield is conveniently located close to the new dual gauge rail line.

Subsequent to the discovery of Phulbari coalfield, BHP Minerals decided to withdraw from Bangladesh and transferred its Contract and existing licenses to another mining company Asia Energy Corporation (Bangladesh) Pty Ltd with the approval of the Government. In this regard, an Assignment Agreement was signed on 11 February 1998.  The pre feasibility study carried out in 2000 confirmed the economic viability of large scale open pit mine in Phulbari Basin. Asia Energy had undertaken a detailed feasibility study including extensive geological, hydro geological, environmental and social studies during the period 2004-05 and established an internationally accepted (JORC Standard) resource of 572 Mt of high quality thermal and metallurgical coal.

The mining area in the Phulbari Basin covers an area of eight kilometers (north-south) by three kilometers (east-west) with coal seam(s) varying between 15-70 meters thick at some 150-270 meters beneath the surface, with average combined thickness of 38 meters. The Phulbari coal is high volatile bituminous coal. It has low ash (average 15%) and low sulfur content (<1%) and therefore suitable for both power generation and for producing semi-soft coking coal.

Asia Energy submitted Scheme of Development on October 2005 to the Government with a plan to develop the Phulbari coal deposit by the open cut mining method. In 5 years three governments failed to either approve the scheme or reject it with technical justifications. Coal resources of  Phulbari remains unexplored.

The mine is estimated to produce 15 million tonnes of coal per year over 35 years of mine life. Asia Energy has also submitted proposal to setup up to 1000 MW mine mouth coal-fired power plant based on Phulbari coal. In addition to coal, the open pit mining method will allow economic extraction of other co-products like kaolin, clay, glass sand rock and aggregate, which are in high demand.

Jamalganj Coal Field

The Jamalganj coalfield is located in Joypurhat district in the vicinity of Jamalganj town and to the west of the north-south broad-gauge railway line. The coalfield was discovered in 1962 by the Geological Survey (of the then Pakistan) under the UN sponsored coal exploration program. Under the program 10 wells were drilled in the Jamaganj-Paharpur area of Joypurhat district. Coal seams were encountered in 9 wells within depth range of 640 to 1158 meter below the surface in Permian Gondwana rocks. The 9 bore holes that penetrated the coal seams are spread over an area having a maximum east-west distance of 12.5 km and a north-south distance of 4.8 km. The coal field has an estimated resource of 1053 Mt bituminous coal.

Following the discovery of the coalfield, several international consultants, were invited to conduct mine feasibility study. These include Fried Krupp Rohstoff (1966), Polwell Daffryn Technical Services (1969) and Robertson Research International (1976). Although rated technically feasible, the economic feasibility of mining Jamalganj coal could not be shown because of the unfavorable depth of coal seams. Eventually, the idea of mining coal from Jamalganj field was abandoned when a large coal deposit was discovered at much shallower depth of about 120 meter below the surface at Barapukuria basin in Dinajpur district. However, developing coal bed methane (CBM) in the Jamalganj coalfield has since been considered a potentially viable option.

 Khalashpir Coal Field

Khalashpir coalfield is located in Pirganj Upazila of Rangpur district, about 13 km west of Pirganj town. Khalashpir coalfield was discovered in 1989 by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh. The coalfield was delineated and defined on the basis of the four drill holes done during 1989-90. The coal was encountered at depths ranging from 257 to 482 meter below the surface in a Gondwana basin. Occurrence of coal has been proved in an area of about 2.52 sq km and a further extension of the basin is estimated. The Khalashpir coalfield has an estimated resource varying from 143-450 Mt.

Dighipara Coal Field

Dighipara coalfield is located in Dighupara Upazila of Rangpur district,  Dighipara coalfield was discovered in 1995 by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh. The coalfield was delineated and defined on the basis of the five drill holes. The coal was encountered at depths is 327meter below the surface. The Dighipara coalfield has an estimated resource of 200 Mt.

Coal mining methods

However, we failed to explore and exploit the natural resources to utilize these for economic development. We have miserably failed to cope up with the increasing energy demand of the country. We have age-old mining policy, mining act and mining regulations. We do not have any exploration and utilization strategy of gas reserve. We are yet to have a coal policy finalized. The Bureau of Mineral Development issued a license to BHP(Broken Hill Proprietary Company), Australia in 1994 for exploration of Phulbari Mine. The license was transferred to Asia Energy in 1997. Bangladesh media quoting responsible sources stated that Asia Energy is yet to obtain mining license. However, the mining could not proceed due to alleged lack of transparency in award of the license and unrest in the area triggered by a motivated group of left leaning intellectuals. The agitations lead to death of 6 protesters in police and paramilitary troops firing.Coal mining at Phulbari and other coal fields now hinges on the Coal Policy under consideration of the government. The Coal Policy is pending for quite some time due to disagreements on some issues, namely,

(a) Open pit versus underground mining

(b) Social environmental impact management

(c) Royalty etc. Government engaged committee having line professionals

Selection of mining methods depend on several things – geology of mine area, terrain condition, topography, soil condition and nature, depth, thickness and nature of coal seam, surface and subsurface soil condition.

One of the major challenges the energy sector is facing is to find out ways how to economically exploit its substantial high quality coal reserve .The predominantly mono fuel –Natural Gas dependent power generation is in limbo. The proven gas resource is widely believed to be exhausted in not too distant future. For confusion and panic set in by inexperienced ill motivated theoreticians and absence of strong political commitment government could not take decision of appropriate mining strategy to economically exploit coal resource. The deficit is widening. The ensuing summer will witness massive load shedding.

The just installed democratic government will face serious embarrassment for failures of incompetent last political and immediately past Care Taker Government. Of the 5 discovered ca coal mines the Jamalgonj coal is at greater depth which cannot be mined in traditional mining methods. Coal at Khalaspeer and Dighipara are also at relatively greater depth. Barapukuria and Phulbari coal are at relative shallower depth. The geology makes these ideal for open pit surface mining which is in practice in the following countries now.

Bangladesh which has limited capacity to purchase petroleum products from volatile world oil market cannot continue to keep its fortune buried underground forever. It cannot also remain confused triggered from myths and ill motivated propaganda of a vested group. The disadvantage is most of our innocent people as well as policy makers do not have much knowledge of mining. There is no scope of learning mining technology in Bangladesh also. During Pakistan days sons of well to do persons who could not get admissions in Ahshanullah Engineering College used to go to Lahore to study mining. This group of mining engineers worked in Gas sector in absence of mining activities in Bangladesh. They could neither become good miners nor good gas engineers. Rather for their control other professionals got frustrated and many left gas sectors. Many mining engineers created controversy in Gas Sector also. There were few outstanding mining engineers as well. But no all of them retired. But unfortunately none of them were included in drafting coal policy.

Bangladesh let a Chinese company start underground mining at Barapukuria. Many mining experts felt the existing geology can never make underground mining technically viable or economically feasible there. Still a vested group of BNP government from 1991-96 allowed to start Barapukuria mining under suppliers credit. Experts now feel that there were several juggleries in the project approval process. It now appears that proper risk assessments of Bapaukuria mining were not done. The possible and probable subsidence impacts were not anticipated and no actions were foreseen to address those impacts. Now after a more that one and a half decade of trouble tone mining with several major set backs at various stage mine subsidence impacts are now visible which may puts future of mining uncertain.

BHP Billiton, the leading Mining Company of the world was given mining lease at Phulabri where very thick seam bituminous coal is lying at shallow depth. At some stage of survey and assessment it transferred lease to Asia Energy Corporation. (AEC) UK.AEC carried out extensive survey, carried out some exploratory drillings, completed extensive Environment Impact Assessment studies. Then it submitted a comprehensive study to Government of Bangladesh in January 2005 after meeting all the contractual requirements. The development plan included surface mining methods. It included proper relocation and rehabilitation plan of the affected people. Bangladesh was due to approve to reject the development plan within the contractual time frame.

He engaged a  so called Energy Expert   to review the Phulbari mining matters. This gentleman stepped out of his assigned responsibility and agitated the people of Phulbari over AEC proposed open pit mining.BNP government should have done community consultations to pacify the situation. But a very arrogant Mahmud let situation go out of control .The local agitation led to unfortunate situation when some innocent misguided local people were killed.

The local situation was to be controlled by signing a compromise agreement by Mayor Rajshahi and MP. This irrelevant piece of paper was signed with a legally unrecognizable organisation. Now based on this the agitators are demanding to scrap AEC contract , banning open pit mining etc, etc & etc. Any sensible person will realize that such an agreement has no legal bearing in dealing with a contract signed between a sovereign government and an international company.

Any contract includes a termination clause. It requires one party to establish default of the other party with evidences. It also requires the party notifying default of the other party to give them to defend its position. If Bangladesh ventures to terminate the AEC contract then this will obviously go to arbitration. Bangladesh will invariably loose and will have to pay huge compensation.

Open pit mining
Open pit mining as defined in open encyclopaedia states, “Open pit mining, also known as opencast mining, open –cut mining, and strip mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Open –pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rock are found near the surfaces, that is where the overburden (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunneling .For minerals that occur deep below the surface –where overburden is thick or minerals occurs as veins in hard rock – underground mining methods extract the valuable material.

Open pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resources are exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However some form of water control is usually required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake.

Open Cut mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole. These benches are usually on four meter to sixty meter intervals, depending on the size of the machinery that is being used. Many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow.

