Vitamin D deficiency is related to Dementia

Dementia is one of the leading causes of impairment and reliance among the elderly across the world, impacting their thoughts and actions as they get older. But what if you could halt the progression of this degenerative disease?

New genetic research demonstrates a clear relationship between dementia and a lack of vitamin D, and a world-first study from the University of South Australia might make this a reality.

The study showed the following links between vitamin D, neuroimaging characteristics, and the risk of dementia and stroke:

  • Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to reduced brain capacity and an increased risk of dementia and stroke.

  • Genetic studies revealed a link between vitamin D insufficiency and dementia.

  • Increased vitamin D levels to normal levels (50 nmol/L) might prevent up to 17 percent of dementia cases in some communities.

Dementia is a chronic or progressive condition in which cognitive function deteriorates. Dementia affects around 487,500 Australians and is the country’s second biggest cause of mortality. Dementia affects more than 55 million people worldwide, with 10 million new cases diagnosed each year.

The genetic study, which was published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, looked at data from 294,514 people from the UK Biobank to see if low vitamin D levels (25 nmol/L) increased the risk of dementia and stroke. Neuroimaging outcomes, dementia, and stroke were tested for underlying causation using nonlinear Mendelian randomization (MR), a method of leveraging measurable variation in genes to assess the causative influence of a modifiable exposure on illness.

Professor Elina Hyppönen, senior investigator and director of UniSA’s Australian Center for Precision Health, said the findings are crucial for preventing dementia and understanding the importance of eliminating vitamin D deficiency.

“Vitamin D is a hormone precursor with vast effects, including on brain health,” explains Prof Hyppönen. “However, it has been very difficult to analyze what would happen if we were able to avoid vitamin D insufficiency.”

“This is the first research to look at the impact of very low vitamin D levels on the risk of dementia and stroke in a large population using comprehensive genetic studies.”

“Our findings have substantial implications for dementia risks in particular environments where vitamin D deficiency is rather frequent. Indeed, we found that raising vitamin D levels at a normal level might have prevented up to 17% of dementia cases in this U.K. population “”Area.”

Given the increasing prevalence of dementia across the world, the findings are extremely noteworthy.

Prof Hyppönen states, “Dementia is a gradual and terrible disease that may ruin people and families alike.” “If we can modify this reality by guaranteeing that none of us is seriously vitamin D deficient, it will have additional benefits, and thousands of people’s health and well-being will be affected.”

“Most of us should be fine, but for anyone who does not get enough vitamin D from the sun for whatever reason, dietary changes may not be adequate, and supplementation may be required.”

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Children Abuse In Bangladesh

Name of the Problem:

Child abuse, which is common in Bangladeshi society, is on the rise. Both male and female children are subjected to sexual and physical abuse. Child abuse or maltreatment includes any form of physical or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent behavior, or commercial or other exploitation that causes actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development, or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust, or power. (World Health Organization, 1999) Physical, sexual, or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a kid or children is referred to as child abuse. Children are occasionally forced to work and are abused by their families.

Millions of children throughout the world are exposed to risk on a daily basis, drastically affecting their growth and development. Over half of Bangladesh’s population is under the age of 18, with over 20 million under the age of five. The majority of Bangladeshi children are denied these fundamental rights and are sexually and physically mistreated. Children charged or convicted of crimes are routinely placed with adult convicts who mistreat them. There are several types of child abuse:

i. Physical Abuse: Physical abuse includes beatings, shoving, biting, punching, choking, shaking, tossing, poisoning, burning, scorching, and drowning. When an adult employs physical violence against a kid, this is known as physical abuse. Any “non-accidental damage or physical injury” to a child is considered physical abuse, according to the American Humane Association.

ii. Emotional Abuse: Emotional abuse includes cursing, swearing, attacks on self-esteem, blaming, and belittling children’s feelings. According to the American Psychological Association, “child psychological abuse is equally detrimental as sexual or physical abuse.”

iii. Sexual Abuse: Physical contact, such as rape or oral sex, as well as non-penetrative activities such as masturbating, kissing, stroking, and touching outside of clothing, are examples of coercion. Child sexual abuse is a type of kid abuse in which an adult teenager abuses a child for sexual excitement (CSA). Sexual abuse is defined as the participation of a child in a sexual act for the physical enjoyment or financial advantage of the individual perpetrating the act.

iv. Neglect: heartwarming, hurling, smashing, destroying things, punching walls, and hiding Supervisory Neglect, Physical Neglect, Medical Neglect, Emotional Neglect, Educational Neglect, and Abandonment are all examples of neglectful behavior.

v. Child Abandonment: The illegal relinquishment of rights and claims to one’s children with the goal of never resuming or reasserting guardianship is known as child abandonment. The phrase is most usually used to describe a child’s physical abandonment, but it can also apply to extreme situations of neglect and emotional abandonment, such as when parents fail to give their children financial and emotional care for a long period.

vi. Child Labor: In Bangladesh, there are a number of laws aimed to safeguard children, although they apply differently to children in different contexts. There is no one legislation that applies to all vulnerable situations in which children may find themselves. By raising public awareness about child education and risky child labor, strengthening family ties, early reporting of child abuse cases to law enforcement authorities, developing and sustaining prevention programs, and facilitating effective school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs across the country, the government can help protect our children’s rights.

