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Architecture

Outer Ring Road a Solution of City Traffic Congestion

Problem Statement
Chittagong is a major commercial and industrial hub; generating 12% of Bangladesh’s GDP; 40% of industrial output and 80% of maritime trade (sea Port of Chittagong). Chittagong is the main busy seaport of Bangladesh (RHD, 2010). Chittagong port, Shah Amanat International Airport, including largest industrial and commercial areas like Kalurghat industrial area, Agrabad commercial area and export processing zone are situated in the city. It is home to many of Bangladesh’s largest and oldest corporations, including those involved in textiles, shipping, petroleum, steel, tea, commodities, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, automotive industry, chemicals and logistics. Chittagong intends to emerge as a regional economic hub in South and East Asia, and is undertaking various megaprojects, such as a deep sea port (Hashemi, 2006).
In a recent government announcement, the Chittagong City is declared to be the commercial capital of Bangladesh. Chittagong City is not only the principal city of the District of Chittagong but also the second largest city of Bangladesh. It is situated on the right bank of the river Karnafuli between 22°-14´ and 22°-24´-30´´ North Latitude and between 91°-46´ and 91°-53´ East Longitude (Hashemi, 2006).
Chittagong has been contributing the national economy since the independence of the country in 1971. The major economic establishments/resources are (1) Chittagong Port. (2) Lots of Garments Industries. (3) Huge numbers of medium and heavy Industries (Industrial belt at Fouzdarhat, Baizid Bostami, Kalurghat Industrial and Patenga industrial area). (4) Natural Beauties such as the Patenga Sea Beach. Batali Hill, Foy’s Lake, Karnaphuly river bank, court building, Circuit House etc. in the city is playing a significant role in the development of Tourism Industry in Chittagong region (Hashemi, 2006).
So, Chittagong is the major port city, the main commercial capital of the country and the gateway for Bangladesh. Productivity of the port depends partly on the efficiency as to how the port is operated, but it also depends on the efficiency of transport connectivity to and from the port to inland destinations. Chittagong port has a unique geographical location, with respect to the hinterland countries as and regions, namely Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Northern Myanmar and Yunnan province of China. The importance of Chittagong could increase tremendously if regional traffic is allowed to use the port, for which capacity augmentation of port facilities, though both public and private sector investment would be essential. Considering the importance of the Chittagong city and the port from both national and regional points of view, its transportation system ought to be efficiently and well developed to cater to the future transport demand. Cargo handled at Chittagong Port has consistently increased about 10 percent in the past five years; and container traffic has increased 12-14 percent per year. This has led to a rapid traffic growth and robust socioeconomic development in the Dhaka–Chittagong corridor (ADB, 2007). Besides, Roads have been championed by ADB as instruments for achieving inclusive growth (ADB, 2012).
To this end, some policies need to be adopted, to address some of the deficiencies. In order to serve the city and the port traffic, as well as the regional traffic, it was found that many of the road links recommended by the Chittagong Metropolitan Master Plan (CMMP, 1995-2015) were supported by the JBIC study of 2005 (CDA, 2008).
Further analysis under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan, revealed that most of the links suggested by these two studies are in fact required to be developed in a phased manner. Under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan (CDAP), it is proposed to promote two ring roads, in the city. These would be called the “inner ring road” and “outer ring road”. Most of the road links for the two ring roads are already in place.
The northern part of the proposed outer ring road will also serve as the Chittagong bypass road. The outer ring road, when completed, will therefore, serve both city and regional traffic and will greatly reduce traffic congestion on the inner city roads (CDA, 2008)
Though from all aspects, it is an important place in the country as well as in South-East Asia but the city is vulnerable to cyclone and natural disaster like tsunami and tidal surge. The infrastructure and productive sector of the port city suffered by far a large amount of damage by natural disaster like cyclonic surge in 1991.
The City Outer Ring Road will help save the important constructions and infrastructures like EPZ, Port, Naval base, defense constructions and airport from the disaster and reduce the gridlock in the port city too (The Daily Star, 2011).

Background of the Study
Bangladesh is a developing country and this country has enormous potentialities to be a developed country. Tiny in area with a giant size of population and multi-sectored potentialities have turned this country to a more complex situation. So for managing the complex situation, more strategies and planning practices in various sectors is urgent for the efficient continuation of our country progress.
In Bangladesh, the road network is an important means of transportation. Between 1998 and 2006, the number of registered vehicle increased at an annual rate of around 6%. In the future, it is anticipated that both the number of vehicles and traffic demand will increase even more due to the impact of economic development and population growth. On the other hand, traffic congestions occur frequently because in addition to the fact that the systematic road network connecting each urban center is still under development, arterial roads within the major urban centers (particularly in the city of Dhaka and Chittagong) have not been developed sufficiently. This problem requires urgent attention (JICA, 2010).
The development of the road sector in Bangladesh is put forward as one of the most important issues in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for the country to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction. At a national level, development of the road transport system is being carried out with a focus on connecting the economic growth centers with the suburban road network in accordance with the National Land Transport Policy (JICA, 2010).
Besides the potentialities of industrialization has been establishing in our country with outstanding performances. So the practice of industrialization is being prominent in our economic sector where Chittagong city, the second largest city of Bangladesh, is the backbone of Bangladesh industrial sector with the country’s largest seaport, accumulation of industry and export processing zone. Therefore, the full utilization of its potentials contributes to the development of Bangladesh. Although Chittagong city is recognized as an important city for Bangladesh development, there are various bottlenecks in infrastructure which prevent the smooth private sector activities. Among the bottlenecks, traffic congestion is the most serious issue to be solved for this city.
The massive importance of smooth transportation in Chittagong city for our country development naturally turns anyone’s concentration to the existing traffic congestion problems of this city. While the traffic congestion problem in the inner road network is accelerating day by day, the existing trunk road system of Chittagong city is insufficiently developed compared to the volume of traffic in the city. So now the city’s greatest infrastructure bottleneck is considered to be the inadequate development of roads and bridges (JICA, 2008).
Chittagong port has a unique geographical location, with respect to the hinterland countries as and regions, namely Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Northern Myanmar and Yunnan province of China. The importance of Chittagong could increase tremendously if regional traffic is allowed to use the port, for which capacity augmentation of port facilities, though both public and private sector investment would be essential. Considering the importance of the Chittagong city and the port from both national and regional points of view, its transportation system ought to be efficiently and well developed to cater to the future transport demand. To this end, some policies need to be adopted, to address some of the deficiencies. In order to serve the city and the port traffic, as well as the regional traffic, it was found that many of the road links recommended by the Chittagong Metropolitan Master Plan (CMMP, 1995-2015) were supported by the JBIC study of 2005. (CDA, 2008)
Further analysis under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan, revealed that most of the links suggested by these two studies are in fact required to be developed in a phased manner. Under the Chittagong Detailed Area Plan (CDAP), it is proposed to promote two ring roads, in the city. These would be called the “inner ring road” and “outer ring road”. (CDA, 2008)
The CDA which is responsible for the development plans for Chittagong city and its environment also strongly recognizes the importance of Chittagong Ring Road. It has already constructed the northern section of the ring road under the outer ring road project which means CDA has initialized a big deal for the traffic problem solution in the city because it is the largest project the CDA has ever taken (The Daily Star, 2011). So, this project is very much important to be analyzed for assessing the necessity of this as well as to measure the effectiveness of the City Outer Ring Road in Chittagong city.
In this study, there is an attempt to fully understand a section of the outer ring road project of CDA from the transportation planning perspective, to measure the effectiveness and probable problems of this project planning. Moreover, during the analysis of this project planning, there is also an attempt to search out the probable solution for the discovered problems of this project and the level of necessities of this project for the ultimate traffic solution in Chittagong city.