Most walls of the pit are generally dug on an angle less than vertical, to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. This depends on how weathered the rocks are, and the type of rock, and also how many structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a fault, shears, joints or foliations.

The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or perm. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the entire face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and concrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause failures in the wall by itself.A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock.

Waste rock is piled up at the surface, near the edge of the open cut. This is known as the waste dump. The waste dump is also tiered and stepped, to minimize degradation. Ore which has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally a slurry. This is pumped to a tailings dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates. Tailings dams can often be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, and often cyanide which is used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process.
After mining finishes, the mine area must undergo rehabilitation. Waste dumps are contoured to flatten them out, to further stabilize them. If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, which can oxidize the sulfides to produce sulfuric acid, a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage. This is then generally covered with soil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material. Eventually this layer will erode, but it is generally hoped that the rate of leaching or acid will be slowed by the cover such that the environment can handle the load of acid and associated heavy metals. There are no long term studies on the success of these covers due to the relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. It may take hundreds to thousands of years for some waste dumps to become “acid neutral” and stop leaching to the environment. The dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation. The open pit is then surrounded with a fence, to prevent access, and it generally eventually fills up with ground water. In arid areas it may not fill due to the deep groundwater levels.

Environmentalists in all countries oppose mining; oppose burning of coal. But nowhere they can ride over policy makers to keep mining suspended for years when the energy security is compromised by not adopting economic mining method as is the case in Bangladesh. In this context it will not be out of place to discuss almost a similar situation in Malaysia – a country having almost similar geographical, geological and environmental situation like Bangladesh.

Underground Coal mining

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process, which converts coal into product gas. UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface. The product gas could to be used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. The technique can be applied to resources that are otherwise unprofitable or technically complicated to extract by traditional mining methods and it also offers an alternative to conventional coal mining methods for some resources.

Underground coal gasification converts coal to gas while still in the coal seam (in-situ). Gas is produced and extracted through wells drilled into the un-mined coal seam. Injection wells are used to supply the oxidants (air, oxygen, or steam) to ignite and fuel the underground combustion process. Separate production wells are used to bring the product gas to surface. The high pressure combustion is conducted at temperature of 700–900 °C (1,290–1,650 °F), but it may reach up to 1,500 °C (2,730 °F). The process decomposes coal and generates carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (ḥ), carbon monoxide (CO) and small quantities of methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide(H2S). As the coal face burns and the immediate area is depleted, the oxidants injected are controlled by the operator

As coal varies considerably in its resistance to flow, depending on its age, composition and geological history, the natural permeability of the coal to transport the gas is generally not adequate. For high pressure break-up of the coal, hydro-fracturing, electric-linkage, and reverse combustion may be used in varying degrees.

Two methods are commercially available. One uses vertical wells and a method of reverse combustion to open internal pathways in the coal. The process was used in the Soviet Union and was later modified by Ergo Energy. It was tested in Chinchilla site in 1998–2003. Livermore developed another method that creates dedicated inseam boreholes, using drilling and completion technology adapted from oil and gas production. It has a movable injection point known as CRIP (controlled retraction injection point) and generally uses oxygen or enriched air for gasification.

According to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation the following coal seam characteristics are most suitable for the underground coal gasification:

  • Depth of 100–600 meters (330–2,000 ft)
  • Thickness more than 5 meters (16 ft)
  • Ash content less than 60%
  • Minimal discontinuities

There are a number of site specific technical factors which are important to the process. Coals with wide range of properties can be utilized, items of significance include

  • The geology of the coal seam must be continuous and preferably thicker than three meters.
  • The overburden should be more than 100m thick, relatively impermeable and with reasonable strength above the coal seam.
  • The water table preferably should be within 20m or from the ground surface to provide cavity water pressure to balance the oxidant injection pressure and limit product gas leak

While each of the above each of the above item is individually important, it is over an appraisal of many technical aspects of the site that govern sits suitability for development. Commercial matters like size of coal reserve and the market for the produced gas are also critical for the development of a project at a particular site.

Comparison between the methods

Bangladeshi policy makers may carry out some research on UCG .It is not very difficult to locate the real pioneers of UCG. Whether or not UCG can be applicable in any Bangladesh coalmine is subjected to extensive feasibility study by truly professional company of proven track record. It is too early to comment on suitability of Bangladeshi coal mines for UCG. Let Government find the most appropriate company from among handful companies involved in UCG in Australia, South Africa and Pakistan. Let there be authentic feasibility study. Minor companies can tell stories but they can do nothing practically. UCG is a highly sophisticated and sensitive technology. One of the early generation UCG pioneer Russian Canadian Mr Blinderman is now living in Canada. Bangladesh must not try amateur attempt to extract UCG from its mines as they did with Barapukuria coalmine pursuing inappropriate underground mining. If any of our mine qualify for UCG that must be established by experts of proven technology. But this must not bring any impediments to mining of coal from reserves which are suitable for traditional mining.

Professionals already mentioned time and again about applicability of Strip Mining [Open Pit] at Barapukuria and Phulbari. Many thinks a combination of Open pit and underground mining can work in Khalaspeer and Dighipara. Unfortunately detail feasibility study could only be carried out at Phulbari by internationally accredited consultants. . Even then policy makers could not take decision on Phulbari after 5 years of receipt of professional mining proposal. The in appropriate mining at Barapukuria has triggered disaster. The most suitable mine for strip mining is an opportunity lost. Barapukuria is proved to be a failed project yet triggered massive subsidence at very early stage of mining. It experienced all impacts of an failed underground long wall mining .Luckily there has been not many causalities so far.

For example:
The existence of the open-pit mine, in Mukah have proven to be a blessing to the Iban community because:
They benefitted directly from the land compensation given by the said mining company for rights to mine on their land. Evidence can be seen from the fact that many of the long houses locating on the Mukah Coalfield have utilised the money to upgrade their longhouses and to purchase other necessities to enjoy comfort of modern living.
Through employment received from the said mining company , the community can supplement their shifting cultivation income by the more consistent monthly wages earned working as mining crew.
A As they are expose to the usage of modern equipment , they are able to accelerate their assimilation into modern world of 21st century and this will augur well for the Iban community in general specially for the younger generation.

The open cut mining project in Mukah have brought substantial benefits to the local community and the State of Srawak, through such contribution as Royalties to the sate for extraction of coal, a better standard of living for the local community through direct and indirect employment and a general increase in business for the local businesses in Mukah Division.

There seems to be lot of similarities of Mukah region of Malaysia with our Phulbari, Barapukuria region. We can definitely try to learn lessons and try to replicate the good works. Malaysia is not very far from Bangladesh. Government can organize sending its officials, mining professionals, environmentalists to eye witness the mining activities, and management of social and environmental impacts of open pit mining. It is not a rocket science. We talk about digital Bangladesh. We still do not know what open pit mining is. Silly and ridiculous to keep our fortune buried while nation continues to suffer from serious energy crisis


Modern life is unimaginable without electricity. It lights houses, buildings, streets, provides domestic and industrial heat, and powers most equipment used in homes, offices and machinery in factories. Improving access to electricity worldwide is critical to alleviating poverty.

How is Coal Converted to Electricity

Steam coal also known as thermal coal is used in power stations to generate electricity.

Coal is first milled to a fine powder which increases the surface area and allows it to burn more quickly. In these pulverized coal combustion (PCC) systems the powdered coal is blown into the combustion chamber of a boiler where it is burnt at high temperature (see diagram below). The hot gases and heat energy produced converts water – in tubes lining the boiler – into steam.

The high pressure steam is passed into a turbine containing thousands of propeller-like blades. The steam pushes these blades causing the turbine shaft to rotate at high speed. A generator is mounted at one end of the turbine shaft and consists of carefully wound wire coils. Electricity is generated when these are rapidly rotated in a strong magnetic field. After passing through the turbine the steam is condensed and returned to the boiler to be heated once again.

The electricity generated is transformed into the higher voltages (up to 400,000 volts) used for economic efficient transmission via power line grids. When it nears the point of consumption, such as our homes the electricity is transformed down to the safer 100-250 voltage systems used in the domestic market.

 Electricity sector in Bangladesh

Bangladesh’s energy infrastructure is quite small insufficient and poorly managed. The per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (136 kWH) in the world. Noncommercial energy sources such as wood, animal wastes, and crop residues are estimated to account for over half of the country’s energy consumption. Bangladesh has small reserves of oil and coal but very large natural gas resources. Commercial energy consumption is mostly natural gas (around 66%) followed by oil, hydropower and coal.

Electricity is the major source of power for country’s most of the economic activities. Bangladesh’s installed electric generation capacity was 4.7 GW in 2009 only three-fourth of which is considered to be ‘available’. Only 40% of the population has access to electricity with a per capita availability of 136 kWh per annum. Problems in the Bangladesh’s electric power sector include corruption in administration, high system losses, delays in completion of new plants, low plant efficiencies, erratic power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and shortages of funds for power plant maintenance. Overall the country’s generation plants have been unable to meet system demand over the past decade.

In generating and distributing electricity the failure to adequately manage the load leads to extensive load shedding which results in severe disruption in the industrial production and other economic activities. A recent survey reveals that power outages result in a loss of industrial output worth $1 billion a year which reduces the GDP growth by about half a percentage point in Bangladesh. A major hurdle in efficiently delivering power is caused by the inefficient distribution system. It is estimated that the total transmission and distribution losses in Bangladesh amount to one-third of the total generation the value of which is equal to US $247 million per year.