Scenario of Bangladesh

Child labor is common, with more than half of primary school students dropping out before the fifth grade. Children can be endangered by human trafficking, sexual abuse, and exploitation. Child abuse is a global epidemic perpetrated by abusers with biological, psychological, or socio-cultural dysfunctions. In certain nations, son preference is also a key source of child abuse. According to the Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum, 1,383 children were sexually abused in 2019, a 72.32 percent rise from the previous year.

In 2018, 812 children were exposed to sexual torture, according to a study based on material released in the top 15 media outlets. The study went into detail into several sorts of child abuse, such as rape, attempted rape, murder, attempted murder, kidnapping, and others.

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What is Cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying is bullying that occurs through the use of digital devices such as cell phones, computers, and tablets. Cyberbullying can take place via SMS, Text, and apps, as well as online in social media, forums, or gaming where people can view, participate in, or share content. Cyberbullying is defined as sending, posting, or sharing highly offensive, injurious, false, or cruel content about another person. It can include disclosing personal or private information about another person, which causes embarrassment or humiliation. Some forms of cyberbullying are illegal or criminal. Cyberbullying is bullying someone by using digital technologies.

Here are examples of cyberbullying

  • Sending hurtful texts or threats.
  • Pranking someone’s phone.
  • Hacking into someone’s gaming or social networking profile.
  • Being bad-mannered or unkind to someone in an online game.
  • Spreading secrets or rumors about people online.

Where can Cyberbullying take place?

The most common places where cyberbullying happens are:

  • Social Media, for example Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Tik Tok
  • Text messaging and messaging apps on mobile or tablet
  • Instant messaging, direct messaging, and online chatting over the internet
  • Online forums, chat rooms, and message boards, such as Reddit
  • E-mail
  • Online gaming communities.

What are the effects of cyberbullying?

When bullying occurs online, it can feel as if you are being judged everywhere, including your own home. There may be no way out. The effects can be long-lasting and affect a person in a variety of ways:

  • Mentally — Victims of cyberbullying may experience anxiety, depression, and other stress-related situations. Targets of cyberbullying may react to their intense feelings by harming themselves in some way. Some people, for example, may engage in self-harm such as cutting or burning themselves.
  • Emotionally — Many victims of cyberbullying will become enraged as a result of what is happening to them. In fact, research shows that the most common reaction to cyberbullying is rage. Victims of cyberbullying frequently struggle to feel safe. They may feel helpless and vulnerable.
  • Physically — Cyberbullying has the potential to disrupt a person’s sleep patterns. They may have sleep problems such as insomnia, sleeping more than normal, or having nightmares. When children are cyberbullied, their eating patterns may change, such as missing meals or binge eating. Because they don’t feel in control of their lives.

The fear of being mocked or harassed by others can prevent people from speaking up or attempting to solve the problem. Cyberbullying can even lead to suicide in extreme circumstances.

Cyberbullying can have a variety of consequences for us. However, problems can be overcome, and people’s confidence and health can improve.

How can we Prevent CyberBullying?

While there is no permanent way to prevent someone from being cyberbullied, there are things we can do as a community to reduce cyberbullying.

Educate yourself: To prevent cyberbullying, we must first understand exactly what it is. Investigate how and where cyberbullying occurs, and discuss it with your friends.

Defend your password: Keep your password and other private information safe from curious peers. We don’t want bullies to have the chance to post false/private/embarrassing information or photos on our social media platforms.

Keep photos Parental Guidance: Before sharing a racy photo of ourselves to a peer or posting it online, consider if we want others, especially our family, to view it. Bullies might use this image as leverage to make their life miserable.

Pause before we post: Don’t post anything that could affect our reputation. People will form judgments about us depending on how we seem to them online.

Raise awareness: Raise awareness of cyberbullying through a program, a club, an event, or a campaign. Power comes from knowledge.

Set up privacy controls: Only allow trusted people to view your online profiles.

Never open messages from people you don’t know: Delete all messages from people we don’t know without reading them, as they may contain viruses and harm our machine. Messages from known bullies are treated similarly. It is advisable to avoid involving and ignoring them. 

Log out of your accounts on public computers: Don’t offer anyone the least opportunity to pretend like you or share false information, just like you shouldn’t share your passwords. Furthermore, by remaining logged in, you risk the bully changing your password and keeping you out for an extended length of time.

Report: Keep a record of what is going on and where it is happening. If possible, take screenshots of offensive posts or information. Bullying is a recurrent behavior, according to most laws and policies, therefore records help to document and report it. The majority of social media platforms and schools have well-defined regulations and reporting procedures. If a classmate is cyberbullying you, please notify the school. Report any potential criminal or unlawful activity to the police if a kid has received physical threats, or if a potential crime or illegal behavior is taking place.

Is there a punishment for cyberbullying?

Victims of abuse, including bullying and cyberbullying, have a right to justice and for the perpetrator to be held accountable. Bullying laws, particularly those about cyberbullying, are very new and do not yet exist everywhere. As a result, several countries use other relevant laws, such as harassment statutes, to penalize cyber bullies. Online action that willfully causes substantial emotional distress is considered an illegal activity in nations that have specific legislation on cyberbullying. Victims of cyberbullying in certain of these nations can seek protection, prohibit communication from a specific person, and temporarily or permanently restrict the use of electronic equipment used by that person for cyberbullying.

It is crucial to note, however, that punishment is not always the most effective strategy to change bullies’ conduct. It is generally preferable to concentrate on fixing the damage and restoring the connection.

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