Rational of the Study
Chittagong city is announced as industrial capital of Bangladesh. The various industrial establishments and the biggest port of the country cause tremendous traffic growth in the city. On the other hand, the existing trunk road system of Chittagong city is insufficiently developed compared to the volume of traffic in the city. The inter city traffic congestion has made the transport system more problematic. As the city’s greatest infrastructure bottleneck is considered to be the inadequate development of roads and bridges. The development of a satisfactory trunk road system is vital to the future growth of Chittagong city, one of the centers of industrial activity in Bangladesh.
The Chittagong Development Authority (CDA) has undertaken a mega project for construction of 14.7 kilometer long outer ring road from Patenga to Sagorika Stadium road. The construction of the ring road has an extremely important meaning in terms of mitigating the infrastructure bottleneck in the road sector besides the aim to save the lives of millions of peoples of the coastal regions. In this study there is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of the project of the sectional city outer ring road as the solution of the city traffic congestion and to recognize the probable strategies which can increase the efficiencies of the project. So there is needed to be answered of the following questions:
What are the existing traffic volume conditions of the alternative routes of the project?
After the implementation of the project what will be the traffic volume condition of the alternative routes and the route under the project?
What is the condition without strengthening the embankment?
What will be the condition after strengthening the embankment?
What are the reasons for which such project losses it’s effectiveness? And what can be recommended as the probable solution for increasing the effectiveness of the project of a section of city outer ring road?

Objectives of the Study
To find out the answers of the questions of the study concerned area, several aims and objectives were fixed. This study mainly aims to investigate the potentialities of a section of the city outer ring road as a solution of Chittagong city and to fulfill this aim there is attempt to illustrate the traffic volume condition or traffic pressure without the project and the probable efficient traffic volume after the implementation of the project and the same for the embankment perspective also. There is an additional aim to recommend some probable solution if there can be found any lack. For the fulfillment of the aim of this study some specific objectives are:
To examine the Chittagong Coastal Road (Patenga-Sagarika) as a Solution of Chittagong City Traffic Congestion.
To investigate the potentialities of the Chittagong Coastal Road for the development of Chittagong city.
To make probable recommendations which can mitigate the negative effects or impacts of such project & can influence the positives of such project.

Scope of the Study
The application of outer ring road for a city is new for Bangladesh. Study on outer ring road for any city in our country is also very rare. So, the analytical study on a section of outer ring road will help other researchers to study about outer ring road for any other city.
This study is based on an on-going project which project has great impact on the transportation system Chittagong city as well as the economy of whole country. So, analytical study on this project will be helpful for the transport students.
In the study, traffic volume has been conducted for the year 2012 on 24 hour basis, which will be a great traffic volume data source for the Chittagong city roads. Any researcher will be helpful by using this traffic volume data and can be able to realize the trend of traffic growth by comparing the data with the data of previous years.
There have been illustrated a different method of traffic volume forecast by comparing the relationship with GDP. So the basis of this theory and data can also be helpful for the transport students.
In the study, various studies on the transportation system of Chittagong city has been applied and used, so any scholar who want to study on the roads of Chittagong city will find the study as a combinations of all prominent studies on Chittagong road sector.

Limitation of the study
The project is an undergoing project which is not implemented fully yet, so the effectiveness of the project is fully based on calculation and projection. If it would have been implemented, then real practical information could be found from the onsite survey.
The whole project has been examined in this study only from the transportation perspective. As an embankment, its efficiency has been illustrated here only from the JICA study; there is no more analysis of this project as a coastal disaster problem solution for the limited time.
As the study area of the research is situated at a long distance, data collection needed much time. Whenever I needed further data, it was not possible to rush to the study area. All the data sources were at a distance, because the developing authority of the project related to the case study is situated in Chittagong city. This problem had been faced many a time during the study. The limited time made it difficult for going to the study area and data sources for data collection.

Organization of the Thesis
The organization of the thesis is in a simple manner which has been illustrated below.
In chapter one, the problem of the study and the background of the study has been illustrated. Moreover, rational of the study, objectives of the study, scope and limitations of the study have also been demonstrated in this chapter.
The methodology, which has been followed to conduct the study, has been illustrated in chapter two.
For the study, various transport related literatures have been reviewed to understand the transportation problems in the study area and to analyze the condition of the study area. Besides, there are some conceptual terms which have been used in the study, have been illustrated in the study. These are included in chapter three.

A brief description about the study related project and the study area have been provided in chapter four.
In chapter five, the necessity of the coastal road has been analyzed only from the point of view of transportation.
But the road has potentialities from other perspectives also which have been analyzed in chapter six.
In chapter seven, the findings which have been explored during the analysis of the necessity of the road have been illustrated. With the findings, recommendations have also been provided as the probable solution of the problems found.
The conclusion has been pulled in chapter eight.

Overview

The study is mainly focused on transportation. Besides, one of the most prominent aims of the construction of the section of Chittagong Outer Ring Road which also called Coastal Road is to remove the existing gridlock transportation system by releasing the transport load from the inner roads and to ensure the full utilization of the existing road for the intra district traffic.

So, understanding the existing transport problems which can be released by the new road is necessary. Besides, an analytical study of probable future traffic volume of the coastal road and existing road is necessary to understand the fruitfulness of the coastal road. In this chapter, there is attempt to illustrate the existing traffic congestion problem and to visualize the future scenery after the completion of the coastal road.

Existing Traffic Condition of the M. A. Aziz Road

The mainly adjacent road with the section of the ring road, from which traffic can be released by the coastal road and will be used as an alternative route, is the M. A. Aziz road. So the present traffic volume condition of the M. A. Aziz road is necessary to be studied.

Traffic Volume Analysis of M. A. Aziz Road

Traffic volume survey has been adopted as a method of measuring traffic volume in the study and the survey has been conducted in the year 2012. Survey has been conducted by dividing a day into two period- pick hour period and off-pick hour period. From 7.00-19.00 has been counted as peak hour because this time traffic volume is intense than the other period of the 24 hour. The rest period 19.00-7.00 has been counted as off-pick hour period.

ring road

From the traffic volume survey data of pick hour and off-pick hour, when the traffic volume is converted to the PCU unit (Appendix-1, 2),

The PCU/ hour in the pick-hour= 5021.833.

The PCU/hour in the off-pick hour= 2120.875

Comparison of the M. A. Aziz Road Traffic Volume with the Standard of HCM (1985)

In the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 1985, there are standards for uninterrupted flow which indicates specific volume of traffic in PCU unit for specific number of lanes. In the study, to understand the condition of the existing traffic flow of M. A. Aziz road, comparison has been made with the standard.

Table : Comparison of the M. A. Aziz Road Traffic Volume with the Standard of HCM (1985)

Source: Kadiyali, 2006., Calculation by the researcher.

Highway Type Capacity (In PCU) according to HCM manual (1985) Comparison with the HCM Manual standard
Two-lane Two way 2800 total, both directions
M. A. Aziz road (Pick hour) 5021.833 Exceeds the ideal capacity and cross the capacity approximately at double.
M. A. Aziz road (Off-pick hour) 2120.875 Within the capacity but nearer to the capacity.

So, the result of the above table indicates the emergence of the management of the extra traffic load in M. A. Aziz road. Because in the peak hour, the existing traffic volume in this road creates severe traffic congestion which is one of the most unavoidable problem in the study area.

Not only in pick hour, the off-pick hour traffic volume also indicates the urgency of any solution because the existing condition will reach the road capacity soon and the day is not so far when traffic congestion will be unavoidable even at the off-pick hour period. This is the scenario of the traffic condition of 2012.

This is the only north-south axis road which serves the industrial hub of this zone. In the zone, major industrial establishments are situated, especially CEPZ and Chittagong Port, the rate of traffic volume of which are increasing in a rapid growth. So the traffic volume condition of this road will be deteriorating day by day.

As traffic congestion is a common phenomenon in this road in day time, excess load of traffic volume not only causes congestion in this road, but also deteriorates the level of service of the road by reducing the speed of vehicles in this road.