Developing Thar Coal  In Bangladesh

Coal is the cheapest source of energy consumed the world over playing a pivotal role in the generation of power for the smooth operation of industries. Thar coal is said to be one of the largest coal reserves in the world situated in Tharparkar Sindh. Coal is the most important source used for generating electricity in most of the developed and developing countries.

The authentic statistics of the World Coal Institute, London published in 2006 say that the share of the coal in the production of power in the United States is about 52.2 per cent while China produces 77.5 per cent of its total electricity by using coal.

The share of coal in the production of electricity is 92.2 per cent in South Africa. Our closest neighbor (India) meets approximately 70 per cent of its power needs through coal whereas we are using just five per cent of our coal for energy production.

Several MoUs were signed between the past government of the PPP and multinational exploration companies which even invested and began working on the infrastructural development of the area but after the removal of the PPP government Mian Nawaz Sharif scrapped those coal development projects on political grounds.

During the Musharraf regime a Chinese company was invited to invest in the project aimed at generating 600 MW of electricity but due to unfriendly attitude of Wapda and Nepra the Chinese company had to quit.

Now when we are facing the worst-ever energy crisis we must start developing Thar coalfields. The Sindh Coal and Energy Board has been established under the chairmanship of the Sindh Chief Minister which has still to show its performance. To end the energy crisis once for all development of Thar coal is the most feasible option available.

Power Generation In Bangladesh

In November 2010 Reuters reported that the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) had announced the aim of generate 9,000 megawatts of electricity by 2015. The country currently produces approximately 4,000 MW of electricity a day “against peak hourly demand of over 6,000 MW.

The BPDB called for tender bids on a number of new power plants including two coal-fired plants. One is a 300MW coal plant to be built near Chittagong port. The tender closes at the end of January 2011. The board has also sought tenders for a 650MW coal plant to be built near Mawa. Both projects are proposed to be constructed on a build own and operate basis for 25 years. Reuters reported that BPDB officials stated that in the near future thwy would call for bids for 10 new power plants to add another 4,000 megawatts of electricity to the national grid.

Local coal for power generation

THE Power Development Board (PDB) has reportedly proposed last week to form a public limited company to install coal-based power plants in future. According to PDB sources four mega coal-based power plants having capacity of producing 500 megawatt of electricity each would be established under the supervision of the proposed company by 2014. Several companies have already expressed interest to establish the plants under Public Private Partnership.

The country suffers from a serious shortage of electricity. According to sources the total generation comes to 3,200mw of electricity against the demand for 4,600mw. The crisis has reached a point of seriously hampering production in mills and factories. Several power plants are reportedly producing electricity less than their capacities. Some others have stopped production due to short supply of gas that fuels 80 percent of power generation. According to a projection, the country will need about 10,000mw and 14,000mw electricity by 2015 and 2020 respectively. But except for limited reserves of gas there is only coal to fuel power plants. So the proposal for installation of coal-based power plants is a step in the right direction.

It has been reported that PDB would use imported coal to run the proposed plants. Bangladesh has a proven reserve of 2,086 million tons of high quality coal. According to experts this coal is enough to generate 5,000mw of electricity for up to 90 years. It will also save about US$500 million that the country spends annually to import coal. Petrobangla had in June even proposed to export two lakh tons of coal from Barapukuria due to storage problem. Then what is the reason behind the idea of using imported coal instead of the local coal. The country should go for early extraction of its own coal resource.

New company to be set up to increase coal-based power generation

The government will form a new company styled ‘Bangladesh Coal Power Company’ to set up the planned coal-fired power plants and increase the country’s electricity generation by using the mineral officials. The power ministry has already decided to create the company after enlisting it with the Registrar of the Joint Stock Companies and Firms (RJSCF).

The proposed new company will boost electricity generation from coal which is abundant in northern Bangladesh. Immediately after formation of the company it will be engaged to facilitate setting up four coal-fired power plants to generate 2,000 megawatts (mw) of electricity each having generation capacity of 500 mw.

The power ministry has taken up the program for installing four coal-fired
power plants under the new concept of the private public partnership (PPP) where the government will own only a fraction of its shares for offering land and infrastructure. It will require around US$ 3.0 billion (Tk 210 billion) for setting up these coal plants. When contacted Chairman of Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) ASM Alamgir Kabir said the board is now working on the formation of the new company to augment electricity generation from the coal-fired power plants.

The company will be constituted with the efficient people where some BPDB officials will also get appointment. The BPDB has already initiated the groundbreaking work and is now selecting sites for setting up the plants. It has primarily selected – Karnaphuli river bank in Chittagong near Mongla seaport in Khulna, Jazira on the bank of Padma and at Meghnaghat on the bank of Meghna – for setting up the plants for smooth transportation of coal.

Initially the planned power plants will be run with the imported coal from the global markets including the key exporting countries like Indonesia, Australia and India. The existing infrastructure like drafting in waterways and expansion of railway tracks will be required for efficient coal transportation, said a power ministry official. All the four proposed coal-fired power plants along with some independent power producer (IPP) projects will be put on offer during the road shows in three key important locations – New York, London and Singapore – in December next.

The major task of the proposed company will be to arrange finance necessary coal supply and develop required infrastructure. Despite having enormous coal reserves of around 3.0 billion tones in five different mines the country’s coal-fired power generation is limited to only one plant at Barapukuria having the generation capacity of 250 mw. Even the Barapukuria plant is struggling to generate electricity to half of its installed capacity.

The country is waiting for adoption of a national coal policy to start coal extraction from the mineral-rich northern region. The country’s overall electricity generation is now hovering around 3,800mw against the peak hour demand for over 5,500mw.

Bangladesh seeks bids for 300 MW coal-fired plant

Bangladesh has invited bids for a 300-megawatt coal-fired power plant to be set up on a build, own and operate basis (BOO) for 25 years. The tender for the plant to be built near the country’s main Chittagong port 300 km (188 miles) southeast of the capital will close on Jan. 31, next year. The bids have been invited as part of a government initiative to generate 9,000 MW of electricity by 2015.The BPDB is the regulator for power generation and distribution in the country where the gap between demand and generation has been growing.

Bids for a short-list of viable firms have also been invited for another 650 MW coal-fired plant to be set up at Mawa 50 km (31 miles) east of the capital, Dhaka also on a BOO basis and for 25 years. The bids for the short-list will close on Dec. 30.Energy-starved Bangladesh which faces a deficit of 2,000 MW of power aims to set up a number of power plants to cover the shortfall as quick as possible.

BPDB awarded a $114 deal to a Chinese firm — China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation to set up a 150 MW power plant in northern Sirajganj by May 2012. BPDB in the recent months signed deals with several foreign and local firms to set up plants or to buy electricity from their rental plants. Britain’s Aggreko PLC and seven other local firms were given deals to supply some 870 megawatts of power to the national grid for five years starting later this year.

Aggreko has already started generating 200 MW from two fuel oil-fired rented generator from August at $0.21 per kilowatt-hour. The British firm also won another deal last month to supply more 150 MW to the Bangladesh national grid from its two small gas-fired plant from February for three years at $0.07 per kilowatt-hour. Bangladesh will soon seek bids for 10 new power plants to add another 4,000 megawatts of electricity to the national grid.

US firms keen to invest in coal sector

American companies are keen to invest in Bangladesh’s coal sector. The US envoy apprised him that American energy companies are interested to help Bangladesh in developing energy sector. They particularly want to invest in coal mining after finalization of the coal policy by the government.

Moriarty noted that the United States would provide necessary assistance for the victims if Bangladesh side seek any help.A number of US companies including oil major Chevron have been operating in the country’s energy and power sector. But this is the first time it was learned that US energy companies are also interested in the coal mines.

Bangladesh has about five coal mines in the country’s northern region, having a total coal deposit of 2.5 billion tons.

Coal  In  Electrical Power System

World  coal  fired  power  plant  capacity  will  grow  from  1,759,000  MW  in  2010  to  2,384,000  MW  in  2020.Some  80,000  MW  will  be  replaced.So  there  will  be  705,000  MW  of  new  coal  fired  boilers  sales  will  average  70,000  MW.

Coal  fired  power  plants  generate  approximately  56%  of the U.S  electricity.A  healthy  economy  requires  the  effective  utilization  of  the  existing  infrastructure  as  new technologies  are  introduced.Coal  plays  a  vital  role  in  electricity  generation worldwide.Coal  fired  power  plant  currently  fuel  41%  of  global  electricity.In  some  countries  coal  fuels  a  higher  percentage  of  electricity.Germany  is  one  of  the  major  nation  who  converts  coal  in  electricity  generation.In  2008  the  gross  electric  power  generation  in  Germany  totalled  639  billion  KWH.A  major  proportion  of  the  electricity  supply  is  based  on  lignite (23.5%), nuclear  energy (23.3%)  and  hard  coal (20.1%).Natural  gas  has  a  share  of  13%  renewables (wind,water,biomass)  account  for  15.1%.

Table Coal  In  Electricity  Generation Outside Bangladesh

Name  Of  The  Country Total  Generation
                 South  Africa                                 93%
                 Australia                                77%
                 USA                                49%
                 India                                69%
                 Germany                                46%

Kogan  creek  power  station  of  Australia  has  a  capacity  of  7636 MW  and  it  produces  2.46%  of  electricity.Hassyan  power  station  of  Arab  Emirates  has  a  capacity  of  9000 MW  and  it  produces  1.35%  of  electricity.Altbach  power  station  of  Germany  has  a  capacity  of  1200 MW  and  it  produces  0.18%  of  electricity.Cottam  power  station  of  United  Kingdom  has  a  capacity  of  2000 MW  and  it  produces  3.5%  of  electricity.

Improvements  continue  to  be  made  in  conventional  power  station  design  and  new  combustion  technologies  are  being  developed.These  allow  more  electricity  to  be  produced  from  less  coal  known  as  improving  the  thermal  efficiency  of  the  electrical  power  station.Coal  will  continue  to  be  a  valued  resource  with  over  100 GW  of  new  coal  plants  projected  by  2020.Advanced  technology  is  required  to  meet  economic  and  environmental  goals.It  also  maintaining  diversity  manufacturing  capabilities  also  mention  environmental  goals as  its  security  concern.

Carbon Dioxide  Emission  Factors  For  Coal Across The World

Coal  is  an  important  source  of  energy  across  the  world  and  the  whole  world  depends on  this  fossil  fuel  for  electricity  generation  is  growing.The  combustion  of  coal  also  adds  a  significant  amount  of  carbon  dioxide  to  the  atmosphere  per  unit  of  heat  energy.In  modern  days  a  growing  concern  over  the  possible  consequences  of  global  warming which may  be  caused  in  part  by  increases  in  atmospheric  carbon  dioxide (a  major  greenhouse  gas)  and  also  because  of  the  need  for  accurate  estimates  of  carbon  dioxide  emissions .The  Energy  Information  Administration (EIA)  has  a  developed  factors  for  estimating  the  amount  of  carbon  dioxide  emitted  as  a  result  of  coal  consumption. EIA’s  emission  factors  will  improve  the  accuracy  of  estimates  of  carbon  dioxide  emissions  because  they  reflect  the  difference  in  the  ratio  of  carbon  to  heat  content  by  rank  of  coal  and  state  of  origin.

Two types of carbon dioxide emission factors have been developed. First are basic emission factors covering the various coal ranks by State of origin. These basic emission factors are considered as “fixed” for the foreseeable future until better data become available. Second are emission factors for use in estimating carbon dioxide emissions from coal consumption by State with consuming-sector detail. These emission factors are based on the mix of coal consumed and the basic emission factors by coal rank and State of origin. These emission factors are subject to change over time, reflecting changes in the mix of coal consumed.

EIA’s emission factors will not only enable coal-generated carbon dioxide emissions to be estimated more accurately than before but they will also provide consistency in estimates. Energy and environmental analysts will find EIA’s emission factors useful for analyzing and monitoring carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion, whether they are estimated by the State of origin of the coal, consuming State, or consuming sector.

West of the Mississippi River the emission factors for bituminous coal range from more than 201 pounds of carbon dioxide per million Btu in Missouri, Iowa, and Nevada to more than 209 in Arizona, Arkansas, and Montana. About 16 percent of the 1992 coal output west of the Mississippi was bituminous coal with production chiefly from Utah, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico.

Sub bituminous coal is the predominant rank of coal produced west of the Mississippi River accounting for 62 percent of the region’s total coal output in 1992. Sub bituminous coal in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin the principal source of this rank of coal, has an emission factor of 212.7 pounds of carbon dioxide per million Btu. This is the same as for sub bituminous coal in Colorado, but slightly below that in Montana. The lowest emission factor for sub bituminous coal is in Utah (207.1) and the highest is in Alaska (214.0).

 Coal Costs

On the heels of President Obama’s speech supporting clean coal it doesn’t seem that this energy source is leaving anytime soon. But while advocates often tout the inexpensiveness of coal a new study reveals that the substance may be costing the U.S. up to $500 billion per year.

Harvard professor and Huffington Post contributor Paul Epstein( M.D., M.P.H.) has just announced the release of a new study in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences entitled “Full Cost Accounting For the Life Cycle Of Coal.”

According to Tree Hugger Epstein’s study is considered one of the first to examine the costs of coal in its entirety – from extraction to combustion. So how did Epstein reach the astronomical number of $500 billion/yr.

First, public health costs. In Appalachian communities alone health care, deaths, and injuries from coal mining and transporting cost $74 billion per year. Beyond Appalachia, the health costs of cancer, lung disease, and respiratory illnesses related to pollutant emissions totals $187.5 billion per year. According to Climate Progress, processing coal releases heavy metal toxins and carcinogens which in turn may lead to long-term health problems. The American Lung Association reports on a study finding that coal-powered electricity caused over 13,000 premature deaths in 2010.

Beyond health problems add the cost of coal’s effect on land use energy consumption and food prices plus the cost of toxic waste spills and cleanup… $500 billion. The public is unfairly paying for the impacts of coal use. Accounting for these ‘hidden costs’ doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh, making wind, solar, and other renewable very economically competitive.

According to Epstein, we must focus more on green city planning. Most importantly, “We need to phase out coal rapidly.”

Tapping Coal For Clean And Low-cost electricity In Bangladesh

Australian firm proposes to generate 400MW power from Bangladesh’s unmineable coal by 2015. An Australian company with expertise in underground coal gasification (UCG) technology has proposed to produce 400 megawatts of clean coal power from Bangladesh’s unmineable coal within five years at a very low cost.

Making a presentation to Petrobangla  Mitchell Group of Australia said it could undertake a pilot project at its own cost in the deeper part of Barapukuria coal mine or in Jamalganj.

The first phase delivery of 10 to 40 MW power from the pilot project is possible within two years — 2011-12. By 2015, the company will be able to deliver 400 MW power.

Sources present at the presentation said it is very lucrative as power generated from such a plant will be as cheap as that produced by using gas. A part of Barapukuria is presently unmineable by using open pit or underground mining methods as coal rests at a depth of 500 metres.

On the other hand the coal deposit in Jamalganj is by far the biggest one discovered in the country. Jamalganj has more than one billion tones of coal. Unfortunately the deposit rests between 600 and 1,100 metres below the surface making it inaccessible using conventional mining methods.

The Costs of Generating Electricity

• Coal plant

• Pulverized fuel (PF) steam plant.

• Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) plant.

• Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant.

• Gas plant.

• Open-cycle gas turbine (OCGT) plant.

• Combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant.

• Nuclear fission plant.

• Biomass (poultry litter)

• Bubbling fluidized-bed combustion (BFBC) plant;

• Wind turbines

The cost of generating electricity, as defined within the scope of this study, is expressed in terms of a unit cost (pence per kWh) delivered at the boundary of the power station site. This cost value, therefore, includes the capital cost1 of the generating plant and equipment; the cost of fuel burned (if applicable); and the cost of operating and maintaining the plant in keeping with UK best practices. Within the study, however, the ‘cost of generating electricity’ is deemed to refer to that of providing a dependable (or ‘firm’) supply. For intermittent2 sources of generation, such as wind, an additional amount has been included for the provision of adequate standby generation.

Comparing Per Kilowatt-Hour Cost Estimates for Multiple Types of Energy Production

Hydroelectric is the most cost effective at $0.03 per kWh. Hydroelectric production is naturally limited by the number of feasible geographic locations and the huge environmental infringement caused by the construction of a dam. Nuclear and coal are tied at $0.04 per kWh. This comes as a bit of a surprise because coal is typically regarded as the cheapest form of energy production. Another surprise is that wind power ($0.08 per kWh) came in slightly cheaper than natural gas ($0.10 per kWh). Solar power was by far the most expensive at $0.22 per kWh—and that only represents construction costs because I could not find reliable data on production costs. Also, there is a higher degree of uncertainty in cost with wind and solar energy due to poor and varying

data regarding the useful life of the facilities and their capacity factors. For this analysis the average of the data points are used in the calculations.

Table  Extrapolation of Results

Energy Source % of Total Cost per kWh Weighted Avg Cost
Nuclear 19.7% $0.04 $0.008
Hydro 6.1% $0.03 $0.002
Coal 48.7% $0.04 $0.022
Natural Gas 21.4% $0.10 $0.022
Petroleum 1.1% $0.10 $0.001
Other Renewables 3.0% $0.15 $0.005
100% $0.059

Least-Cost Analysis of Bangladesh

About 85% of electricity in Bangladesh is produced from gas-based power plants. Coal,

Hydropower, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel are the other sources of energy for power generation. Inadequate investment in upstream gas field development in recent years has resulted in a shortage of gas for the industrial sector and for electricity generation. This has constrained power generation with electricity utilities resorting to load shedding while industrial consumers have been using captive generation facilities that require diesel. As an immediate measure to reduce gas shortage the government has decided not to provide assured gas supply to a number of new power projects and has asked promoters to develop these projects on a dual fuel model (to be run on diesel or HFO).

Table indicates the cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh:

Fuel Source Economic Generation Cost Per Unit Tk/kWh
Gas 4.2
Coal (local) 3.7
Coal (Imported) 5.4
HFO 12.1
Diesel 25.2
Hydropower 1.4

Bangladesh has sizable coal reserves in the north-west region, currently only one coal-based power plant is operating and it has been facing fuel shortages given constraints in coal production. The development of domestic coalfields will take time and will require significant investment. Imported coal-based power generally costs about Tk 5.4/kwh ($0.077) at current coal prices. In the current situation, power imports fromIndia3 are expected to be the most feasible least-cost way of overcoming existing power shortages in Bangladesh.