Travel Speed along M. A. Aziz Road

The travel speed data about the road is of the year 2008. Traffic moved the slowest in the evening (16:00 hour or 17:00 hour), indicating that traffic volume is the heaviest in the evening peak hours. Similar results were obtained by the JBIC study carried out in 2005. In particular, the average travel speed of vehicles traveling in the Patenga to City Gate direction was 24 km. In the Chittagong EPZ and other sections where congestion is severe, travel speeds were 20 km or slower (JICA, 2009).

Table: Travel Speed between Patenga to City Gate (km/hour)

Start Point Morning Afternoon Evening End Point
Patenga 33.3 30.2 24.1 City Gate
End Point Morning Afternoon Evening Start Point
Patenga 31.0 29.3 27.9 City Gate

Source: JICA, 2009.

Level of Service of M. A. Aziz Road According to the HCM Manual

There are standards about the level of service of roads in the HCM manual. So, according to this standard, the level of service of M. A. Aziz road can be assumed. Besides, the operating characteristics within the road for the specific level of services can be determined

Table : Level of Service of M. A. Aziz Road According to the HCM Manual

Speed in KPH Level of Service Operating Characteristics
80 KPH or more A Relatively free flowing with service volume capacity ratio of .60 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.0. Peak hour factor at .70 or less.
Drops down to 40 KPH or more B Stable flow. Slight delay is common. Service volume capacity ratio is .70 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.1 or less. Peak hour factor at .80 or less.
Drops down to 40 KPH or more C Stable flow, with acceptable delays. Service volume capacity ratio is .80 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.3 or less. Peak hour factor at .85 or less.
Drops down to 25 KPH D Approaching unstable flow, with tolerable delay. Service volume capacity ratio is .90 or less. Load factor at intersections about 0.7 or less. Peak hour factor at .90 or less.
25 KPH to 15 KPH E Unstable flow, with congestion and intolerable delay. Service volumes are at capacity, or nearabouts. Load factor at intersections about 1.0 or less. Peak hour factor at .95 or less.
Below 15 KPH F Forced flow, with jammed conditions. Demand volume capacity ration may well exceed 1.0. Intersections overloaded.
Speeds in

M. A. Aziz Road10 KPH-20 KPHE/ FUnstable flow or forced flow. Intolerable delay, congestion, jammed conditions are common. Service volume exceeds the capacity or at capacity at the ratio 1.00. Load factor at intersections about 1.0 or less. Peak hour factor at .95 or less or simply overloaded.20 KPH-30 KPHD/ EApproaching unstable flow or unstable flow, with tolerable/ intolerable delay. Service volume capacity ratio is .90 or less or volume at the capacity. Load factor at intersections about 0.7 or less/ 1.0 or less. Peak hour factor at .90 or less/ .95 or less.

Source: Kadiyali, 2006; JICA, 2009.

M. A. Aziz road is the only trunk road of the southern zone of Chittagong city. As the southern zone is an important zone for prominent industrial establishments and land uses, the level of service of this road should be well enough. The level of service of this road should be A, B or at least C. In the manual, Level of service C at least is recommended for good condition, where the level of service of this road is sometimes D, sometimes E or F according to the manual. So, unstable flow or forced flow is a common phenomenon for this road. Similarities can be found with the practical experiences with the operating characteristics according to the level of services of the road (Survey, 2012). This situation is very much unacceptable with the importance of the road. And this is because of the extreme pressure of the traffic volume on the road.

In future, the situation will be worsening. So, to re-establish the level of service A or B in the road, traffic volume load of this road should be lessened by diverting some traffic to another road, where the new coastal road is being expected to be an alternative route of the M. A. Aziz road.

As the project of the sectional ring road is for aiming the accommodation of the traffic volume of the year 2030, so to assess the necessity of the road, the traffic volume of M. A. Aziz road and the coastal road of 2030 is needed to be assumed.

Future Traffic Forecast of M. A. Aziz Road

The existing scenario of M. A. Aziz road provides the information that, the road is now overloaded and the level of service of the road is at the position of near the lowest. But if this situation is continued and if there would be no alternative route for this road, the probable scenario of the road should be illustrated to understand the condition.

To illustrate the probable future condition, traffic volume of this road has been illustrated for the year 2030, because traffic information about the new coastal road is available for the year 2030.

Relationship between GDP and Traffic Increase

Traffic volumes are generated as an integral part of a region’s socioeconomic activities, and therefore traffic volumes are believed to be closely linked to GDP, which is an indicator of overall socioeconomic activity.

There is a relationship between the traffic volume increase rate and the GDP increase rate, which has been explored from a Chittagong city road traffic study by RHD. This relationship is analyzed below on the basis of that study.

An analysis of the traffic increase on National Highway 1 was made on the basis of traffic counts carried out by the RHD in the past. From time to time, the RHD carries out traffic counts at key points along national highways. One of the counting stations is located near Fouzderhat, the ending point of the Coastal Road. While the station is outside the Chittagong City area, the data was used to conduct the following analysis.

Traffic counts from the above counting station are available for the years 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2007.

As seen, traffic on National Highway 1 shows a constant increase. However, the average increase in traffic as indicated by the regression line is only about 490 units annually, which is not a very steep growth.

On the assumption that traffic fluctuations on National Highway 1 reflect national economic trends, the Study plotted the relationship between the above count data and the nation’s GDP based on constant prices with 1995-1996 as the base year, as shown in Figure 5.3.

There is a solid correlation between the two other than in the year 2000, and it is believed that traffic volumes on National Highway 1 can be explained in terms of GDP trends.

Estimations of future traffic volumes often take into account the ratio of traffic increase to economic (e.g. GDP) growth. This ratio is called elasticity. In developing countries, the elasticity of traffic with respect to GDP is generally over 1.0, although there are differences based on vehicle type. The above traffic counts obtained from National Highway 1 give an elasticity of 0.8, which is slightly lower than the typical value for developing countries (RHD, 2008).

So, from figure of the relationship between GDP increase rate and traffic volume increase rate, the relational equation is,

Y= 3.3137x+ 6953.9

Where,

Y= Vehicle/ day

X= GDP at constant price.

So, for making the projection of traffic volume of 2030, data about GDP growth rate till 2030 is needed. But there cannot be found any official projections on long-term GDP growth. But data are available about the previous GDP record. So, an approximate assumption about the average GDP growth rate can be done.

Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Bangladesh 5.2 5.3 5.6 4.4 5.3 4.9 6.4 6.6 6.3 4.9 5.7 6 6.1

Table : GDP – growth rate of Bangladesh

Source: ADB, 2013

If we count the last five years GDP growth rate, the average growth rate stands at 5.8. But this rate is for the last five years, which can be used for only to assume the growth rate, but the projection of traffic volume for 2030 by using this GDP growth rate can give result far rich from the actual value.

There are some studies about the roads of Chittagong can be found which have conducted for various road projects and operation and maintenance project in the Chittagong city. In those studies, for the projections of traffic volume in the Chittagong city roads various traffic increase rate has been assumed.

Future Traffic Increase Rate Estimated by Other Studies

Traffic projections for Chittagong and its environs can be found in studies conducted by the ADB, RHD and others.

Table : Future Traffic Increases Estimated by Other Studies

4 Laning of Dhaka-Chittagong Highway Port Access Road Dhaka-Chittagong Access Controlled Highway Road Network Maintenance and Improvement Project II Average
2010-2020 6.0 6.3 6.13 5.41 5.96
2020-2030 5.0 6.3 5.58 3.18 5.02

Source: RHD, 2007; RHD 2008; ADB, 2008.

The average rates of traffic increase projected by the four main studies listed below are 5.96% for 2010 – 2020 and 5.02% for 2020 – 2030; these are also close to the result of the growth rate from GDP records in this study.

As traffic volume growth rate can be found for specific ten years from the above table and these have been calculated from the applied rates in various studies of Chittagong city, so these growth rates have been used in this study to make projection of the traffic volume of the year 2030.