Cost of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project

Total Cost :                                          US$ 197million

US$:                                                    172 million in F.C.

US$:                                                     25 million in L.C.

Expected annual production:               1.2 million tons

Market price:                                       US$ 90 million

Annual production cost:                      US$ 40.8 million

Foreign currency worth:                      US$ 45 million will be saved per annum

64 years will be required to extract     300 million tons of coal at the above rate

The discovery of such huge deposits of coal and hard rock is a blessing for Bangladesh and proper development of these resources will open a new era for the country to enter the industrial world. In the modern world the sustainable economic conditions of any nation depend on how developed that country’s industrial is especially in the field of mineral resources. So minerals based industries are an important factor for accelerating the economic growth of a country. Now Bangladesh has an opportunity to build up mineral-based industries as she has sufficient mineral resources on which industries can develop. Full-capacity exploitation of these resources will create thousands of new jobs at the mine sites and later on at industrial sites which will help to alleviate the country’s poverty by providing jobs. All these together will accelerate the country’s economic development. It may be concluded that proper development and utilization of these resources will help us to save a considerable amount of foreign currency and will contribute a great deal to the national economy and reshape our socio-economic infrastructure.

Merits of coal fired power plant

1.         Coal is a stable energy source

2.         Coal is a key source of power generation

3.         High efficiency

4.         Low cost

5.         Low maintenance

Looking at other countries, coal makes up 50% of power generation in the USA, the largest consumer of energy, and 80% in China, where rapid growth in energy consumption is forecast. As coal accounts for 41% of the world’s power generation, it will continue to play a major role for the foreseeable future.

Emissions to air

The principal emissions from burning coal are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and particulates (dust). Our generating units have all been retrofitted with Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) equipment which removes at least 90% of SO2 and HCl emissions before the flue gas is released via the chimney into the atmosphere.

We maintain investment in our emissions abatement equipment and consider this to be a high priority. Our FGD plant already complies with known future SO2 emissions limits to 2016. In 2008 we completed a programme to retrofit all units with low NOX technology – Boosted Over Fire Air systems – in order to ensure compliance with the NOX requirements of the Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD) which were strengthened in 2008.

Discharges to water

Procedures are in place to ensure that all discharges and drainage to water are monitored and treated where necessary to meet our discharge consent limits. There are a number of sources of discharge and drainage as part of the electricity generation process, including the cooling water used to cool the condensers, which as part of the steam cycle condense steam to water after it leaves the turbines and before returning to the boilers. Cooling water is abstracted mainly from the River Ouse and boiler feed water originates from two boreholes on site. Approximately half of the water is returned to the River Ouse at a few degrees warmer than the river water.

The FGD process produces effluent water which is treated in a specially designed plant before it is discharged to the river, and there is also drainage from the main plant, coal plant and roads.

 Disposals to land

When coal is burnt, ash is left as a residue. The finer particles of ash, pulverised fuel ash (PFA,) are collected from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators; the heavier ash, furnace bottom ash (FBA) falls to the bottom of the boiler. The majority of ash is sold to the construction industry with the remainder sent for landfill at the power station’s adjacent Barlow Mound ash disposal site, which over time has been developed into farmland, woodland and wetland features providing a haven to many species of wildlife and birdlife.

We pay landfill tax on the PFA disposed of to the Barlow Mound. Through the Landfill Tax Credit Scheme, we are able to claim a tax credit against our donations to recognised Environmental Bodies. We have worked with Groundwork Selby since 2001 on projects designed to help mitigate the effects of landfill upon our local community.

 Environmental impacts of coal power

Burning coal is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxics. In an average year, a typical coal plant generates:

  1. 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary human cause of global warming–as much carbon dioxide as cutting down 161 million trees.
  2. 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), which causes acid rain that damages forests, lakes, and buildings, and forms small airborne particles that can penetrate deep into lungs.
  3. 500 tons of small airborne particles, which can cause chronic bronchitis, aggravated asthma, and premature death, as well as haze obstructing visibility.
  4. 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx), as much as would be emitted by half a million late-model cars. NOx leads to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning through lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.

5.   720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), which causes headaches and place additional stress on people with heart disease.

6.   220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.

7.   170 pounds of mercury, where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can make the fish unsafe to eat.

8.   225 pounds of arsenic, which will cause cancer in one out of 100 people who drink water


Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) discovered presence of extensive coal reserve at relatively shallow depth in April 1985 in Barapukuria under Parbatipur-Upazilla of Dinajpur. GSB undertook further investigation in 1986 and 1987, involving more detailed gravimetric, magnetic and geophysical surveys to confirm the presence of approximately 303 million tones of high quality coal in six horizons over an area of 6.68 square kilometers. Subsequently, Bangladesh oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation (Petrobangla) with the assistance of Overseas Development Administration (ODA), UK concluded a detailed Techno- economic feasibility study by engaging M/S War dell Armstrong, UK in May 1991. The Major findings were as under

Reserve of Coal                          : 390 Million tones
Depth of coal                              : 118-509 meter.
Nos. of coal layer                        : 6
Average thickness of coal Seam : 36 m (6th Seam)
Composition of coal                    : Ash12.4%, Sulphur 0.53%, Noisture 10%
Rank of coal                                : Bituminous (high volatile).
Calorific value of coal                  : 25.68 MJ/KG (11040 BTU/Ib.)
Yearly Production                        : 1 million tones.
Coal extraction method                : Multi- Slice Long wall.

During development of Barapukuria Coal Mine as well as load testing/trial run, coal as obtained from the mine, on Chemical Analysis, confirmed composition of coal, Rank of coal and Calorific value of coal as predicted.


The Mine would produce 1 million tones of coal per annum when commercial production will commence out of which 65% will be used in 250 MW coal fired power station and remaining 35% will be used in brick fields and other domestic purposes.

Project implementation

M/s China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC) as lead partner of Consortium proposed supplier’s credit for the implementation of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project. The Project Concept Paper (PCP) was approved by ECNEC on 11th March 1992 and Project Proforma was approve by DPEC on 21st April 1993 at a total estimated cost of Tk.8873.55 Million including foreign exchange component of Tk.4868.76 million .The contract between M/S China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC) as lead partner of Consortium and Petrobangla was signed at the total lump-sum amount of US $ 194.91 million including supplier’s credit amounting to US$ 109.235 million on 7th February 1994. CMC commenced physical works on 1st June 1996 for the implementation of Barapukuria Coal Mine Project. As per contract the scheduled completion date was June 2001. On completion of installation works of two shafts, when development works of Pit Bottom were in progress underground mine inundated due to on rush of water. Consequently underground development works on mine was suspended for about 30(thirty) months.

This was necessitated to carry out additional geological & hydro-geological investigation in order to acquire additional date based on which CMC had to modify earlier approved mine design/layout. The underground mine development works restarted from October 2000. The PP was revised on the basis of modified mine design/layout and approved by ECNEC on 15th August 2004 at the estimated cost of Tk. 14311.27 million (Equivalent to US $ 251.08 Million). The project was scheduled for completion by December 2004 as per revised PP. The original Contract was amended by contract amendment keeping the original contract value unchanged with re- appropriation of item – wise costs. As per the revised schedule the completion period was fixed at 20th October 2004.

Management and production  contract

After completion of construction of Barapukuria coal mine on 31st may 2005, a Production Management and Maintenance (M&P) contract was signed with China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC) led consortium with Xuzhou Coal Mining Group Company Limited (XMC) on 4th June, 2005 for a period of 71 months to produce 4.75 million metric ton of coal from the 1st slice of underground mine at a total cost of USD 82.30 million. As per the terms of contract, CMC already paid Performance Security Guarantee (10% of total contract price) and Down Payment Guarantee (10% of total contract) for effecting the Contract, BCMCL paid Down Payment of local currency portion (10%) on 08-09-2005 and foreign currency portion (10%) on 15-11-2005. Since the M&P contract is fully effective, CMC-XMC produced coal from the Long Wall Face No. 1106 and 1101.

Present status                                                                                                                                                                   

Two Long wall Faces were constructed and two sets of Face Equipment were provided under the Construction Contract. One Long wall Face (1110) with incomplete production along with a set of Face Equipment had to be sealed off due to gas emission. To reopen 1110 Long wall Face, preparation work for Nitrogen Injection has been taken by CMC.

With only one set of Long wall Face Equipment available, the mine started its production from 1109 Long wall Face since March 2007. Production from this face started on 7 March 2007 after a gap of 6 months due to the following reasons:

I. 1109 Long wall Face development work delayed due to the fact of encountering unexpected geological and environmental problems. 176 meters excavated roadway had to be abandoned due to large roof fall and hot strata water ingress. 1109 Face required a redesign.

II. Installation and commissioning of Long wall equipment were delayed due to non availability of materials and spares needed importing from China.

Production from this Face is adversely affected by the following reasons:

a) Due to geological condition of the coal seam, Long wall Face open off cut developed inclined at an angle of 220-230. Equipment like heavy Hydraulic Powered Roof Support (HPRS) set on this inclined floor has great tendency to slip and tilt downward.

b) Adverse strata condition. Coal is friable and prone to caving.

c) Adverse environmental conditions. High temperature (390 Celsius) and humidity (100%) made the working condition difficult.

d) Relatively high strata water inflow washing down the floor of Long wall Face and causing instability to the HPRS.

e) Miners are getting fainted, heat stroke, and sick due to adverse environment.

Having adverse condition and lot of constrains, CMC successfully started the recovery work of 1110 Longwall Face from 18 August 2007.

Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI)

Coal grind ability indicates the ease for grinding coal to power.The bigger of grind ability index, the easier to be grinded. Hard grove Grind ability Indices indicate that the coal is moderately hard, but not unusually so for Gondwana coal .

Chemical Properties (Proximate Analysis)

The Proximate analyses of coal samples have been done by War dell 1991. Average results of chemical analysis of Barapukuria Coal, Dianjpur, Bangladesh is given below.

Table Proximate Analysis of Design Coal Sample



Approzimate Thickness (m) Estimated Coal Quality (At 10% Moisture)
Rang Mean Ash(%) VolatileMetter






MJ/Kg Btu/Ib
B 3.7-6.5 5.4 9.0 29.9 51.1 0.61 26.81 11525
C 3.2-5.3 4.3 16.2 28.2 45.6 0.58 24.27 10435
D 3.1-4.3 3.9 10.8 30.2 49.0 0.57 26.33 11320
E 3.5-7.2 4.9 13.3 29.3 47.4 0.54 25.39 10915
G 4.2-7.5 5.5 16.9 26.5 46.6 0.56 23.74 10205

Ultimate Analysis

Elementary Analysis of coal samples of seam VI of GDH 38 has been done by GSB. The results of analysis are given in the Table 3, 4 & 5.

Table Elementary Analysis of coal samples

Seam No %C %11 %N % Ash Remarks
VI 77.35 4.95 2.30 3.55 In Whole Sample
VI 78.70 5.30 2.45 2.15
VI 72.75 4.75 2.20 8.95
VI 77.85 5.00 2.45 1.75 Vitrinite Concentration
VI 78.60 5.05 2.50 0.72
VI 78.95 5.10 2.50 1.15
VI 80.20 4.70 2.35 0.08
Geological Survey of Bangladesh 1996

Coal Sale

Up to June 2006, a total of 4, 81,196.53 metric ton of coal has been produced, which includes the production of 3, 03,015.93 metric ton in the fiscal year of 2005-06. The production resulting from the coal produced during roadway development, during the Acceptance Tests of two Long wall and four Road header systems and commercial production from Long wall face. Up to June 2006, 1,89,919.58 metric ton of coal has been sold to the coal-fired industries. This includes the sale of 45,020.44 metric ton of coal during the fiscal year of 2005-06. Total revenue earned from the sale of coal for domestic uses up to June 2006 was Taka 75.85 crore. Up to June 2006, a total of 2, 09,234.57 metric ton of coal has been delivered to Power Development Board at the rate of US Dollar 60.00 Per MT as fixed by the Government.

Applying for purchasing coal

For purchasing coal, an application will have to be made addressed to the Managing Director of Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited. Application can be made on a plain paper or on a form available at Markrting Section, Head Office, Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited, Chowhati, Parbatipur, Dinajpur. For any assistance regarding this, personnel of the Marketing Section can be contacted.

Payment Method

Payment is accepted in the form of bank draft payable to BARAPUKURIA COAL MINE PROJECT and no cash money is accepted. Bank draft made at Sonali Bank, Barapukuria Coal Mine Project Branch, Parbatipur, Dinajpur or Janata Bank, Phulbari Branch, Dinajpur is preferred to that made at other different banks for quick issuance of delivery order for sale of coal. Delivery order for sale of coal against bank draft made at other than above-mentioned two branches is issued after the confirmation of transfer of money to the the company account, which sometimes may delay up to 48 hours the issuance of delivery order. Payment in the form of bank draft will have to be submitted to the Accounts Section of the Company. For any query regarding this, personnel of the Marketing Section can be contacted.

Measuring Method

At the delivery point, that is, at the mine site, coal is measured by using Computer Controlled and BSTI certified UK made Avery weighing scale.

Coal Loading

Coal can be loaded on the trucks/vehicle by using mechanized pay loading facility provided at the delivery point by Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited. Using of the company’s loading facility will cost Taka15.00 (fifteen only) per ton. Coal can also be loaded on the trucks/vehicle by using different facilities provided by other than Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited, which may cost approximately Taka 27.00(twenty seven only) per ton.

Transport Facility

For transporting coal, trucks may be available on hire at Phulbari, about 7 km away from the delivery point. Rate of transportation will vary depending up on the destination, route and season of use of coal. As a rough estimate, transportation cost from the delivery point to Dhaka for per tonne of coal may be around Taka500.00.


 Power Crisis has been a long clamor in Bangladesh and this seems to persist for the coming decade or so. Beyond optimistic illusions, facts and realities are too fierce to be accepted. Energy infrastructure of Bangladesh is quite small and insufficient but the demand is very high. The per capita energy consumption in Bangladesh is one of the lowest (136 kWH) in the world. Electricity is the major source of power for country’s most of the economic activities. In our country, only 40% of the population has access to electricity because of the shortage of our power generation and this lacking can be filled by using some coal based power plant. From the research we have seen that the environment and transportation system of Bangladesh is positive to establish a coal based power plant. In our country we have few coal pits and the quality of our coal is quite rich and it can be used easily to produce Electricity. In a coal based power plant the Major equipments are 3 units of steam generator, 3 units of steam turbine generator and other associated systems in line with specific tender document taken as reference and as per the scope of work. Besides, fuel details, water arrangements, layout, pollution standards, logistics planning, power evacuation arrangements, water requirements, plant layout, pollution, logistics arrangements and land are required. Now if we focus on our transportation system we will find that most of our transportation route is on plain land. So if any electric power company doesn’t have their own coal manufacture plant then it can easily be transported by road, rail or water transport. Though this transportation costs are a little expensive. Proposals have been made to build a few coal based power plants in our country. Because of some difficulties yet it is not implemented. Growing economies always need a proportional need for power. Considering the recent condition of our country it may be seen that the lack of electricity has been increased day by day. Country like Bangladesh has a required growth in power sector close to 15 %. In order to match the accelerated need of country, there is urgent need to take the challenge to squeeze the time and cost required to complete a coal based power project. It would be a great relief to fund hungry  power projects.



Analysis Between a Beam Supported Structure and a Flat Plate Structure (Part 3)



The buildings are analyzed for determine the best condition which can be constructed economically. The behavior of each condition is observed carefully. Then suitable condition is selected and suitable dimensions as well as steel area are also determined. The chapter gives a comparative of the material, dimensions etc required for both the options I building and potion II building. It is obvious that the amount of material required for option I building will be higher than the option II building. But the option I building got beam free floor height. Due to this beam free space, looks nice and the floor will be heavily reinforced and it will be durable.

 Comparison Between the Two Types of Structure:

The comparison is made in terms of element dimension, volume of concrete and steel

 requirement, their cost and economic view.

 Dimension of different parts of beam supported structure and flat pate structure:

 Table 4.1: Dimension of different portion of the flat plate structure and beam-supported structure.


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)

Column no There are 16 columns at each floor. So the total nos of columns of this six storied building is 16. There are 16 columns at each floor. So the total nos of columns of this six storied building is 16.

Table 4.1: Dimension of different portion of the flat plate structure and beam-supported structure (continued…).        


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)

Column size           All the columns are:

  1. C1,C4,C10,C16:

Size = 18” * 10”

  1. C2,C3,C5,C8,C9,C12,C14,C15

Size = 24” * 12”

  1. C6,C7,C11,C13:

Size = 26” * 18”


         All the columns are:

  1. C1,C4,C10,C16:

Size = 15” * 15”

  1. C2,C3,C5,C8,C9,C12,C14,C15

Size = 24” * 12”

  1. C6,C7,C11,C13:

Size = 30” * 22”


Column height

All floor columns height are 10 ft

All floor columns height are 10 ft


Slab with beams

Slab without beams

Slab thickness

All floor slab thickness are 6″

All floor slab thickness are 7.5″

Required concrete volume for beam supported structure and flat plate structure:

Table 4.2: Comparative concrete volumes.


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)

Column Column: C1, C4, C10, C16= 4 * 6 * 0’- 10” * 1’- 6” * 10’- 0” = 333.12 cft.Column: C2, C3, C5, C8, C9, C12, C14, C15= 8 * 6 * 1’- 0” * 2’- 0 * 10’- 0” = 960.00 cft

Column: C6, C7, C11, C13

= 4 * 6 * 1’- 6” * 2’- 2” * 10’- 0” = 779.76 cft

Total R.C.C = 2072.88 cft.