Probable Traffic Volume at the Year 2020 and 2030 in PCU/ Hour

By using the traffic volume growth rate at 5.09% till 2020 and 5.02% till 2030, the following probable traffic volume can be found for the year 2020 and 2030.

Table : Probable Traffic Volume at the Year 2020 and 2030 in PCU/ Hour

Roads Probable Traffic Volume at the year 2020 in PCU/ hour Probable Traffic Volume at the year 2030 in PCU/ hour
M. A. Aziz Road (From 7 am-7 pm) 7979.908 13023.21
M. A. Aziz Road (From 7 pm-7 am) 3370.161 5500.103

Source: Calculated by the author.

If the total volume from the above result is run along the existing M. A. Aziz road, then the future traffic flow scenario of this road will be treacherous.  The road will be fully incapable to function as a major trunk road of the southern zone of the city.

Where, already the traffic congestion is sometimes intolerable, so what will be the future scenario of the traffic volume of this road, if the same road has to accommodate the traffic volume of 2030.

In a study of JICA for Chittagong City Ring Road Project, .traffic flow of 2030 has been represented in a pictorial diagram. The Study carried out traffic assignment on how the two sets of OD trips (upper and lower estimates) obtained for the target year of 2030 will flow on the trunk road network in and around Chittagong City. Routes were selected on the basis of the minimum pass method, which is the method that is usually employed in such forecasting (JICA, 2009).

In the traffic assignment case where the OD trips projected for 2030 were assigned to a future road network that has no coastal road, traffic is heavy in Section A-A, indicating that the construction of four-lane roads is strongly required by 2030. If no such roads are constructed, traffic on the M.A. Aziz Road is predicted to exceed 70,000 vehicles per day, resulting in chronic congestion and creating an enormously adverse impact on the activities of the Chittagong and Karnaphuli EPZs and other industrial centers, as well as transport hubs such as Chittagong Port and the Chittagong International Airport.

The Port Connecting Road, which has sufficient right-of-way for four lanes but is currently functioning as a two-lane highway, will require two new lanes in the future in Section B-B. In the northern section, two to four lanes will be required. At present, the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway Project is under way, and if the highway is completed as a four-lane highway, capacity shortage in Section C-C will correspond to only about two lanes in 2030 (JICA, 2009).

Table : Required Number of Lanes by Section

Section Future Growth Future Traffic

(veh./day)Required No. of Lanes (a)Existing No. of Lane (b)(a) – (b)A – AHigh75,500624Low59,10064B – BHigh34,000422Low26,70042C – CHigh40,40062 (4)4 (2)*Low31,60042 (0)*

*: The number of lanes when Dhaka – Chittagong Highway will be completed.

Source: JICA, 2009.

If the Coastal road is constructed and can perform its full performances as believed by the project designers, then the probable traffic flow scenario in the existing roads and in the new road at 2030 will be more releasing.

Besides the M. A. Aziz road, there is another road, run parallel with the coastal road is named Port Access Toll Road. The traffic volume of this road is also can be diverted to the coastal road by adequate designing of the coastal road. So, the coastal road can also be act as an alternative route of the Port Connecting Road users if situation demands.

So, the traffic forecasting of the Port Access Toll Road is necessary to know the necessity of the coastal road from the Port Access Toll Road perspective.

Traffic Volume Forecast in the Port Access Toll Road

The Port Access Road is an access-controlled highway that directly links the Chittagong Port District with the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway (National Highway 1). It has one lane in each direction, and vehicles cannot enter/exit the road in the middle of its route. The Road links with the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway in the Fauzderhat District, at a point approximately 50 m to the north of the intersection between the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway and the Outer Ring Road (RHD, 2006).

Traffic forecasts for the Port Access Road are given in the February 1999 “Feasibility Study Report” and the June 2000 “Report on Highway Design Review and Technical Matters.” Traffic forecasts for the Port Access Road given in the above study were made by first establishing the assumptions that the growth rates of future traffic demand will be 8% from 2000 to 2008, about 6% from 2008 to 2014, and 5% from 2014 and thereafter and the road will be operated as a toll road. The actual commencement of service was in 2007 (RHD, 2006).

Table : Traffic demand Forecast on Port Access Road                                 (veh./day)

  2004 2008 2015 2024
Estimated Traffic Volume 6,896 9,382 13,974 21,679
Growth Rate (%) 8.0 5.9 5.0

Source: RHD 2008.

Because the Port Access Road has only two lanes, its capacity is believed to be only about 16,000 vehicles per day under normal conditions. In the year 2015, traffic on the road is projected to increase to approximately 14,000 vehicles per day, at which point traffic on the road will be in near capacity. When traffic capacity will exceeds in port access road, traffic congestion would increase on the present port connecting road that passes through Chittagong City. Consequently air quality in the built-up town area would deteriorate and the air quality and noise level and the accident rate would increase (RHD, 2000).

So, the excess traffic will flow onto other roads in the city, further aggravating congestion in the Alonkar – Fauzderhat section, where traffic volume congestion already exists and where vehicles using the Port Connecting Road and the Dhaka-Chittagong Highway enter the City.

So traffic of this road should be systematically diverted to a new road, otherwise outflow onto other existing roads in the city is likely to trigger congestion on the two major routes mentioned above. And as the route of new Coastal Road is parallel to the Toll Road, if this road is systematically designed, can act as an alternative route of the toll road and can release the road from excessive traffic load as well as from the extra load in Alankar- Fauzdarhat section and Port Connecting Road.

Coastal Road Necessity from the Transport Perspective at a Glance

Elimination of Transport Bottlenecks

The M.A. Aziz Road is the only trunk road in Chittagong’s southern built-up district and the only road linking the district with the Chittagong and Karnaphuli EPZs and the Chittagong International Airport. This road fulfills vital roles as key arterial route. The roads are already operating exceeds the capacity. Traffic on the M.A. Aziz Road is forecast to increase to 13023.21 PCU/ hour in the pick hour in 2030. To process this volume adequately, the road will need to be widened to eight lanes. However, the roadside area has a high concentration of buildings, and widening would be extremely difficult to carry out. Without any alternative routes to the road, congestion will become chronic and stoppages may occur unexpectedly. Such conditions can greatly delay or prevent the transport of goods to and from the Chittagong EPZ and other important facilities, seriously affecting their operations. Besides, the traffic volume overview of Toll Road also indicates that traffic volume of this road  will also rich the capacity in near future, which will create further problem in the inter city roads such as Port Connecting Road, Alankar to Fauzdarhat section simultaneously. So, the implementation of the coastal road has consecutive impact on the inter city roads and can release the inter city roads by consecutive outflow of the traffic from the central core of the city.

As indicated by the foregoing, the construction of the Coastal Road is greatly needed from the transportation perspective for the fruitful functioning of the existing roads.

Categories
EEE Modern Civilization

Mobile Phone Effect on Youth in Bangladesh

Overview

The main concept of this study is to investigate effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh. The study starts reviewing the existing related literature and advances to construct its methodological portion and sets the various techniques of data collection Such as interview schedule, guide line for case study to provide a sociological approach .than it formulates the conceptual frame work  of the study. It is evident from this study that mobile phone effects on youth in Bangladesh. It is seem from the study, with the help of mobile phone social and personal life patterns of youth is changing. Often the smallest technological advances create the largest social impacts. Technology impacts the developing world in great ways because the contrast it has to the developed world. Mobile technology is no longer a new one. Companies and governments already know the opportunities that the mobile technology has created in the developing world, because the lack of technology and communication, the developing worlds are unable to participate in the global scenario and its benefits. This paper argues that mobile phones are quickly becoming an affordable, useful and accessible tool to young generation around the country and strengthen social networks. Teen-ager and young also negative impact on family relation in Bangladesh is remarkable negative impact of mobile phone uses. There is a direct correlation between mobile phones and poverty alleviation.

 In this paper we will focus the effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh using Various data collected through questionnaire, published source, internet etc. The data for this paper have been collected both from primary and secondary sources of information.

Considering the research objectives, the study use to both quantitative and qualitative method.so, at one hand it gives a statistical analysis and on the other hand it also presents us with impetrative analysis by using qualitative method.

Introduction

Mobile phone has dramatically changed peoples’ social and communication behavior use telephones. The land telephone line restricted the user’s accessibility to phone and also abilities to move around while talking and telephones were usually located in areas away from and more or less isolated from other activities. After the introduction of Cell Phone in Bangladesh in 1993, today, we see people use in mobile phone all kinds of situations, to public places such as in the streets, on the bus, in shops, restaurants, public theaters, offices, at work as well as leisure, while attending seminars, alone as well as together with others. There are over six nation-wide independently owned cell phone companies competing for business. As of March, 2011 there are 70.963 million mobile phone subscribers in

Bangladesh (BTRC). Expansion of cell phone has an impact on our behavior. Mobile phone users often perform cell phone conversations in combination with multiple other activities and simultaneously with other social interactions. This study was undertaken with the objective to understand why people use cell phone in a range of situations and identify the impact of expansion of cell phone on interpersonal communication and behavior change.

Statement of the problem

 Mobile phones have dramatically changed the way people communicate. Traditionally, telephone conversations were restricted to relatively fixed locations. The land telephone lines restricted the user’s abilities to move around while talking and telephones were usually located in areas away from and more or less isolated from other activities. The locations of the telephone in private homes and offices have also been regulated by norms and traditions, balancing the benefits of a central location with the comfort of having the phone conversation away from the noise and disturbance of other activities. The mobile phone have brought telephone conversations out from these designated areas of traditional fixed line telephones, and into the huge variety of social situations and settings people take part in. Today, we see people use cell phones in all kinds of situations, to public places such as in the streets, on the bus, in shops, restaurants, public theaters, offices, at work as well as leisure, while attending seminars, alone as well as together with others. Bangladesh is one of the few countries in the world that can guarantee each one of its residents can get a cell phone signal – no matter where they are in the country with a population of over 150 million. There are over six nation-wide independently owned cell phone companies competing for business. Bangladesh’s six cell phone carriers added 2.05 million new subscribers in January,2009 making the total number of user to 36.4 million in the one of the world’s fastest growing mobile market, official data showed. Expansion of mobile phone has an impact on our behavior especially on youth behavior. Mobile phone users often perform Mobile phone conversations in combination with multiple other activities and simultaneously with other social interactions. Rather than being a one-to-one interaction between the two telephone speakers, mobile phone conversations often involve other persons in the speaker’s local context. Today, a mobile phone is not merely a tool which enables us to make phone calls and send text messages or pictures. It can process, store, and output/input complex and diverse information. For instance, the functions the Apple phone has: Multimedia, Internet connectivity, Web accessibility, E-mail, etc. It is also time consuming and cost effecting to us. There is no doubt that many find mobile phone highly useful, and appreciate the flexibility and accessibility they represent. However, the use of cell phones may also be experienced as annoying and disturbing, and even perceived as improper behavior in many social situations. The problem of cell phone disturbance in public spaces has mainly been treated as a social phenomenon related to norms of social behavior in the various social settings.

The general argument being that cell phone usage may challenge the social norms of behavior of the social setting, and/or that specific norms of mobile phone usage have yet to be established. While the performance and cost of current new cell phone functionalities, or call services, are not yet completely satisfying no one can deny that a new age is coming – the age that belongs to the mobile phone. Now it is being a prestige issue without having mobile phone.

 In today’s world nearly everyone has access to a mobile phone. How people use Mobile phones is an interesting topic of young generation. It is related to how mobile phones will be designed in the future and how to apply information technology to our quality of life. Thus, the answers to these questions may inspire thoughts towards the effects of Mobile phones.

Rationale of the Study

Mobile phones have become a mainstream product in today’s world and have a huge impact on today’s world. With youth population constituting almost half of the population, Bangladesh has become a fine breeding ground for higher mobile connections. When mobile phones hit the high street over 10 years ago, not only did it give us the ability to communicate with friends, family and colleagues anytime and anywhere, but along the way it has also changed our social behavior and has made a huge cultural impact. It is the easiest way to stay connected with family and friends and also provides security, like updating our parents where we are if it gets late to go home. It helps to socialize, creates a sense of belonging to peer group and easy access to media and environment. Apart from its regular use, cell phones express individual identities. Right from the model we buy till the ring tone and wallpaper set, every minute detail is noted. On the contrary, cell phones have also made people introvert, that is, mobile phone has some dangerous effects. And in this case, youth of our society are the most vulnerable portion. Different mobile phone companies are trapping our youth society through offering some attractive but deceptive packages.

In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages. They are losing the essence of their profession/studies. They are derailing and deviating themselves. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. Their minds are becoming stagnant and static. Creativity and innovation is blocked by the consistent telephonic conversations spread. They are losing their interest towards the interactions and sociality. Alienation is increasing within small community or groups of people. In one room four roommates are strangers to one another. They never try to tie up the relation because they don’t have a pinch of time. By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health. Due to spending whole nights the absenteeism is skyrocketing in every profession. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents. They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents. They are traveling towards the lone parent family system in which one is not accountable to anyone and he is the only decision maker. Such kind of behavior is leading towards the social fragmentation and terrible decline of moral values in which respect is core one. They are crossing the restraints and limitations, very essential for the well integrated society.

Due to the bogus projection of the companies their effectiveness and determination is diminishing if we put a furtive glimpse on the chart of protests and rallies conducted against the negative policies, the ratio of youth’ contribution is at minor level and seems vanished because they have engrossed in making affairs and spending their potential and energy to locate the suitable packages.

Thus the young people of our society have been under a great threat due to the impact of using mobile phone. Though it is a fact of great concern for us, there do not have enough studies regarding this subject. Therefore, this study will be an effort to explore the devastating impact of mobile phone on our youth society.

The Objectives of the Study:

Broad objectives

The broad objective of the study is to understand why people use mobile phone in a range of situations and identify the impact and effects of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh.  

Specific objectives

  1. To explore the changing pattern of behavior of youth
  2. To identify the communicative practices of young mobile phone users.
  3. To assess the perception of an adaptation of social norms
  4. To introduce the user comprehension of mobile telephony technology.

Literature review

Pamela (2000) has discussed with different sectors in which cell phones have a great impact on today’s youth. Here, at first she has discussed with the educational sector. According to her, cell phones allow kids to text quiz answers, take pictures and videos of problem-solving methods for tests and leave voice messages detailing classroom pop quizzes and other events that otherwise would not spread by word of mouth in one day. A ban on cell phones in schools is not the answer, as a phone set to silent or vibrate mode may easily go unnoticed by teachers. Then she has discussed with fact of Sexing. The newest thing to hit young cell phone users today is sexing. Verbal texts, pictures or videos can be sent out to an entire contact list in seconds. Those kids that receive it in turn send it out and within an hour, potentially detrimental sexual material has been spread to a massive audience. Many kids can be hurt if pictures or texts that they think are going to one person are spread around to others. Pamela has also expressed her concern on the role of mobile phone in occurring an accident. Young cell phone users know how to text while driving. They can talk on the phone or text and drive on the streets and highways without regard to the potential danger. Car accidents involving cell phones and youth have increased.