Column: C1, C4, C10, C16= 4 * 6 * 1’- 3” * 1’- 3” * 10’- 0” = 375.00 cftColumn: C2, C3, C5, C8, C9, C12, C14, C15= 8 * 6 * 1’- 0” * 2’- 0 * 10’- 0” = 960.00 cft

Column: C6, C7, C11, C13

= 4 * 6 * 1’- 10” * 2’- 6” * 10’- 0” = 1099.80 cft

Total R.C.C = 2434.80 cft

  Table 4.2: Comparative concrete volumes (continued…)


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


Beams Beam: B1, B3, B4, B6, B7, B9, B10, B11= 1 * 10” * 10” * 13’ – 7” * 8= 75.46 cftBeam: B2, B5, B8, B12

= 1 * 15” * 10” * 18’ – 0” * 4

= 75.00 cft

Beam: B14, B17, B20, B23

= (1 * 18” * 10” * 17’-10” * 2) + (1 * 18”10” * 18’-5” * 2)

= 90.83 cft

Beam: B13, B15, B16, B18, B19, B21, B22, B24

= 1 * 12” * 10” * 13’-5” * 8

= 89.46 cft

Total R.C.C = 75.46 + 75.00 + 90.83 + 89.46 = 330.75 cft


  Table 4.2: Comparative concrete volumes (continued…).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)



(5th + 6th) Floor R.C.C= 2 * 330.75 = 661.50 cftR.C.C Beam at 4th Story:Beam: B1, B3, B4, B6, B7, B9, B10, B11

= 1 * 15” * 10” * 13’ – 7” * 8

= 113.17 cft

Beam: B2, B5, B8, B12

=1 * 15” * 10” * 18’ – 0” * 4

= 75.00 cft

Beam: B14, B17, B20, B23

= (1 * 18” * 10” * 17’- 10” * 2) + (1 * 18” *10” * 18’- 5” * 2)

= 90.83 cft

Beam: B13, B15, B16, B18, B19, B21, B22, B24

= 1 * 15” * 10” * 13’-5” * 8

= 113.17 cft

Total R.C.C = 113.17 + 75.00 + 90.83 + 113.17 = 392.17 cft

(3rd + 4TH) Floor R.C.C = 2 * 392.17 = 784.34 cft

R.C.C Beam at 2nd Story:

Beam: B1, B3, B4, B6, B7, B9, B10, B11

= 1 * 15” * 12” * 13’- 7” * 8

= 135.80 cft

Beam: B2, B5, B8, B12

= 1 * 15” * 10” * 18’- 0” * 4

= 75.00 cft

Beam: B14, B17, B20, B23


 Table 4.2: Comparative concrete volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


= (1 * 18” * 12”*17’- 10” * 2) + (1 * 18” * 12” * 18’-5” * 2)= 108.99 cftBeam: B13, B15, B16, B18, B19, B21, B22, B24= 1 * 15” * 10” * 13’-5” * 8

= 113.17 cft

Total R.C.C = 135.80 + 75.00 + 108.99 + 113.17 = 432.96 cft

(1st + 2nd) Floor R.C.C = 2 * 432.96 = 865.92 cft

Total R.C.C = 135.80 + 75.00 + 108.99 + 113.17 = 432.96 cft

(1st + 2nd) Floor R.C.C = 2 * 432.96 = 865.92 cft

Total R.C.C of beam: 661.50 + 784.34 + 865.92 = 2311.76 cft.




Concrete in slab for one story:1 *  50.83 * 50.83 * (6 / 12)= 1292 cftConcrete in slab for six stories:

1 * 1292*6 = 7752 cft


Concrete in slab for one story:1 * 51.33 * 51.33 * 7.5 / 12= 1647 cft.Concrete in slab for six stories:

1 * 1647 * 6 = 9882 cft

Required steel volume for beam supported structure and flat plate structure.

 Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes.


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


Column: C1, C4, C10, C164 # 9 bars = 4 * 4 * 65’- 6”= 1048 rft# 3 bars @ 15” c/c

= 49 * 4 * 4’- 4”= 849.26 rft

Column: C2, C3, C5, C8, C9, C12, C14, C15

4 # 8 bars = 4 * 8 * 65’- 0”

= 2080 rft

2 # 6 bars = 2 * 8 * 64’ – 0”

= 1024 rft

# 3 bars @ 12” c/c = 61 * 8 * (5’- 4” + 1’- 1”) = 3131 rft

Column: C6, C7, C11, C13

4 # 10 Bars = 4 * 4 * 66’- 4”

= 1061.28 rft

12 # 9 bars = 12 * 4 * 65’- 6”

= 3144 rft

# 3 bars @ 18” c/c = 41 * 4 * (8’- 0”+ 5’- 10”+ 4’- 5”) = 2992.84 rft

# 8 Bars = 2080 rft = 2444 kg

# 6 bars = 4608 rft = 3464 kg

# 9 Bars = 4192 rft = 6180.64 kg


Column: C1, C4, C10, C164 # 8Bars = 4 * 4 * 65’- 0”= 1040 rft2 # 6 Bars = 2 * 4 * 64’- 0”

= 512 rft

# 3 bars @ 10” c/c

= 4 * (73 * 4’- 0” + 73 * 0’- 11”)

= 1435.48 rft

Column: C2, C3, C5, C8, C9, C12, C14, c15

4 # 8 Bars = 4 * 8 * 65’- 0”

= 2080 rft

8 # 6 Bars = 8 * 8 * 64’- 0”

= 512 rft

= 4096 rft

# 3 Bars @ 12” c/c

= 61 * 8 * (5’- 4”+3’- 3”+1’- 11”) = 5123.67 rft


Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)

Column # 10 Bars = 1061.28 Rft= 2043 kg# 3 Bars = 6973.10 Rft = 1309.58 kgTotal M.S Rod      = 11977.00 kgTotal M.S Rod =11977.00 kg

= 11.98 ton

Column: C6, C7, C11, C134 # 10 Bars= 4 * 4 * 66’- 4” = 1061.28 rft6 # 9 bars

= 6 * 4 * 65’- 6”= 1572 rft

# 3 bars @ 18” c/c

= 41* 4 * (6’- 8”+2’- 3”+ 4’- 2”) = 2145.55 rft

# 8 bars = 3120 rft = 3666 kg

# 6 bars = 4608 rft = 3464 kg

# 9 Bars = 1572 rft = 2318 kg

# 10 bars = 1061.28 rft = 2043 kg

# 3 bars = 8704.22 rft = 1635 kg

Total M.S Rod = 13126.00 kg

Total R.C.C = 2072.88 cft

Total M.S Rod =13126 kg

=13.126 ton



M.S Rod of beam at 6th Story:Beam: B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B10, B11, B12Top Bars: 2 # 5

=1 * 51.17’ * 2 * 2 = 204.68 ft * 0.481 = 98.45 kg


Bottom Bars: 3# 5

= 1 * 51.17’ * 3 * 4 = 614.04 ft * 0.481 = 295.35 kg


Mid = 1 * 10’ * 2 * 4 = 80.00 ft * 0.481 = 38.48 kg


Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued…).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


Extra top End: 2 # 7= 1 * 5.92’ * 2 * 8 = 94.72ft * 0.911 = 86.29 kgExtra top mid: 2 # 7 & 1 # 5= 1 * 9.5’ * 2 * 8 = 152.00 ft * 0.911 = 138.47 kg

= 1* 9.5’ * 8 = 76.00 ft * 0.481

= 36.56 kg

Stirrups #3Bars@ 6.50” C/C

= 85 * 3.75 * 4 = 1275 ft * 0.188 = 239.70 kg

Total Rod = 933.30 kg

Beam: B13, B14, B15, B16, B17, B18

Top Bars: 2#5

= 1 * 51.17’ * 2 * 2 = 204.68 ft * 0.481 = 98.45 kg

Bottom Bars: 2 # 6 &2 # 5

= 1 * 51.17’ * 2 * 2 = 204.68 ft * 0.752 = 153.92 kg

= 1* 51.17’ * 2 * 2 = 204.68 ft * 0.481 = 98.45 kg

Extra top End: 2 # 7

= 5.92’ * 2 * 2 * 2 = 47.36 ft * 0.911 = 43.14 kg

Extra top mid: 2 # 8

= 1 * 9.5’ * 2 * 2 * 2 = 760.00 ft * 1.176 = 89.34 kg



Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


Total = 483.30 * 2 = 966.60 kgStirrups # 3 bars @ 6.50” C / C= 85 * 3.75 * 4 = 1275 ft * 0.188 = 239.70 kgTotal = 1206.30 kg

Total Rod at 6th Floor = 933.30 + 1206.30 = 2139.60 kg

M.S Rod of Beam at 1st floor:

Beam: B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B10, B11

Top Bars: 2 # 5

= 2 * 51.17’ * 4 = 409.36 ft * 0.481 = 196.90 kg

Bottom bars: 3 # 5

= 1 * 51.17’ * 3 * 4 = 614.04 ft * 0.481 = 295.35 kg

Extra top end: 4 # 6

= 1 * 5.92’ * 4 * 8 = 189.44 ft * 0.75 = 142.46 kg

Extra top mid: 2 # 9

= 1 * 9.5’ * 2 * 8 = 152.00 ft * 1.536 = 233.47 kg

Stirrups # 3 bars @ 6.50” C/C

= 85 * 3.75 * 4 = 1275 ft * 0.188 = 239.70 kg

Beam: B13, B14, B15, B16, B17, B18, B19, B20, B21, B22, B23, B24

Top bars: 2 # 5


Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


= 2 * 51.17’ * 4 = 409.36 ft * 0.481 = 196.90 kgBottom bars: 2 # 7 & 2 # 5= 2 * 20’ * 8 = 320.00 ft * 0.911 = 291.52 kg= 2 * 51.17’ * 8 = 818.72 ft * 0.481 = 393.80 kg