The discussion made by Pamela in this article would certainly be an important one to study the impact of mobile phone on the youth of Bangladesh. But the discussion might have lacked some positive impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

A research conducted by Market Analysis and Consumer Research Organisation in the title of “ Study of mobile phone usage Among the teenagers and Youth in Mumbai ” (2004). In this study an effort has been provided to learn about the attitude of teenagers and youth ,age group 15-30 years, towards cellular phones. The study tends to examine the way young people relate to the functionality of mobile phones as well as asses observable phenomena. It also discusses with the different usage patterns of mobile phone in age-wise or gender wise. In all, the research was conducted in an attempt to replicate the study in an Indian context in order to arrive at the current trends, especially in metros like Mumbai where mobile telephony seems to have made an immense impact.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone on the youth but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Kheifets (2001) warned, however, that there were other possible explanations, including that mothers who were frequently on the phone through pregnancy might continue the pattern after birth, spending less time with their babies.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone on the pregnant women but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

 This study was performed by Nahid r.ghorbani and rosemarie n.heidari(2004) Effects of Information and Communication Technology on Youth’s Health Knowledge.The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives. The study tends to examine the way young people relate to using it and become addicted .

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed health knowledge and effects of it but but has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

A research conducted by John-Harmen Valk , Ahmed T. Rashid ( 2006) conducted  by the analysis the title Using Mobile Phones to Improve Educational Outcomes evidence of the role of mobile phone-facilitated Learning in contributing to improved educational outcomes in the developing countries of Asia by exploring the results of that took place in the  Thailand, India, and Bangladesh. In particular, this article examines the extent to which the use of mobile phones helped to improve educational outcomes in Bangladesh. Analysis of the projects indicates that while there is important evidence of mobile phones facilitating increased access, much less evidence exists as to how mobiles promote new learning.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed with the different impacts of mobile phone for Improve Educational outcomes. But has not specifically mentioned of the positive and the negative impacts, and any recommendation to confront the negative impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Johansson(2003)  has studied the effects of mobile phones, Wifi etc on humans since over 20 years and finds the evidence are compelling about Professor Johansson finds that the brain tumor issue is a minor thing compared to many other harmful effects. While brain tumors affect a small percentage other serious effects, affect the whole population including genetic damage, sleep disturbances, reduced learning capacity, concentration difficulties and psychological problems and serious hazards.

In fact, the study has thoroughly discussed, concentration difficulties and psychological problems and serious hazards. But the discussion might have lacked some positive impacts of mobile phone on the youth.

Defining the concept of “Effects of mobile phone on youth”

Mobile phones have an important function in many people’s daily lives and it’s hard for us to imagine curtailing our dependence on them. Therefore, it might not be advisable to ban your child’s mobile phone, which could lead to social isolation. The goal is to establish healthy habits. Time spent on mobile phones, while useful and fun, is time not spent focusing on other important activities, such as studying, working, and improving mental and physical health.

It’s important to recognize that although mobile phones provide us with the ability to seek social contact and feedback at any hour of the day, it might be a worthwhile idea to spend time “offline” and to realize that our time might be well spent alone. In the same vein, parents might rely to heavily on mobile phone to communicate with their children, contacting them too much, in the place of a face to face conversation

Many young today have their own mobile phones to use for social, family, and professional purposes. Mobile phones are equipped to send/receive phone calls and text messages. “Smart” phones or PDAs and other devices also enable you to access the Internet, take/send photos/videos, play games, listen to music, use a calculator, alarm clock, and calendar, not to mention the thousands of apps that offer a growing array of services.

Many teens use a mobile phone as a part of a family plan, where the bill is sent to one person in a household or family. However, teens are able to procure their own mobile phones without committing to a contract by purchasing a prepaid phone.

Positive effects of mobile phone on youth

In economic sector, the aggregation of the supply-side, demand side and intangible benefits provide an indication of the total economic impact of mobile communications in Bangladesh. The total impact of mobile communications on Gross Domestic Product .

contribute to employment via several avenues:

 direct employment of the industry and related industries; support employment created by outsourced work And taxes that the government subsequently spends on employment generating activities; and Induced employment resulting from the above employees and beneficiaries spending their earnings, and creating more employment .the estimated that in aggregate, including direct and indirect employment for the related industries, dividing the proportion of

Revenue spent on wages by the average wage rate in each sector. , representing our view of the relative open-news of the Bangladeshi economy.

The internationally acclaimed Village Phone Program with the help of Village Phone operators is providing telecommunication services in the Village Phone Program is a unique initiative to provide telecommunications facilities in remote, rural areas all over Bangladesh. Some 75 percent of the operators are women. The Village Phones have proventheir immense potential in boosting income of poor households in rural areas, promoting health care, development of agri-business and in the social empowerment of rural women.They have created a “phone culture” among women by enabling their access to communication tools from which they might otherwise be excluded. They have also shown that poor, largely uneducated women can master the skills and run a small business. Women phone operators have achieved economic and social empowerment within their households and communities.

There are a number of ways that mobile services can promote cohesion in families and society. For example, a cheap mobile service allows families and communities to remain as a coherent unit when family members are away for long periods. In cases where a family member is abroad either

Temporarily or permanently it allows the family unit .

In Bangladesh, it is common for mobile phone owners to use them for the benefit of those with low levels of education and literacy,. The same study found that owners are more likely to have higher incomes whilst users are more likely to have lower incomes. The operators in Bangladesh recognize the importance of broadening the accessibility of their services

Access to data services encourages local content, allowing users to learn about local services such as healthcare, agri service,as well as their general standard of education and knowledge in current affairs. Access to data services allows organizations to provide basic information such as protection against dangerous conditions such as avian influenza and other diseases, surgery times and how to obtain vaccinations. Mobile communications provide these capabilities To all sectors of society, whilst fixed services do not. In developing countries, fixed services are generally only available to wealthy individuals and corporations. Given an appropriate policy regime, mobile services can be extended to

all the whole population.

Mobile services dramatically improve access to emergency Services, which would otherwise only be available the wealthy.It also allows families to stay in touch with each other in the event of natural disasters, communicate with relief providers and obtain information that will allow them to obtain more rapid relief. A recent study “The Roles of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies” into the use of mobile phones in disaster relief used network data and other evidence to try to understand how people used mobile phones in extreme circumstances. The research identified

that mobile phones are used in the following many situations:like,Early warnings, Disaster management,  Immediate after math,  Recovery and rebuilding

One of the most consistent messages to emerge was the benefit of the timely spread of information in response to a disaster. The research found that while mobiles are only one element of a whole array of communications, they are especially effective at diffusing information rapidly to where it is most urgently needed. Particularly important is the superior resilience of mobile compared with fixed networks and the ability to install new capacity very quickly where needed.

 As one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy, mobile operators have taken steps to promote social responsibility, the education and welfare of communities and employees.

-Maintaining interpersonal communication. Using cell phoneincreasing social communication and spread one’s circle of acquaintance. especially  who want to optimize use of their time agree that using cell phone help in increasing proficiency in efficient delivery of responsibilities and goods.

Using mobile phone enriches their information and use internet option.Carrying cell phone gives a feeling of security which is especially supported by women .

Negative effects of mobile phone on youth

People were done up and vexed with internet but due to  cellular technology all gaps have been bridged for the destruction of youth.

The telecommunication companies in our country have been inclined towards introducing new and attractive packages for youth .

I think All necessary and normal interactions can be dealt with during daytime but the companies offer the packages that start after end of family or business communication. My feeling is that these packages are more likely to spoil and ravage our youth than to do anything else. Except on very urgent occasions ordinarily no one would like to talk after midnight

In our youth segment the majority is student community that is spell bounded by these packages. They are losing the essence of their profession/studies. They are derailing and deviating themselves. They are getting away from their goals, destinies and motives. Their minds are becoming stagnant and static. Creativity and innovation is blocked by the consistent telephonic conversations spread over the whole of night.

They are losing their interest towards the interactions and sociality. Alienation is increasing within small community or groups of people. In one room four roommates are strangers to one another. They never try to tie up the relation because they don’t have a pinch of time.

By talking whole night with opposite sex, they are getting psychologically weak and pressured. There are many other physical distortions also arising due to spending the precious time which is needed compulsory rest, relaxation, relief and mental health.

Due to spending whole nights the absenteeism is skyrocketing in every profession. They are going far and far away from the hold of families. They tell lies and have false communication with their parents.

They are betraying the decisions, trust and expectations of their parents. They are traveling towards the lone parent family system in which one is not accountable to anyone and he is the only decision maker. Such kind of behavior is leading towards the social fragmentation and terrible decline of moral values in which respect is core one.

Role of mobile phone on youth in Bangladesh

Mobile phone use has several potential costs: financial, academic, social, and health.

Aside from using more minutes than allocated in your mobile phone plan, extra text messages (both sent and received) can quickly add to your bill.

Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. Schools set restrictions because of the use of mobile phones for cheating on tests, harassing other people, causing threats to the schools security, and facilitating gossip and other social activity in school.

Some teens and young text message so much that they have developed physical symptoms, Texting Teen and Tendonitis. So much texting can lead to pain in the hands, back and neck soreness from poor posture while texting, impaired vision, and, possibly, many years down the line, to arthritis.

One study found that teenagers who excessively use their mobile phone are more prone to disrupted sleep, restlessness, stress and fatigue.  Another found that mobile phone addiction can result in psychological disorders.

Because mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation, concerns have been raised about cancer risks that may pose when used for long periods of time. The current consensus view of the scientific and medical communities is that health effects are very unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations. At the same time, cellular phones became widely available only relatively recently, while tumors can take decades to develop. For this reason, some health authorities have urged that the precautionary principle be observed, recommending that use and proximity to the head be minimized, especially by children.

Conceptual frame work

Mobile phone is an important medium of communication. Nowadays Accompanying cell phone gives a feeling of security. Using of mobile phone maintain interpersonal communication and build proficiency. Now it is found in every ones hand in our country. For Using cell phone increasing social communication and people can enrich knowledge.

However with all merits, a mobile phone has some negative effects too. Social harassment is increasing through excessive using of cell phone. Sometimes

Factor contributing in increasing incidence of social disturbance and eve teasing due to mobile phone. Tendency of telling lie is increasing for using mobile phone. Specially the habit of Preference of unnecessary talking over night and develop complicacy in personal/family relation affected much. Excessive using of cell phone cause health hazard to the users.

Operational definition

Mobile Phone: Wireless phones which brought conversations out from designated areas of traditional fixed line telephones, and into the huge variety of social situations and settings people use it/.

Youth: a period between child hood and adult age. The qualities of energy, freshness, immaturity etc. associated with being young.

presentation and analysis of case study

Case study 1

Ms. Shirin Afroz (28) working in an NGO for last two years. She is from Chittagong and living at Dhaka with her husband. She was involved in Red Crescent Society as a volunteer in 2003 while she was student. As a part of assignment she joined a seminar in Dhaka arranged by Red Crescent Society in which participants from different districts attended. During the seminar Ms. Shirin introduced with Mr. Zakaria who was from

Narshindhi and they exchange their address and phone number. Gradually they shared all about their personal and family affairs via cell phone. According to her opinion, day by day interpersonal communication and mental dependency between each other increased. After a long sharing they mutually decided to get married and accordingly did so.

Case study 2

Ms. Rafayet Ara is a housewife and involve in a cooperative society where all 40 members are female. Most of the society members are small and medium handicraft garments entrepreneur. Earlier they directly interacted with the customer and ship owners to receive selling order. Hence, they had to invest a lot of time to convince the customer. As a result they could not provide much more time to increase their production level. But when they started to use the cell phone they communicated quickly with the customer and received order from them. Gradually their business area

Expanded. Presently all entrepreneurs are able to provide more time to increase their production level.

Case study 3

Ms. Ferzana Nargis (33) is working in an NGO using the cell phone for last 10 years. She said that cell phone make easier to communicate with the friends. When she completed SSC examination some of her close friends got admitted in different colleges of Dhaka city. Therefore she couldn’t communicate with all of them. 15 years later, suddenly one of her friend called her. At first Ms. Ferzana could not recognize that person but after a while she recalled that the caller is her childhood friend. Therefore

they started to communicate in a regular interval. At present they meet each other in different social occasion and share about their family life.

Case study 4

Mrs. Huq received a miss call from an unknown person. She called back and told the caller that this is not the CP of the person he is trying to reach. In spite of that the caller continue to bother her with miss calls. Mrs. Huq’s daughter saved the number as “disturb” so that she can avoid the miss call.

Case study 5

Shahana (35) is a homemaker. Her daughter Lima is studying in a local college. She regularly goes out of home to attend the classes in the college. A few days back Shahana received a call from Farhana’s class friend enquiring why she is not attending the college for last five days. Although surprised, she avoided to reply her. But she was

worried and called Lima to know where she is. Lima replied angrily “Why, I am in theclass”. Shahana could feel that she is lying, but she had no way to check it.

Case study 6

Hossain is a businessman. His wife Mily comes from a large extended family. She is also very social. As such, she receives and makes lots of call daily. Some time even at night she is talking with someone over mobile phone. This irritates her husband. As such there is often conflict between them.

Findings of the study

Reason for use of  mobile phone:

Most of the respondents said that they use mobile phone to keep contact with others. In addition the students use mobile phone  to keep themselves informed about study and business people to maintain business related contact, use mobile phone also for safety. make and receive calls mostly from guardians and relatives by Students

Number of calls made and Expense:

Around two third of the total respondents said that daily approximate dialed call is 10 and below which includes mostly homemakers, students and service holders. Among businessman, half of them said daily approximate dialed call varies between 11 to 20. Most of the students and

homemakers spend between Tk.300/- to Tk. 1000/- monthly. Businessman generally spend more money for payment of cell phone calls. Most of the respondents do not agree that cell phone expense curtails the demands of everyday need and expense for  mobile phone is wastage.

Benefits of mobile phone:

Respondents from all categories highly support the statement that facilitates in maintaining interpersonal communication. Large number of respondents agree that using cell phone increasing social communication and spread one’s circle of acquaintance. Most of the respondents especially service holders and business people who want to optimize use of their time agree that using cell phone help in increasing proficiency in efficient delivery of responsibilities and goods. Also the respondents in the categories of student, business man and service holders agree that using  Mobile phone enriches their information and knowledge base. Among homemakers half of them did not agree to this, most probably because few of them use internet

option. Most of the respondents think that carrying cell phone gives a feeling of security which is especially supported by homemaker and business people. Home makers being women are more susceptible to insecure environment. They are also anxious about security of their children and spouse. Business people handling cash may also use mobile phone for safety measures.

Pattern of Mobile phone use:

The respondents are mostly get annoyed when some one around talk through  in Mobile phone loud voice and also conscious about not to do the same when they are using . Mobile phone Only some businessman said they are not that concerned about whether people around gets annoyed or not. To avoid unnecessary calls respondents generally do not pick up the Mobile phone and some of them cut off the line. A few of the respondents including students use call block option.

Behavioral effect:

The respondents in general supported that there are some amount of moral degradation due to

increased use of Mobile phone which includes enhancement in:

1. Tendency of telling lies;

2. Watching pornography;

3. Public discloser of personal and confidential information/ photograph

4. Habit of unnecessary talking

5. Annoying people through unnecessary miss call and eve teasing.

6. Indecent behavior in public place

Considerable percentage of homemakers and service holders considers calling people after midnight is interference of personal time of others. Whereas student and businessmen do not consider this as improper. However, along with home maker, service holder, most of the business man do not prefer to use mobile to call late at night. Only certain percentage of student like to use discount call offered by Mobile phone companies to make late night calls

Result of the study

Depending on the data collected from the field, various analyses have done by using SPSS and the results are shown in the tabular format. In our analysis there are 100 respondents and

their demography shows in the Table 1-7. Most  of the respondents age is 15-25  and 26-35 years which are 33 and 30 percent of the total respondent. This is assumed that the study was conducted with 52percent female and 48 percent male respondent. Among the participants most of the respondents are student and employee which are 38 and 26 percent of the total respondents. Every participant recently appeared in Secondary School Certificate examination and some are doing graduation which is 38 and 29 percent of total respondents.