Extra top end: 2 # 8 & 2 # 6

= 2 * 5.92’ * 2 * 2 * 2 = 94.72 ft * 1.176 = 111.39 kg

= 2 * 5.92’ * 8 = 94.72 = 0.752

= 71.22 kg

Extra top mid: 2 # 9, 2 # 6 & 1 # 5

= 2 * 9.5’ * 2 * 2 * 2 = 152.00 ft * 1.536 = 233.47 kg

= 2 * 9.5’ * 8 = 152.00 ft * 0.752 = 114.30 kg

= 1*15’* 8= 120.00 ft *0.481

= 57.72

Stirrups # 3 bars @ 6.50” C/C

= 85 * 3.75 * 8 = 2550.00 ft * 0.188 = 479.40 kg

Total = 3077.43 kg

6th Story = 2139.60 kg

1st Story = 3077.43 kg

Total = 5217.03 kg



 Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


5th to 2nd story = 5217.03/2= 2608.51 kgTotal Rod = 2139.60+2608.51 * 4+3077.43 = 15651.07 kg



15 ft*15 ft slab:4.375 * (6+9+5) = 87.5 ft15.42 * (6+9+5) = 308 ft5.14 * (6+10+5) = 108 ft

4.375 * (6+9+5) = 87.5 ft

15.42 * (6+9+5) = 308 ft

5.14 * (6+11+5) = 113 ft

= 1012 ft

15 ft*20 ft slab:

4.16 * (8+15) = 96 ft

5.14 * (8+15) = 118 ft

15.42 * (8+15) = 355 ft

5 * (6+13+5) * 2 = 240 ft

20 * (6+9+5) = 400 ft

= 1209 ft

20 ft*20 ft slab:

6.81 * (12+12) = 327 ft

20 * (12+12) = 480 ft

6.81 * (12+13) * 2 = 341 ft

20*(12+12) = 480 ft

= 1628 ft


1S:  6 * 15.7’ = 94 ft (+ve)5 * (4.1’+ 16/12)= 27.2 ft (Ex. – ve)11 * (4.1’+ 8/12)

= 52.43 ft (In. – ve)

= 94 + 27.2 + 52.43 = 173.63 ft.

1L:  7 * 15.7’ = 109.9 ft (+ve)

6 * (4.1’+ 16 / 12)

= 32.6 ft (Ex. – ve)

12 * (4.1’+ 8 / 12)

= 57.2 ft (In. – ve)

= 109.9 + 32.6 + 57.2

= 199.7 ft.

2S:  7 * 15.7’ = 109.9 ft (+ve)

7 * (3’+ 16/12)

= 30.33 ft (Ex. – ve)

7 * (3’+ 8/12)

= 25.6 ft (In. – ve)

= 109.9 + 30.33 + 25.6

= 165.83 ft.


 Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


Total steel in slab = 1012 + 1209 + 1628 = 3849 ft = 3849 * (0.11 / 144)= 2.94 cft= 1440.6 lb= 653 kg. = 0.653 tonTotal steel in slab for six stories: 1 * 0.653 * 6 = 3.92 ton  2L:  165.83 ft.For panel 1: 173.63 * 2 + 199.70 * 2 + 165.83 * 2 = 1078.32 ft.3:   9 * 20’ = 180 ft (+ve)11 * 2 * (5.6’ + 8/12)

= 137.87 ft (-ve)

11 * 2 * (3.74’+ 8/12)

= 96.82

= 180 + 137.87 + 96.82

= 414.69 ft.

4:   7 * 20’ = 140 ft (+ve)

= 206.73 ft.

5:   9 * 15.7 = 141.3 ft (+ve)

7 * (5.6’+ 16/12)

= 48.53 ft (Ex. – ve)

8 * (5.6’+ 8/12)

= 50.13 ft (In. – ve)

7 * (3.74’+ 8/12)

= 30.85 ft (In. – ve)

=141.3+48.53 +50.13 + 30.85

= 270.81 ft.

6:   11 * 15.7 = 172.7 ft (+ve)

11 * (4.1’+ 16/12)

= 59.77 ft (Ex. – ve)

= 172.7 + 59.77 = 284.9 ft.

For Panel 2: 414.69 * 2 + 206.73 + 270.81 * 2 + 284.9 = 1862.63 ft.


 Table 4.3: Comparative steel volumes (continued..).


Option I building

(Beam supported structure)

Option II building

(Flat plate structure)


7S: 11 * 20 = 220 ft (+ve)14 * 2 * (5.6’+8/12)= 175.5 ft (-ve)13 * 2 * (3.74’+ 8/12)

= 114.57 ft (-ve)

= 175.5 + 114.57 = 510.1 ft.

7L: 12 * 20 = 240 ft (+ve)

14 * 2 * (5.6’+ 8/12)

= 175.5 ft (-ve)

13 * 2 * (3.74’+ 8/12)

= 114.57 ft (-ve)

= 240 +175.5 +114.57= 530.1 ft.

8S: 9 * 20 = 180 ft (+ve)

9 * 2 * (4.1’+ 8 / 12)

= 85.8 ft (-ve)

= 180 + 85.80 = 265.8 ft.

8L: 265.8 ft.

For panel 3:  510.10 * 2 + 265.8 + 530.10 * 2 + 265.8 = 2612 ft

Total steel: 1078.32 * 4 + 1862.63 * 4 + 2612 = 14376 ft

= 19.67 cft = 4.38 ton.

Total steel in slab for six stories

= 1 * 4.38 * 6 = 26.28 ton


 Summary of the Comparative Study:

This cost analyses, shown in Table 4.4, are completed according to “schedule of rate for civil works”, 12th edition, PWD and as per considerations made in Chapter IV, Art 4.3.

Table 4.4: Cost analysis for volume of concrete of beam supported structure.

Sl. no.

Short description



Rate  (Tk.)

Amount (Tk.)

Option I:

Beam supported structure

        i. Ground Floor







ii.  1st Floor





iii.  2nd Floor





iv.  3rd Floor





v.   4th  Floor





vi)  5th Floor





Total costing for concrete works  =


Table 4.5: Cost analysis for volume of concrete of flat plate structure.

Sl. no.

Short description



Rate  (Tk.)

Amount (Tk.)

Option II: Flat plate structure

i.  Ground Floor





ii.  1st Floor





iii.  2nd Floor





iv.  3rd Floor





v.   4th  Floor





vi)  5th Floor





Total costing for concrete works =






The cost analyses of the both structures are summarized in table  below.

Table 4.6: Cost analysis for volume of 60 grade deformed bar (steel) of beam supported


Sl. no.

Short description



Rate  (Tk.)

Amount (Tk.)

Option I: Beam supported structure

i.  Ground Floor





ii. 1st Floor





iii. 2nd Floor





iv. 3rd Floor





v.  4th Floor





vi. 5th Floor





Total costing for concrete works =



Table 4.7: Cost analysis for volume of 60 grade deformed bar (steel) for flat plate


Sl. no.

Short description



Rate  (Tk.)

Amount (Tk.)

Option II: Flat plate structure

i.  Ground Floor





ii. 1st Floor





iii. 2nd Floor





iv. 3rd Floor





v.  4th Floor





vi. 5th Floor





Total costing for concrete works =


Grand Total (I+II) =


The table below is showing total concrete requirement, steel requirement and cost difference for flat plate structure and beam-supported structure.

Table 4.8: Summary of cost analyses for both structures

Type of structure

Total volume of concrete works


Total volume of steel works



Total costing of concrete works


Total costing of steel works




Beam supported structure





About 6.5 %  more cost required for flat plate  structure

Flat plate structure






 Recommendations for Further Study:

For further study in this field, the following recommendations are put forward:

i) The study needed use of conventional finite element software and manual calculation for both analysis and design of whole structures to give a comprehensive conclusion.

ii) Instead of one residential square building of about 3.5 katahs it requires other geometrically shaped and larger areas residential building for accurate comparison.


From the comparative study of beam supported structure and flat plate structure, we gathered knowledge that:

a)      From the Finite Element Analysis result it can be said that the internal forces in the flat plate structure is higher than that of beam supported structure.

b)      The construction of flat plate structure requires more construction material which results in more cost. Such as, concrete requirement increased in flat plate structure about 1.5% and steel requirement about 11% and finally increased cost of 6.5% than beam supported structure.

c)      In case of flat plate structure interior space of building looks nice, due to absence of beams offset. Flat plate slab is thicker and more heavily reinforced than slabs with beams and girders.

d)     It is apparent from the cost comparison that the difference between two estimates is very insignificant and moreover this difference is for only frame of the building. The cost per unit area for finishing items will remain same for all cases. In compare to the enormous benefit that can be gained for aesthetic view and also for light provision, the cost increase in this case is very insignificant.


  1. ACI Code, 1995, USA
  2. ETABS -Version 8.2.7
  3. BNBC (1993), “Bangladesh National Building Code” 1st  edition, city Art Press,


4.   “Design of concrete structure”- 13th edition by Arthur H. Nilson, David Darwin,  Charles W. Dolan.

  1. “Schedule of Rate for Civil works”, 11th edition, Public works department,

Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, 21st November. 2008.

Flat Plate

Some are parts:

Analysis Between a Beam Supported Structure and a Flat Plate Structure (Part 1)

Analysis Between a Beam Supported Structure and a Flat Plate Structure (Part 2)

Analysis Between a Beam Supported Structure and a Flat Plate Structure (Part 3)