 This is Assumed that all participants deserve Muslim values, which are 87 percent of total respondents. . Among the participants’ 48 percent respondents are married and 49 percent are single. And it is seem that is  39 percent respondent’s income is in the range of 501-15000 taka. and 15001-50000 taka constitutes by 36 percent respondents

Among all respondent.40 percent respondents  using mobile phone 6-10 years. And 20 percent respondents using mobile phone more than 20 years

 Out of 100 responses 44 percent  respondents have GP connections and 24 percent have Banglalink . It is visible from the table 14 that, only 14 percent respondents change their phone number frequently, while 86 percent respondents did not change their phone number frequently. Fifty seven percent respondents using first mobile phone on the age of 21-35 .Among total respondents65 percent  respondent said that they use mobile phone to keep contact with others which is general equally shared by all categories of respondent. . On the other hand respondents who mentioned use mobile phone for safety, which is followed by students (23%). Twenty eight percent respondent use more than one mobile to separate family and buissness life.

All the respondents uniformly said that they use general calls. All of the respondents  44 percent respondent use internet service of mobile phone. according to the percentage of 100 percent respondents among 100 respondents think that the rate of using mobile phone has now increased than before. Eighty five percent respondent  said that the reason of increasing is for communication. 56 percent respondents  said that they used to maintain mobile phone to store name and address.some of them are stored music ,pictures. among all repondents 51 respondents response their souce of recreation is TV. And 19 percent response on mobile. Tecnology are highly appreciated because it is not only Time consuming and complex work can be done quickly and easy and for communication.it is said by most of the respondent.

 most of the respondents expend 3 hours over phone. It is said by 49 percent responded. Only 6 percent responded expend time more than 3 hours over phone40 percent responded sleeps early in night. But most of the people sleep late night. It is said by 60 percent responded. 45 percent respondent want to prefer talk over night.and 25percent respondents think that because of mobile phone they feel any health problem. They all know that excess of talking usage might causes hearing problem but they all prefer it to use.Out of  all respondents it is said by all  in increasing incidence of social disturbance due to mobile phone. most of the responded they switch the ring off, it is said by 74 percent responded. Five percent responded said that switch the phone off. Most of the respondent’s opinion is public harassment. It is said by 64 percent responded, while 12 percent responded thinks that sector of misuse is eve teasing. fourteen percent responded said the crime is sector of misuse and only 10 percent opinion is unnecessary use is sector of misuse. and increased incidence of telling lie through cell phone (40%) has been rated high. All respondents’ observed that some people impulsively tell lies whenever they use cell phone the most of the respondents facing unnecessary calls. it is said by 44 percent respondents. On the other hand, 14 percent respondents facing excessive consciousness of parents.seventy six percent respondents are conscious about using mobile phone  consciousness increasedSixty three percent responded think that by media,while13percent believe that by family member. All respondent 74 percent having not any restriction for using it.it finds out that the reason of not having full control of respondents.78 percent respondents think that because of communication Fifty two percent respondents youth should control of using mobile phone ,whereas 48 percent respondent view is not like that. respondents 87 percent respondents are agreed with the statement that government should be taken step, whereas13 percent responded are disagree with this. 86 percent think that accompanying cell phone gives a feeling of security, whereas  24 percent respondent feel without mobile  in unsecured position. , seventy percent responded agreed that expansion of mobile phone in some cases creating misunderstanding and complicacy in personal and family life, whereas30 percent are disagreed with that., 88 percent respondent among100 percent respondent think that mobile phone playing role in economy, whereas 12 percent don’t think  so.

All respondents’ opined that comparatively female are mostly sufferer from unexpected

call /mobile teasing than the male. Mostly8o percent of responded unexpected mobile call bothered them during their resting time. respondents are highly support the statement that mobile phone facilitates in maintaining interpersonal communication. Sixty seven percent of the total respondent are agreed with that. And 33 percent are disagreed.

Most of the respondents support the statement that using cell phone increases social communication. it is said by 70 percent respondent, while 30 percent of respondent don’t agree with it According to them usage of cell phone strengthened  the interpersonal communication r. In other words, the social relation Most of the respondents are response in easy communication. It is said by 58% respondent.. Although 5 percent of respondent response in changing business Pattern. Nine percent are said in supplying valuable information, around 28 percent people do not agree with this they think mobile phone effects in committed crimes easily by criminals.

 80 percent of total number thinks that communication sector got revolutionary change by using of mobile phone. respondents are highly support the statement that mobile phone advantage of mobile phone much. Sixty eight percent of the total respondent are agreed with that. And 13percent are said fairly much. Respondents view about the impacts of mobile phone. Seventy three percent respondent’s opinion on positive impact while 27 percent thinks mobile phone has negative impact.

 Most of the respondents’ said that a changes of peoples lifestyle has been observed whilst the number of cell phone subscriber increased. For instance, cell phone. All respondents’ admitted that mobile phone is one of the popular entertaining medium for the people. Browsing internet, listing music. But the evil consequences of using mobile phone are not explicitly realized to all respondent.

CONCLUSION

In This study attempted to determine and measure the various usages of mobile phone in Bangladesh among different demographic factors and also the impact of usage in social and economical factors. Mobile phones,now increasingly affordable and widespread in all clusters of people have significant impact to extend social relations. On the other hand, incense usages of this technology are now creating some social problems and also advancement to have mobile phone.

In today’s world, with technological advancements, mobile phones have metamorphosed into an all-in-one gadget. A gadget that plays music, takes high-resolution pictures, offers services to access internet instantly, and many more. For young ones, a mobile phone has helped them to socialize, and share thoughts through a fast, efficient and common platform. Because of mobile phones, young member of a family is more reachable nowadays. However, on a less encouraging note, mobile phones being used while driving have added to the increased tally of traffic accidents. And share of involvement youths in the cases of road accidents while attending a mobile call.
It is true that mobile phone are potent enough to raise quite a few health related complicacies, and young individuals being the prominent users, do come into the umbrella of ill effects of a mobile phone. However, saying so, we still have to remind that every technical innovation possess a faithful follower in the name of ill effects. If one youth’s reckless attitude is sure to amass problems uncalled for, other’s judicious steps with a bit of precaution can help one and all to enjoy the limitless possibilities of a mobile phone. It is up to us to determine the functioning of one of our most loved device as a useful slave or a demanding master.

Recommendations:

The respondents made following recommendations to promote positive behavioral change among mobile phone users:

  • · Creating awareness and positive attitude about use of mobile phone, especially among youths.
  • · mobile phone should be used only to maintain contacts.
  • · Should not talk at late night (without sleep), Day call rate should be reduced and night call rate should be increased.
  • · Should not misuse free talk/SMS time, free talk time/SMS by mobile phone companies should be stopped.
  • · Unnecessary use of call/gossip /SMS should be stopped.
  • · Not to disturb someone especially girls/women by mobile phone. There should be law to prevent such incidents.
  • · Not to call unknown people/number especially at night in order to disturb.

mobile phone should be kept in silent mode in a class/ hospital/work place.

  • · Avoid speaking in a mobile phone in public place/ talk gently in a public place.
  • · Not to misuse money/spend money for mobile phone use beyond their means.
  • · Not to use mobile phone while driving or crossing road.
  • · Age of users of mobile phone should be restricted. Use of mobile phone by under age (18 years and below) children should not be allowed.
  • · Call block service should be improved.
  • · Taking photographs by mobile phone especially without consent of the person being photographed should be discouraged.
  • · Not to publicize personal information/photograph through mobile phone.
  • · Not to be addicted in use mobile phone
  • mobile phone should be considered as a necessary tool to meet the need.
  • · Too much or unnecessary talk should be avoided.

mobile phone effect